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THE HEJAZ, also _AL-HIJAZ_ ( Arabic : اَلْـحِـجَـاز‎‎, _al-Ḥiǧāz_, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia . The region is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah in the west. It is also known as the "Western Province." It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea , on the north by Jordan , on the east by the Najd, and on the south by \'Asir Region . Its main city is Jeddah , but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina . As the site of the two holiest sites in Islam , the Hejaz has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape.

Historically, the Hejaz has always seen itself as separate from the rest of Saudi Arabia. The Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia; 35 % of all Saudis live in Hejaz. Hejazi Arabic is the most widely spoken dialect in the region. Saudi Hejazis are of ethnically diverse origins.

The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula . People of Hejaz have the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia. Their place of origin alienates them from the Saudi state, which invokes different narratives of the history of the Arabian Peninsula. Thus, Hejazis experienced tensions with people of Najd.

CONTENTS

* 1 Timeline

* 1.1 Prehistoric or ancient times

* 1.1.1 Al-Hijr Archaeological Site * 1.1.2 Era of Abraham and Ishmael * 1.1.3 Era of Muhammad

* 1.2 Subsequent history

* 1.2.1 Brief independence * 1.2.2 In modern Saudi Arabia

* 1.3 Flags of entities that have dominated the Hejaz

* 2 Cities * 3 Geography * 4 People of the Hejaz

* 5 Notable Hijazis

* 5.1 Al-Abwa\'

* 5.2 Mecca

* 5.2.1 Pre-6th century ACE

* 5.2.1.1 Men * 5.2.1.2 Women

* 5.2.2 6th–7th centuries CE

* 5.2.2.1 Men * 5.2.2.2 Women

* 5.3 Medina

* 5.3.1 Pre-6th century CE

* 5.3.2 6th–7th centuries CE

* 5.3.2.1 Men * 5.3.2.2 Women

* 5.3.3 8th century CE

* 5.3.3.1 Men * 5.3.3.2 Women

* 5.3.4 9th Century CE

* 5.4 Ta\'if

* 5.4.1 6th–7th centuries CE * 5.4.2 Post-7th century CE

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

TIMELINE

PREHISTORIC OR ANCIENT TIMES

The city of Al-`Ula ( Arabic : الـعُـلَا‎‎), with its archaeological part in the foreground, 2012.

One or possibly two megalithic dolmen have been found in the Hijaz.

The Hejaz includes both the _ Mahd adh-Dhahab _ ( Arabic : مَـهْـد الـذَّهَـب‎‎, "Cradle of (the) Gold") (23°30′12.96″N 40°51′34.92″E / 23.5036000°N 40.8597000°E / 23.5036000; 40.8597000 ) and a water source, now dried out, that used to flow 600 miles (970 km) north east to the Persian Gulf via the Wadi Al-Rummah and Wadi Al-Batin system. Archaeological research led by of Boston University and the University of Qassim indicates that the river system was active in 8000 BCE and 2500–3000 BCE.

The northern part of the Hejaz was part of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea .

Al-Hijr Archaeological Site

Main article: Mada\'in Saleh _ Al-Ḥijr_ ( Arabic : الـحِـجْـر‎‎) or _ Madâ’in Ṣâliḥ _ ( Arabic : مَـدَائِـن صَـالِـح‎‎, "Cities of Salih "), 2012. A view of Al-Hijr Archaeological Site.

Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site that was recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is that of Al-Hijr . The name "Al-Ḥijr" ( Arabic : اَلْـحِـجْـر‎‎, "The Stoneland" or "The Rocky Place") occurs in the Quran , and the site is known for having structures carved into rocks, similar to Petra . Construction of the structures is credited to the people of Thamud . Despite their rather Polytheistic nature, a member of this folk was a Monotheistic preacher called ' Salih ', after whom the site is also called "Madā’in Ṣāliḥ" ( Arabic : مَـدَائِـن صَـالِـح‎‎, "Cities of Saleh"). After the disappearance of Thamud from Mada'in Saleh, it came under the influence of other people, such as the Nabataeans , whose capital was Petra. Later, it would lie in a route used by Muslim Pilgrims going to Mecca.

Era Of Abraham And Ishmael

Further information: Abraham in Islam , Hagar in Islam , and Ishmael in Islam

According to Islamic sources, the civilization of Mecca started after Ibrāhīm ( Arabic : إِبـرَاهِـيـم‎‎, Abraham ) brought his son Ismā‘īl ( Arabic : إِسـمَـاعِـيـل‎‎, Ishmael ) and wife Hājar (Arabic : هَـاجَـر‎‎, Hagar ) here, for the latter two to stay. Some people from the Tribe of Jurhum settled with them, and Isma'il reportedly married two women, one after divorcing another, at least one of them from this tribe, and helped his father to construct or re-construct the Ka‘bah ( Arabic : كَـعـبَـة‎‎), which would have social, religious, political and historical implications for the site and region.

For example, in Arab or Islamic belief, a tribe called ' Quraysh ' ( Arabic : قُـرَيـش‎‎) would descend from Isma'il ibn Ibrahim, be based in the vicinity of the Ka'bah, and include Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf . From the Period of _Jāhiliyyah _ ( Arabic : جَـاهِـلِـيَّـة‎‎, 'Ignorance') to the days of Muhammad, the often-warring Arab tribes would cease their hostilities during the time of Pilgrimage , and go on pilgrimage to Mecca, as inspired by Ibrahim. It was during such an occasion that Muhammad met some Medinans who would allow him to migrate to Medina, to escape persecution by his opponents in Mecca .

Era Of Muhammad

Main article: Muhammad in Islam

As the land of Mecca and Medina, the Hijaz was where Muhammad was born, and where he founded a Monotheistic _ Ummah _ ( Arabic : أُمَّـة‎‎, Community) of followers, bore patience with his foes or struggled against them, migrated from one place to another, preached or implemented his beliefs, lived and died. Given that he had both followers and enemies here, a number of battles or expeditions were carried out in this area, like those of _al-Aḥzāb _ ( Arabic : الأَحـزَاب‎‎, "the Confederates"), Badr and Ḥunayn ( Arabic : حُـنَـيـن‎‎). They involved both Meccan companions , such as Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib , Ubaydah ibn al-Harith and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas , and Medinan companions. The Hijaz fell under Muhammad's influence as he emerged victorious over his opponents, and was thus a part of his empire.

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY

Due to the presence of the two holy cities in the Hijaz, the region went under numerous empires. The Hijaz was at the center of the Rashidun Caliphate , in particular whilst its capital was Medina from 632 to 656 ACE . The region was then under the control of regional powers such as Egypt and the Ottoman Empire , throughout much of its later history.

Brief Independence

Main article: Kingdom of Hejaz

In 1916, Sharif Hussein ibn Ali proclaimed himself King of an independent Hejaz, as a result of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence . The ensuing Arab Revolt overthrew the Ottoman Empire. In 1924, however, Ibn Ali's authority was replaced by that of Ibn Saud of the Najd.

In Modern Saudi Arabia

Main article: Regions of Saudi Arabia

At first, Ibn Saud ruled the two as separate units, though they became known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd . Later they were formally combined as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

FLAGS OF ENTITIES THAT HAVE DOMINATED THE HEJAZ

*

Flag of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661). *

Flag of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750). *

Flag of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). *

Flag of the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171). *

Flag of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1254). *

Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517). *

Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1517–1916). *

Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz (1916–1925). *

Flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1925–present).

CITIES

_ People laying tracks for the Hejaz Railway near Tabuk , 1906.

* Al-Bāḥah ( Arabic : الـبَـاحَـة‎‎) * Al-Madīnah Al-Munawwarah_ ( Arabic : الـمَـدِيـنَـة الـمُـنَـوَّرَة‎‎, Medina ) * Aṭ-Ṭā’if ( Arabic : الـطَّـائِـف‎‎) * Badr ( Arabic : بَـدر‎‎) * Jiddah ( Arabic : جِـدَّة‎‎) * _Makkah_ ( Arabic : مَـكَّـة‎‎, Mecca ) * Rābigh ( Arabic : رَابِـغ‎‎) * Ṫabūk ( Arabic : تَـبُـوك‎‎) * _Yanbu‘ al-Baḥr_ ( Arabic : يَـنـبُـع الـبَـحـر‎‎, Yanbu )

GEOGRAPHY

Mountains near Ta\'if , 2012.

The region is located along the Red Sea Rift . It is also known for its darker, more volcanic sand . Depending on the previous definition, the Hejaz includes the high mountains of Sarawat , which topographically separate the Najd from Tehamah. Bdellium plants are also abundant in the Hijaz.

PEOPLE OF THE HEJAZ

People of Hejaz, who feel particularly connected to the holy places of Mecca and Medina, have probably the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia.

The people of Hejaz have never fully accommodated to Saudi rule and their Wahhabi religion. They continue to be Sunni of Maliki rite with a Shia minority in the cities of Medina, Mecca and Jeddah. Many consider themselves more cosmopolitan because Hejaz was for centuries a part of the great empires of Islam from the Umayyads to the Ottomans .

NOTABLE HIJAZIS

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* Salih of Thamud

AL-ABWA\\'

* Musa al-Kadhim ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq, descendant of Muhammad

MECCA

Pre-6th Century ACE

Men

* Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka\'b ibn Lu\'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma\'ad ibn Adnan the descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Azar ibn Nahor ibn Serug ibn Reu ibn Peleg ibn Eber ibn Shelakh , Chief of the Tribe of Quraysh , and an ancestor of Muhammad * Qusai\'s son Abd-al-Dar the father of Uthman the father of Abdul-Uzza the father of Barrah the maternal grandmother of Muhammad * Abd Manaf ibn Qusai , paternal ancestor of Muhammad * Abdul-Uzza, son of Qusai , and an ancestor of Barrah bint Abdul-Uzza * Hashim, son of Abd Manaf , paternal great-grandfather of Muhammad, and the progenitor of Banu Hashim in the Tribe of Quraysh

Women

* Hubbah bint Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah ibn Salul ibn Ka‘b ibn Amr al-Khuza\'i , wife of Qusai, and an ancestor of Muhammad * Atikah bint Murrah ibn Hilal ibn Falij ibn Dhakwan, wife of Abd Manaf, and an ancestor of Muhammad

6th–7th Centuries CE

Men

* Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib * Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafah ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Umar ibn Al-Khattab ibn Nufayl ibn Abdul-Uzza the descendant of Adi ibn Ka\'b ibn Lu\'ayy , father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Ali ibn Abi Talib , cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Hamzah, son of Abdul-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad, and other Muhajirun or Meccan followers of Muhammad, including Ubaydah and Sa'd * Abu Talib, son of Abdul-Muttalib , Chief of Banu Hashim , paternal uncle of Muhammad, and the father of Ali * Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim , Chief of Bani Hashim, and the paternal grandfather of Muhammad

Women

* Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn Abdul-Uzza ibn Qusai , and other Meccan wives of Muhammad * Fatimah , other daughters of Muhammad , and other Muhajir women * Umm Ammar Sumayyah bint Khayyat , wife of Yasir ibn Amir ibn Malik al-Ansi , believed to be the first martyr from the followers of Muhammad * Daughters of Abu Talib , and other female followers of Muhammad * Aminah bint Wahb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah, wife of Abdullah, and the mother of Muhammad * Wives of Abd al-Muttalib

MEDINA

Pre-6th Century CE

* Salmah, daughter of Amr , wife of Hashim, and a great-grandmother of Muhammad

6th–7th Centuries CE

Men

* Caliph Hasan , and other sons of Ali and grandsons of Muhammad born in Medina * Caliph Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-\'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, great-grandson of Umar ibn Al-Khattab * Ansari men * Hasan of Basra * Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin , grandson of Hasan and Husayn the grandsons of Muhammad * Zayd ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin ibn Husayn ibn Fatimah bint Muhammad, half-brother of Muhammad al-Baqir

Women

* Medinan wives of Muhammad * Ansari women

8th Century CE

Men

* Ja\'far al-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir * Sons of Ja'far al-Sadiq born in Medina * Malik the son of Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Amir al-Asbahi (not Anas the companion of Muhammad ) * Ali al-Ridha ibn Musa al-Kadhim ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Women

* Fatimah bint Musa ibn Ja'far, sister of Ali al-Ridha

9th Century CE

* Abu Ali Muhammad al-Jawad ibn Ali al-Ridha

TA\'IF

6th–7th Centuries CE

* Uthman ibn Affan ibn Abu al-\'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf , son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Urwah ibn Mas\'ud , Chief of Banu Thaqif * Nafi ibn al-Harith , Physician

Post-7th Century CE

* Sharif Ali ibn Ajlan ibn Rumaithah ibn Muhammad , son-in-law and successor of Sultan Ahmad of Brunei , father of Sultan Sulaiman , and a descendant of Muhammad

SEE ALSO

* Saudi Arabia portal * Archaeology portal * Ancient Near East portal * Middle East portal

* Al Baydha Project * Desert of Paran * Hejaz Railway * Hijaz scale * Hejaz Vilayet * Hejazi accent * Hejazi turban * Hijazi script * Hijaz mountains * Midian * Mizmar (dance) * Sharifate of Mecca

NOTES

* ^ Mackey, p. 101. “The Western Province, or the Hijaz * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Merriam-Webster\'s Geographical Dictionary_. 2001. p. 479. ISBN 0 87779 546 0 . Retrieved 17 March 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 48:22–29 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Quran 9:25–129 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 33:09–73 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Butler, J. W. S.; Schulte-Peevers, A.; Shearer, I. (2010-10-01). _Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula_. Lonely Planet. pp. 316–333. * ^ "Mecca: Islam\'s cosmopolitan heart". The Hijaz is the largest, most populated, and most culturally and religiously diverse region of Saudi Arabia, in large part because it was the traditional host area of all the pilgrims to Mecca, many of whom settled and intermarried there. * ^ " Saudi Arabia Population Statistics 2011 (Arabic)" (PDF). p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939: The Imperial Oasis_. p. 12. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beranek, Ondrej (January 2009). "Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). _Middle East Brief_. 33: 1–7. Retrieved April 15, 2012. * ^ Gajus Scheltema (2008). _Megalithic Jordan: an introduction and field guide_. ACOR. ISBN 978-9957-8543-3-1 . Retrieved 5 October 2012.

* ^ Sullivan, Walter (1993-03-30). "SCIENCE WATCH; Signs of Ancient River". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 2014-06-25. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kesting, Piney. "Saudi Aramco World (May/June 2001): Well of Good Fortune". Retrieved 2014-04-07. * ^ Quran 15:80–84 * ^ " Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih)". UNESCO. Retrieved 2014-04-07. * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 7:73–79 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 11:61–69 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 26:141–158 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 54:23–31 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 89:6–13 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 91:11–15 * ^ Hizon, Danny. "Madain Saleh: Arabia\'s Hidden Treasure – Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 2009-09-17. * ^ "ICOMOS Evaluation of Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih) World Heritage Nomination" (PDF). World Heritage Center. Retrieved 2009-09-16. * ^ "Information at nabataea.net". Retrieved 2009-09-17. * ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali ) * ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali ) * ^ _A_ _B_ Quran 22:25–37 * ^ _A_ _B_ _Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now_, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype * ^ _Concise Encyclopedia of Islam_, C. Glasse, _Kaaba_, Suhail Academy * ^ Quran 106:1–4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad (1955). _Ibn Ishaq\'s Sirat Rasul Allah – The Life of Muhammad Translated by A. Guillaume_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–9. ISBN 9780196360331 . * ^ Karen Armstrong (2002). _Islam: A Short History_. p. 11. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ Firestone, Reuven (1990). _Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham- Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis_. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0331-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ al-Tabari (1987). Brinner, William M., ed. _The History of al-Tabari Vol. 2: Prophets and Patriarchs_. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-921-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Al Mubarakpuri, Safi ur Rahman (2002). _Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Noble Prophet_. Darussalam. pp. 127 – 147. ISBN 9960-899-55-1 . Retrieved 2014-10-06. * ^ _A_ _B_ Haykal, Husayn (1976), _The Life of Muhammad_, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7 * ^ Quran 3:110–128 * ^ Sahih al-Bukhari , 5:57:74 * ^ Witness Pioneer "Pre-Badr Missions and Invasions" * ^ "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world * ^ Holt (1977), p. 57 * ^ Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32 * ^ "Brief about Ta\'if City". _ Ta'if City_ (in Arabic ). Taif Municpality. Retrieved 2016-04-26. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * ^ Riedel, Bruce (2011). "Brezhnev in the Hejaz" (PDF). _The National Interest_. 115. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2012. * ^ Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet’s Line Family No 3 – Qusayy, Hubbah, and Banu Nadr to Quraysh". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 2013-07-01. * ^ Book of Genesis , Chapters 10, 11, 16, 17, 21 and 25 * ^ 1 Chronicles , Chapter 1 * ^ Ibn Hisham. _The Life of the Prophet Muhammad_. 1. p. 181. * ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Bahasa Melayu ). www.history-centre.gov.bn. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link )

REFERENCES

* Mackey, Sandra. _The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom_. Updated Edition. Norton Paperback. W.W. Norton and Company , New York. 2002 (first edition: 1987). ISBN 0-393-32417-6 pbk.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _ "Hejaz". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). 1911.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hejaz.

* v * t * e

Saudi Arabia articles

HISTORY

* Pre-Islamic Arabia * Early Islamic State * Rashidun Caliphate * Umayyad Caliphate * Abbasid Caliphate * Ottoman Arabia * Emirate of Diriyah * Emirate of Nejd * Unification * Modern history

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities and towns * Climate * Earthquakes * Governorates * Mountains * Regions

POLITICS

* Allegiance

.