Hejaz
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The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a country in Western Asia. It covers the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and has a land area of about , making it the List of Asian countries by area, fifth-largest country in Asia ...
. It includes the cities of
Mecca Mecca (; officially Makkah al-Mukarramah, commonly shortened to Makkah ()) is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland from Jeddah on the Red ...
,
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, , Turkish: Medine-i Münevvere) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam Islam (; ar, ...
,
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, , Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the country's commercial center. Established in the 6th century BC as a fishing village, Jeddah's promi ...
, Tabuk,
Yanbu Yanbu ( ar, ينبع, lit=Spring, translit=Yanbu'), also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia. It is approximately 300 kilometers northwest of Jeddah (at ). The population is 222,360 (2 ...
,
Taif Taif ( ar, , translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit=The circulated or encircled, ) is a city and governorate in the Mecca Province, Makkan Region of Saudi Arabia. Located at an elevation of in the slopes of the Hijaz Mountains, which themselves are part ...
, and
Baljurashi Baljurashi ( ar, بَـلْـجُـرَشِي) or Biljurashi ( ar, بِـلْـجُـرَشِي) is a city in Al Bahah Region, south-western Saudi Arabia. It is located at around in the elevation of cca . It was the capital of the region which inc ...
. It is also known as the "Western Province" in
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a country in Western Asia. It covers the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and has a land area of about , making it the List of Asian countries by area, fifth-largest country in Asia ...
.Mackey, p. 101. "The Western Province, or the Hejaz .. It is bordered in the west by the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر - بحر القلزم, translit=Modern: al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar, Medieval: Baḥr al-Qulzum; or ; Coptic language, Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ''P ...
, in the north by
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; Romanization of Arabic, tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; Romanization of Arabic, tr. ' is a country in Western Asia. It is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, within the Levan ...
, in the east by the
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the ...
, and in the south by the
'Asir Region The ʿAsir Region ( ar, عَسِيرٌ, ʿAsīr, lit=difficult) is a regions of Saudi Arabia, region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe. It has an area of and an estimated population of ...
. Its largest city is Jeddah (the second largest city in Saudi Arabia), with Mecca and Medina being the fourth and fifth largest cities respectively in the country. The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula, (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") or Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa Africa is t ...
. The Hejaz is significant for being the location of the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, the first and second
holiest sites in Islam The holiest sites in Islam are predominantly located in Western Asia. While the significance of most places typically varies depending on the Islamic schools and branches, Islamic sect, there is a consensus across all mainstream branches of the ...
, respectively. As the site of the two holiest sites in Islam, the Hejaz has significance in the
Arab The Arabs (singular: Arab; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635: , , plural ar, عَرَب, DIN 31635: , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, ...
and Islamic historical and political landscape. The region of Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia, Arabic is the predominant language as in the rest of Saudi Arabia, with
Hejazi Arabic Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (HA) ( ar, حجازي, ḥijāzī), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a Varieties of Arabic, variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two main groups of dialects ...
being the most widely spoken dialect in the region. Some Hejazis are of ethnically diverse origins, although the vast majority are of
Arab The Arabs (singular: Arab; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635: , , plural ar, عَرَب, DIN 31635: , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, ...
origins. The region, according to Islamic tradition, is the birthplace of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ( ar, مُحَمَّد;  570 – 8 June 632 Common Era, CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Muhammad in Islam, Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet Divine inspiration, di ...
, who was born in Mecca, which is locally considered to have been founded by the Islamic prophets
Abraham Abraham, ; ar, , , name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common Hebrews, Hebrew patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the Covenant (biblical), special ...
and
Ishmael Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Standard Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ''ʾIsmāʿīl''; la, Ismael was the first son of Abraham, the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions; and is cons ...
, and matriarch
Hagar Hagar, of uncertain origin; ar, هَاجَر, Hagar in Islam, Hājar; grc, Ἁγάρ, Hagár; la, Agar is a biblical woman. According to the Book of Genesis, she was an Ancient Egypt, Egyptian slave, a handmaiden of Sarah (then known as ''Sa ...
. The area became part of his empire through the
early Muslim conquests The early Muslim conquests or early Islamic conquests ( ar, الْفُتُوحَاتُ الإسْلَامِيَّة, ), also referred to as the Arab conquests, were initiated in the 7th century by Muhammad, the Muhammad in Islam, main Islamic ...
, and it formed part of successive caliphates, first the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office under the leadersh ...
, followed by the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the ...
, and finally the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ; ar, الْخِلَافَةُ الْعَبَّاسِيَّة, ') was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib ...
. The
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία, Othōmanikē Avtokratoria, label=none * info page on book at Martin Luther University) ...
held partial control over the area; after its dissolution, an independent
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط ...
existed briefly in 1925 before being conquered by the neighbouring
Sultanate of Nejd The Sultanate of Nejd ( ar, سلطنة نجد, ') was the third iteration of the Third Saudi State, from 1921 to 1926. It was a monarchy led by the House of Saud. This version of the Third Saudi State was created when Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, Emira ...
, creating the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the Saudi Sultanate of Nejd over the Hashe ...
. In September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of Al-Hasa and
Qatif Qatif or Al-Qatif ( ar, ٱلْقَطِيف ''Al-Qaṭīf'') is a Governorates of Saudi Arabia, governorate and urban area located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. It extends from Ras Tanura and Jubail in the no ...
, creating the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Etymology

The name of the region is derived from a verb ''ḥajaza'' (), from the Arabic root ''ḥ-j-z'' (), meaning "to separate", and it is so called as it separates the land of the
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the ...
in the east from the land of Tihāmah in the west.


History


Prehistoric and ancient times

One or possibly two
megalith A megalith is a large stone In geology, rock (or stone) is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition, an ...
ic
dolmen A dolmen () or portal tomb is a type of single-chamber Megalith#Tombs, megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more upright megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic (40003000 BCE ...
have been found in Hejaz. The Hejaz includes both the '' Mahd adh-Dhahab'' ("Cradle of the Gold") () and a water source, now dried out, that used to flow north east to the Persian Gulf via the Wādi Al-Rummah and Wādi Al-Bātin system. Archaeological research led by of
Boston University Boston University (BU) is a Private university, private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, but has a historical affiliation with the United Methodist Church. It was founded in 1839 by Methodists with ...
and the University of Qassim indicates that the river system was active and 2500–3000 BCE. According to
Al-Masudi Al-Mas'udi ( ar, أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ, '; –956) was an Historiography of early Islam, Arab historian, geographer and Explorer, traveler. He is ...
the northern part of Hejaz was a dependency of the
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, , ''Yəhūdā''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'údâ'' 'ia-ú-da-a-a'' arc, 𐤁𐤉𐤕𐤃𐤅𐤃 ''Bēyt David, Dāwīḏ'', "Davidic line, House of David") was an Israelites, Israelite kingdom of the South ...
, and according to
Butrus al-Bustani Butrus al-Bustani ( ar, بطرس البستاني, ; 1819–1883) was a writer and scholar from present day Lebanon. He was a major figure in the Nahda, which began in Egypt in the late 19th century and spread to the Middle East. He is consi ...
the Jews in Hejaz established a sovereign state. The German orientalist Ferdinand Wüstenfeld believed that the Jews established a state in northern Hejaz. The northern part of the Hejaz was part of the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province ( la, Provincia Arabia; ar, العربية البترائية; grc, Ἐπαρχία Πετραίας Ἀραβίας) or simply Arabia, was a frontier Roman province, province o ...
.


Era of Saleh

Saudi Arabia's and Hejaz's first
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
that was recognized by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace ...
is that of Al-Hijr. The name ''Al-Ḥijr'' ("The Land of Stones" or "The Rocky Place") occurs in the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; Standard Arabic: , Classical Arabic, Quranic Arabic: , , 'the recitation'), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, ...
, and the site is known for having structures carved into rocks, similar to
Petra Petra ( ar, ٱلْبَتْرَاء, Al-Batrāʾ; grc, Πέτρα, "Rock", Nabataean Aramaic, Nabataean: ), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu or Raqēmō, is an historic and archaeological city in southern Jordan. It is adjacent to t ...
. Construction of the structures is credited to the people of Thamud. The location is also called ''Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ'' ("Cities of Saleh"), as it is speculated to be the city in which the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God in Islam, God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour. So ...
Saleh was sent to the people of Thamud. After the disappearance of Thamud from Mada'in Saleh, it came under the influence of other people, such as the
Nabataeans The Nabataeans or Nabateans (; Nabataean Aramaic: , , vocalized as ; Arabic language, Arabic: , , singular , ; compare grc, Ναβαταῖος, translit=Nabataîos; la, Nabataeus) were an ancient Arab people who inhabited northern Arabian Pe ...
, whose capital was Petra. Later, it would lie in a route used by Muslim Pilgrims going to Mecca.


Era of Abraham and Ishmael

According to Arab and Islamic sources, the civilization of Mecca started after Ibrāhīm (Abraham) brought his son Ismāʿīl (Ishmael) and wife Hājar (Hagar) here, for the latter two to stay. Some people from the
Yemen Yemen (; ar, ٱلْيَمَن, al-Yaman), officially the Republic of Yemen,, ) is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, and borders Saudi Arabia to the Saudi Arabia–Yemen border, north and ...
i tribe of
Jurhum Jurhum ( ar, جرهم, Jurhum; also Banu Jurhum or The second Jurhum) historically referred to as Gorrhamite by the Greeks, was an old Arabs, Arab tribe in the Arabian Peninsula, Arabian peninsula. Traditionally, they were a Qahtanite tribe whose h ...
settled with them, and Isma'il reportedly married two women, one after divorcing another, at least one of them from this tribe, and helped his father to construct or re-construct the ''
Ka'bah The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the c ...
'' ('Cube'), which would have social, religious, political and historical implications for the site and region. For example, in Arab or Islamic belief, the tribe of
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Kaaba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ma ...
would descend from Isma'il ibn Ibrahim, be based in the vicinity of the Ka'bah, and include Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn
Hashim ibn Abd Manaf Hāshim ibn ʿAbd Manāf ( ar, هاشم بن عبد مناف; ), born ʿAmr al-ʿUlā (), was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the ruling Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh (tribe), Quraysh tribe in Mecca. ...
. From the Period of '' Jāhiliyyah'' ('Ignorance') to the days of Muhammad, the often-warring Arab tribes would cease their hostilities during the time of
Pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
, and go on pilgrimage to Mecca, as inspired by Ibrāhim. It was during such an occasion that Muhammad met some Madanis who would allow him to migrate to Medina, to escape persecution by his opponents in Mecca.


Era of Muhammad

As the land of Mecca and Medina, the Hejaz was where Muhammad was born, and where he founded a Monotheistic ''Ummah'' of followers, bore
patience Patience (or forbearance Forbearance, in the context of a Mortgage loan, mortgage process, is a special agreement between the Creditor, lender and the Debtor, borrower to delay a foreclosure. The literal meaning of forbearance is "holding ba ...
with his foes or struggled against them, migrated from one place to another, preached or implemented his beliefs, lived and died. Given that he had both followers and enemies here, a number of battles or
expeditions Exploration refers to the historical practice of discovering remote lands. It is studied by geographers and historians. Two major eras of exploration occurred in human history: one of convergence, and one of divergence. The first, covering most ...
were carried out in this area, like those of '' Al-Aḥzāb'' ("The Confederates"), Badr and Ḥunayn. They involved both Makkan companions, such as Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib,
Ubaydah ibn al-Harith ʿUbayda ibn al-Ḥārith ( ar, عبيدة بن الحارث) () was a relative and Companions of the Prophet, companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is known for commanding the expedition in which Islam’s first arrow was shot and for b ...
and
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqāṣ ( ar, سعد بن أبي وقاص), also known as Saʿd ibn Mālik, was one of the sahaba, companions of the Prophets of Islam, Islamic Prophet Muhammad, a military conqueror of Sasanian Empire, Sasanian Persia and the fou ...
, and Madani companions.Witness Pioneer "Pre-Badr Missions and Invasions"
/ref> The Hejaz fell under Muhammad's influence as he emerged victorious over his opponents, and was thus a part of his empire.Holt (1977), p. 57Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32


Subsequent history

Due to the presence of the two holy cities in the Hejaz, the region was ruled by numerous empires. The Hejaz was at the center of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office under the leadersh ...
, in particular whilst its capital was Medina from 632 to 656 ACE. The region was then under the control of regional powers, such as
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مصر , ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, southwest corner of Asia via a land bridg ...
and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία, Othōmanikē Avtokratoria, label=none * info page on book at Martin Luther University) ...
, throughout much of its later history. After the Ottomans lost control of it, Hejaz became an independent state.


Brief independence

After the end of the of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia, in 1916, Hussein bin Ali became the leader of an independent State of Hejaz. In 1924, Ali bin Hussein succeeded as the King of Hejaz. Then
Ibn Saud Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud ( ar, عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود, ʿAbd al ʿAzīz bin ʿAbd ar Raḥman Āl Suʿūd; 15 January 1875Ibn Saud's birth year has been a source of debate. It is generally accepted ...
succeeded Hussein as the King of Hejaz and Nejd. Ibn Saud ruled the two as separate units, known as the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the Saudi Sultanate of Nejd over the Hashe ...
from 1926 to 1932.


In modern Saudi Arabia

On 23 September 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The day is a national holiday called Saudi National Day.


Culture


Religion

The cultural setting of Hejaz is greatly influenced by that of Islam, especially as it contains its 2 holiest cities, Mecca and Medina. Moreover, the Quran is considered the constitution of Saudi Arabia, and the
Sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a body of religious law that forms a part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the Five Pillars of Islam, religious precepts of Islam and is based on the Islamic holy books, sacred scriptures o ...
is the main legal source. In Saudi Arabia, Islam is not just adhered politically by the government but also it has a great influence on the people's culture and everyday life. The society is in general deeply religious, conservative, traditional, and family-oriented. Many attitudes and traditions are centuries-old, derived from Arab civilization and Islamic heritage.


Cuisine

Hejazi cuisine has mostly Arabian dishes like the rest of Saudi Arabia. Grilled meat dishes such as
shawarma Shawarma (; ar, شاورما) is a popular Middle Eastern dish that originated in the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτο ...
and
kebab Kebab (, ; ar, كباب, link=no, Latn, ar, kabāb, ; tr, kebap, link=no, ) or kabob (North American) is a type of cooked meat dish (food), dish that originates from Middle Eastern cuisine, cuisines of the Middle East. Many variants of the ...
are well-known in Hejaz. Some dishes are native to the Hejaz, like Saleeg. The Hejazi dishes are known for their spice.


Geography

The region is located along the Red Sea Rift. It is also known for its darker, more
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a Planet#Planetary-mass objects, planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. On Ear ...
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a soil texture, textur ...
. Depending on the previous definition, the Hejaz includes some of the mountains of the Sarat range, which topographically separate the Najd from Tehamah.
Bdellium Bdellium (also bdellion or false myrrh) is a semi-transparent oleo-gum resin extracted from '' Commiphora wightii'' plants of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries ...
plants are also abundant in the Hejaz. Saudi Arabia, and in particular the Hejaz, is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in the Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of ''ḥarrāt'' (, singular: ''ḥarrah'' ()), form one of Earth's largest
alkali basalt Alkali basalt or alkali olivine basalt is a dark-colored, porphyritic volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a Rock (geology), rock formed from lava erupted from a volcano. In other words, it diff ...
regions, covering some , an area greater than the state of
Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Ranking List of U.S. states and territories by area, 21st in land area, it is bordered by eight states (tied for the most with Tennessee ...
.


Flags

File:Flag of Afghanistan pre-1901.svg, Flag of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office under the leadersh ...
(632–661) File:WhiteFlag.png, Flag of the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the ...
(661–750) File:BlackFlag.svg, Flag of the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ; ar, الْخِلَافَةُ الْعَبَّاسِيَّة, ') was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib ...
(750–1258) File:Fatimid flag.svg, Flag of the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia Islam, Shi'a caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the ea ...
(909–1171) File:Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg, Flag of the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; ) was the founding dynasty of the medieval Sultan of Egypt, Sultanate of Egypt established by Saladin in 1171, following his abolition of the Fatimid Caliphate, Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt. A Sunni ...
(1171–1254) File:Mameluke Flag.svg, Flag of the
Mamluk Sultanate The Mamluk Sultanate ( ar, سلطنة المماليك, translit=Salṭanat al-Mamālīk), also known as Mamluk Egypt or the Mamluk Empire, was a state that ruled medieval Egypt, Egypt, the Levant and the Hejaz (western Arabia) from the mid-13 ...
(1254–1517) File:Ottoman Flag.svg, Flag of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία, Othōmanikē Avtokratoria, label=none * info page on book at Martin Luther University) ...
(1517–1916) File:Flag of Upper Asir.svg, Sheikdom of Upper Asir (1916-1920) File:Ottoman red flag.svg, Provisional flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط ...
from 1916 to 1917 File:Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط ...
(1917–1920) File:Flag of Hejaz 1920.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط ...
and the
Sharifian Caliphate The Sharifian Caliphate of the Hejaz ( ar, الخلافة الشريفية) was an Arab Muslim caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of the Hashemite dynasty, Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, Kingdom of the Hejaz in 1924, in lieu of the Ottoman ...
(1920 to 1926) File:Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the Saudi Sultanate of Nejd over the Hashe ...
(1926 to 1932) File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a country in Western Asia. It covers the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and has a land area of about , making it the List of Asian countries by area, fifth-largest country in Asia ...
(1973–present)


Cities

Al Bahah Region Al-Bahah Province ( ' ) is a provinces of Saudi Arabia, province of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the southwestern part of the Hejazi region. It has an area of 9,921 km2, and a population of 476,172 (2017). Its capital is Al Bahah. The re ...
: * Al-Bāḥah
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, , Turkish: Medine-i Münevvere) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam Islam (; ar, ...
: * ''Al-Madīnah Al-Munawwarah'' (
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, , Turkish: Medine-i Münevvere) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam Islam (; ar, ...
) * Badrبـتـصـرف عـن مـجـلـة الأمـانـة الـعـدد عـشـرون شـوال 1419 تـصـدر عـن أمـانـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـور
إمـارة مـنـطـقـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـورة
* ''Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr'' (
Yanbu Yanbu ( ar, ينبع, lit=Spring, translit=Yanbu'), also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia. It is approximately 300 kilometers northwest of Jeddah (at ). The population is 222,360 (2 ...
)
Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mecca Region, is one of the 13 Provinces of saudi arabia, provinces of Saudi Arabia. It is the third-largest province by area at and the most populous with a populat ...
: * Aṭ-Ṭāʾif * ''Jiddah'' (
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, , Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the country's commercial center. Established in the 6th century BC as a fishing village, Jeddah's promi ...
) * ''Makkah'' (
Mecca Mecca (; officially Makkah al-Mukarramah, commonly shortened to Makkah ()) is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland from Jeddah on the Red ...
) * Rābigh
Tabuk Region Tabuk ( ar, مِنْطَقَة تَبُوْك '), also spelled ''Tabouk'', is a regions of Saudi Arabia, region of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the country, facing Egypt across the Red Sea. It has an area of 146,072 k ...
: * Tabūk


International tourism development

As a component of
Saudi Vision 2030 Saudi Vision 2030 ( ar, رؤية السعودية ٢٠٣٠ ''ruʾyah al-suʿūdiyah'') is a strategic framework to reduce Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a country in Western Asia. It covers t ...
, a 28,000 square kilometer tourism destination is under development on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر - بحر القلزم, translit=Modern: al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar, Medieval: Baḥr al-Qulzum; or ; Coptic language, Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ''P ...
coast between the towns of
Umluj Umluj ( ar, أملج) is one of the governorates in Tabuk Region Tabuk ( ar, مِنْطَقَة تَبُوْك '), also spelled ''Tabouk'', is a regions of Saudi Arabia, region of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the count ...
() and Al-Wajh (), in the northern section of the Hejazi coast. The project will involve "the development of 22 of the 90+ islands" that lie along the coast to create a "fully integrated luxury mixed-use destination". and will be "governed by laws on par with international standards".


Demographics

The Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia, containing 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia. Most people of Hejaz are
Sunnis Sunni Islam () is the largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the tradition of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia ...
with a
Shia Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib as his S ...
minority in the cities of Medina, Mecca and Jeddah. Many consider themselves more cosmopolitan because Hejaz was for centuries a part of the great empires of Islam from the
Umayyads Umayyads may refer to: * Umayyad dynasty, a Muslim ruling family of the Caliphate (661–750) and in Spain (756–1031) * Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) :* Emirate of Córdoba (756–929) :* Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031) {{dab ...
to the
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic founding and sociopolitically the most dominant ethnic group of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synony ...
. People of Hejaz, who feel particularly connected to the holy places of Mecca and Medina, have probably the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia.


Gallery

File:Taif Mountains (8355942584).jpg,
Mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. Although definitions vary, a mountain may differ from a plateau in having a limited Summit (topography), summit area, and ...
near
Ta'if Taif ( ar, , translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit=The circulated or encircled, ) is a city and governorate in the Mecca Province, Makkan Region of Saudi Arabia. Located at an elevation of in the slopes of the Hijaz Mountains, which themselves are part ...
, 2012 File:Mina 2.JPG, The camp of Mina on the outskirts of Mecca, where Muslim pilgrims gather for the ''
Ḥajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ '; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Fard, mandatory religious duty for Mu ...
'' (Greater Pilgrimage). '' Masjid Al-Khayf'' is visible to the right. File:Pilgrims must spend the time within a defined area on the plain of Arafat. - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg, Pilgrims gathering at the plain of
Mount Arafat Mount Arafat ( ar, جَبَل عَرَفَات, translit=Jabal ʿArafāt), and by its other Arabic name, (), is a granodiorite hill about southeast of Mecca, in the Makkah Province, province of the same name in Saudi Arabia. The mountain is ...
File:جبل أحد.jpg,
Mount Uhud Mount Uhud ( ar, جَبَل أُحُد, Jabal Uḥud) is a mountain north of Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is high and 7.5 km long. It was the site of the second battle between Muslim and unbelievers. The Battle of Uhud was fought on 19 March, 625 ...
in the area of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, , Turkish: Medine-i Münevvere) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam Islam (; ar, ...
File:DL1W7080.jpg, The old city of
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, , Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the country's commercial center. Established in the 6th century BC as a fishing village, Jeddah's promi ...
File:Kaust-night-view.jpg, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus at night File:Al Wajh Beach.jpg, Beach promenade in Al-Wajh File:Albaha.JPG,
Al-Bahah Al Bahah ( ar, ٱلْبَاحَة, ') is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi A ...
City, located above sea level File:1قرية ذي عين.jpg, Dhi 'Ain village located in Al Bahah Province


Notable Hejazis

* Salih of Thamud


Al-Abwa'

*
Musa al-Kadhim Musa ibn Ja'far al-Kazim ( ar, مُوسَىٰ ٱبْن جَعْفَر ٱلْكَاظِم, Mūsā ibn Jaʿfar al-Kāẓim), also known as Abū al-Ḥasan, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū Ibrāhīm, was the seventh Imam Imam (; ar, إمام ' ...
ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq, descendant of Muhammad


Mecca


Pre–6th century CE

*
Qusai ibn Kilab Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ( ar, قصي ٱبن كلاب ٱبن مرة, ''Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah''; ca. 400–480), also spelled Qusayy, Kusayy, Kusai, or Cossai, born Zayd ( ar, زيد), was an Ishmaelites, Ishmaelite descendant of the Pr ...
ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn
Fihr ibn Malik Fihr ibn Malik ( ar, فِهْر ٱبْن مَالِك, Fihr ibn Mālik, ), is counted among the direct ancestors of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In the Family tree of Muhammad#Genealogy, lineage of Muhammad from Adnan, Fihr precedes Muhammad b ...
ibn
An-Nadr ibn Kinanah In Islamic tradition, an-Nadhr () was the ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He precedes Muhammad by 13 generations. Ancestry The tradition (the version of Ibn Ishaq) holds that "Muhammad was the son of 'Abdullah, b. 'Abdu'I-Muttalib (who ...
ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn
Ma'ad ibn Adnan Ma'ad ibn Adnan ( ar, مَعَدّ ٱبْن عَدْنَان, Maʿadd ibn ʿAdnān) is an ancient ancestor of Qusai ibn Kilab Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ( ar, قصي ٱبن كلاب ٱبن مرة, ''Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah''; ca. 400 ...
the descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Azar ibn Nahor ibn Serug ibn Reu ibn Peleg ibn
Eber Eber ( he, , ʿĒḇer; grc-x-biblical, Ἔβερ, Éber; ar, عٰابِر, ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Ishmaelites and the Israelites according to the "Table of Nations" in the Book of Genesis () and the Books of Chronicles (). Lineage ...
ibn Shelakh,
Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis (from Greek ; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית ''Bəreʾšīt'', "In hebeginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. Its Hebrew name is the same as its first word, ( "In the beginning") ...
, Chapters 10, 11, 16, 17, 21 and 25
1 Chronicles The Book of Chronicles ( he, דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים ) is a book in the Hebrew Bible, found as two books (1–2 Chronicles) in the Christian Old Testament. Chronicles is the final book of the Hebrew Bible, concluding the third sect ...
, Chapter 1
Chief of the Tribe of
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Kaaba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ma ...
, and an ancestor of Muhammad * Qusai's son Abd-al-Dar the father of Uthman the father of Abdul-Uzza the father of Barrah the maternal grandmother of Muhammad *
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai Abd Manaf al-Mughirah ibn Qusai ( ar, عبد مناف ٱلمغيرة ٱبن قصي, ''ʿAbd Manāf al-Mughīrah ibn Quṣayy'') was a Quraysh (tribe), Qurayshi and great-great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His father was Qusai ibn ...
, paternal ancestor of Muhammad * Abdul-Uzza, son of Qusai, and an ancestor of Barrah bint Abdul-Uzza * Hashim, son of Abd Manaf, paternal great-grandfather of Muhammad, and the progenitor of Banu Hashim in the Tribe of Quraysh * Hubbah bint Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah ibn Salul ibn Ka‘b ibn Amr al- Khuza'i, wife of Qusai, and an ancestor of Muhammad * Atikah bint Murrah ibn Hilal ibn Falij ibn Dhakwan, wife of Abd Manaf, and an ancestor of Muhammad


Since

*
Muhammad Muhammad ( ar, مُحَمَّد;  570 – 8 June 632 Common Era, CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Muhammad in Islam, Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet Divine inspiration, di ...
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib *
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdallah ibn Uthman Abi Quhafa (; – 23 August 634) was the senior Companions of the Prophet, companion and was, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Isla ...
Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafah ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b, father-in-law of Muhammad, and
Caliph A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة , ), a person considered a political-religious successor to th ...
*
Umar ibn Al-Khattab ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب, also spelled Omar, ) was the second Rashidun, Rashidun caliph, ruling from August 634 until his assassination in 644. He succeeded Abu Bakr () as the second caliph of the Rashidun C ...
ibn Nufayl ibn Abdul-Uzza the descendant of Adi ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Ali ibn
Abi Talib Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib ( ar, أَبُو طَالِب بن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب '; ) was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Quraysh, Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula. He was an uncle of ...
, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Hamzah, son of Abdul-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad, and other ''
Muhajirun The ''Muhajirun'' ( ar, المهاجرون, al-muhājirūn, singular , ) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in ...
'' or Makkan followers of Muhammad, including Ubaydah and Sa'd * Abu Talib, son of Abdul-Muttalib, Chief of
Banu Hashim ) , type = Quraysh, Qurayshi Arab clan , image = , alt = , caption = , nisba = al-Hashimi , location = Mecca, Hejaz Middle East, North Africa, Horn of Africa , descended = Hashim ibn Abd Manaf , parent_tribe ...
, paternal uncle of Muhammad, and the father of Ali * Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Chief of Bani Hashim, and the paternal grandfather of Muhammad * Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn Abdul-Uzza ibn Qusai, and other Meccan
wives of Muhammad Thirteen women were married to the Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God in Islam, God's message on Ea ...
*
Fatimah Fāṭima bint Muḥammad ( ar, فَاطِمَة ٱبْنَت مُحَمَّد}, 605/15–632 CE), commonly known as Fāṭima al-Zahrāʾ (), was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Khadija. Fati ...
, other daughters of Muhammad, and other Muhajir women * Umm Ammar Sumayyah bint Khayyat, wife of Yasir ibn Amir ibn Malik al-Ansi, believed to be the first
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', Word stem, stem , ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, or refusing to renounce or advocate, a religious belief or other cause as demanded by a ...
from the followers of Muhammad * Aminah bint Wahb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah, wife of Abdullah, and the mother of Muhammad


Medina


Pre–6th century CE

* Salmah, daughter of Amr, wife of Hashim, and a great-grandmother of Muhammad


Since

* Caliph Hasan, and other sons of Ali and grandsons of Muhammad born in Medina * Caliph
Umar ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب, also spelled Omar, ) was the second Rashidun, Rashidun caliph, ruling from August 634 until his assassination in 644. He succeeded Abu Bakr () as the second caliph of the Rashidun C ...
ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Marwan ibn
Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As Abu ʿUthmān al-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿĀṣ ibn Umayya ( ar, الحكم بن أبي العاص; died 655/56), was the father of the founder of the Marwanid line of the Umayyad dynasty, Marwan I (), and a paternal uncle of Caliph Uthman (). He was ...
ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, great-grandson of Umar ibn Al-Khattab *
Hasan of Basra Abu Sa'id ibn Abi al-Hasan Yasar al-Basri, often referred to as Hasan of Basra (Arabic Arabic (, ' ; , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, Semitic language spoken primarily across the Arab world.Semitic languages: an international handbook ...
*
Muhammad al-Baqir Muḥammad al-Bāqir ( ar, مُحَمَّد ٱلْبَاقِر), with the full name Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, also known as Abū Jaʿfar or simply al-Bāqir () was the fifth Imamate in Twelver doctrine ...
ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin, grandson of Hasan and Husayn the grandsons of Muhammad * Zayd ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin ibn Husayn ibn Fatimah bint Muhammad, half-brother of Muhammad al-Baqir * Ansari women *
Ja'far al-Sadiq Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Ṣādiq ( ar, جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 702 – 765 Common Era, CE), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (), was an 8th-century Shia Islam, Shia Ulama, Muslim scholar, Faqīh, jurist, and ...
ibn Muhammad al-Baqir * Malik the son of Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Amir al-Asbahi (not Anas the companion of Muhammad) *
Ali al-Ridha Ali ibn Musa al-Rida ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن مُوسَىٰ ٱلرِّضَا, Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā, 1 January 766 – 6 June 818), also known as Abū al-Ḥasan al-Thānī, was a descendant of the Islamic prophet Prophets in I ...
ibn Musa al-Kadhim ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq *
Fatimah bint Musa Fatima bint Musa ( ar, فَاطِمَة بِنْت مُوسَىٰ, '; born 1st Dhu al-Qadah 173 Islamic calendar, AH – 10th or 12th of Rabi' al-Thani 201 AH; approximately March 22, 790 AD – November 7 or 9, 816 AD), commonly known as Fatim ...
ibn Ja'far, sister of Ali al-Ridha * Abu Ali
Muhammad al-Jawad Muhammad ibn Ali al-Jawad ( ar, محمد بن علي الجواد, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Jawād, – 29 November 835) was a descendant of the Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al- ...
ibn Ali al-Ridha


Ta'if


6th–7th centuries CE

*
Uthman ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by Colloquial Arabic, Turkish language, Turkish and Persian language, Persian rendering Osman, was a second cousin, son-in-law and nota ...
ibn
Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah Abū al-ʿĀṣ ibn Umayya () was a son of the eponymous progenitor of the Umayyad dynasty, Umayyad clan, Umayya ibn Abd Shams. His sons were the following: *Affan ibn Abi al-As, Affan, father of Caliph Uthman. *al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As, Al-Hakam, ...
ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Urwah ibn Mas'ud, Chief of
Banu Thaqif The Banu Thaqif ( ar, بنو ثقيف, Banū Thaqīf) is an Tribes of Arabia, Arab tribe which inhabited, and still inhabits, the city of Ta'if and its environs, in modern Saudi Arabia, and played a prominent role in early Islamic history. Durin ...
* Nafi ibn al-Harith,
Physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a health professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, mai ...


Since

*
Sharif Ali Sharīf ʿAlī Patronymic#Arabic, ibn ʿAjlān ibn Rumaithah ibn Muḥammad ( ar, ٱلشَّرِيْف عَلِي ٱبْن عَجْلَان ٱبْن رُمَيْثَة ٱبْن مُحَمَّد), also known as ''Barkat Ali'' or "Blessed Ali", ...
ibn Ajlan ibn Rumaithah ibn Muhammad, son-in-law and successor of Sultan Ahmad of Brunei, father of
Sultan Sulaiman Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Raja Musa (11 September 1863 – 31 March 1938) was the fifth Sultan of Selangor from 1898 until 1938. He was previously known as Raja Sulaiman before being crowned Sultan. Sultan Sulaiman was a ...
, and a descendant of Muhammad


See also

* Al Baydha Project *
Desert of Paran The Desert of Paran or Wilderness of Paran (also sometimes spelled Pharan or Faran; he, מִדְבַּר פָּארָן, ''Midbar Pa'ran''), is a location mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. It is one of the places where the Israelites spent part of th ...
* Hejaz Vilayet * Hejazi turban * Hijazi script *
Midian Midian (; he, מִדְיָן ''Mīḏyān'' ; ar, مَدْيَن, Madyan; grc-gre, Μαδιάμ, ''Madiam'') is a geographical place mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and Quran. William G. Dever states that biblical Midian was in the "northwest Ara ...
* Relationship between the Hijaz, Shaam and Yemen *
Sharifate of Mecca The Sharifate of Mecca () or Emirate of Mecca was a state, non-sovereign for much of its existence, ruled by the Sharifs of Mecca. A sharif is a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, Muhammad's grandson. In Western sources, the prince of Mecca was known ...
* History of the Jews in Saudi Arabia


Explanatory notes


References


Further reading

* PBK, first edition: 1987.


External links

* {{Authority control Geography of Saudi Arabia Historical regions Historical regions in Saudi Arabia Megalithic monuments in the Middle East Red Sea