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HEGEMONY (UK : /hᵻˈɡɛməni/ or /hᵻˈdʒɛməni/ , US : /hᵻˈdʒɛməni/ _ pronunciation (help ·info ) or /ˈhɛdʒᵻˌmoʊni/ ; Greek : ἡγεμονία hēgemonía_, "leadership, rule") is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece (8th century BCE – 6th century CE), _hegemony_ denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the _hegemon_.

In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu". Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society." Also, it could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others; from which was derived _hegemonism_, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa .

The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony , associated particularly with Antonio Gramsci , is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view (_ Weltanschauung _): in Terry Eagleton's words, "Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates". In contrast to authoritarian rule, cultural hegemony "is hegemonic only if those affected by it also consent to and struggle over its common sense". Ancient Greece under the hegemony of Thebes , 371–362 BCE

In cultural imperialism , the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence , either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Historical examples

* 2.1 8th–1st centuries BCE * 2.2 1st–14th centuries CE * 2.3 15th–19th centuries * 2.4 20th century * 2.5 21st century

* 3 Political science * 4 Sociology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The League of Corinth hegemony: the Kingdom of Macedonia (362 BCE) (red) and the Corinthian League (yellow)

From the post-classical Latin word _hegemonia_, from "1513 or earlier"; or the Greek word _ἡγεμονία_, meaning "authority, rule, political supremacy", related to the word _ἡγεμών_ "leader".

HISTORICAL EXAMPLES

8TH–1ST CENTURIES BCE

In the Greco–Roman world of 5th century BCE European classical antiquity , the city-state of Sparta was the _hegemon_ of the Peloponnesian League (6th to 4th centuries BCE) and King Philip II of Macedon was the hegemon of the League of Corinth in 337 BCE (a kingship he willed to his son, Alexander the Great ). Likewise, the role of Athens within the short-lived Delian League (478–404 BCE) was that of a "hegemon". Ancient historians such as Xenophon and Ephorus were the first who used the term in its modern sense.

In Ancient East Asia , Chinese hegemony existed during the Spring and Autumn period (c. 770–480 BCE), when the weakened rule of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty led to the relative autonomy of the Five Hegemons (_Ba_ in Chinese ). They were appointed by feudal lord conferences, and thus were nominally obliged to uphold the imperium of the Zhou Dynasty over the subordinate states.

1ST–14TH CENTURIES CE

1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the hegemonic peace of the _ Pax Romana _. It was instituted by the emperor Augustus , and was accompanied by a series of brutal military campaigns.

From the 7th century to the 12th century, the Umayyad Caliphate and later Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the Byzantine Empire paying tribute.

In 7th century India, Harsha , ruler of a large empire in northern India from 606 to 647 CE, brought most of the north under his hegemony. He preferred not to rule as a central government, but left "conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute and homage."

From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by Charlemagne achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France, Italy and Burgundy .

15TH–19TH CENTURIES

In _The Politics of International Political Economy_, Jayantha Jayman writes "If we consider the Western dominated global system from as early as the 15th century, there have been several hegemonic powers and contenders that have attempted to create the world order in their own images." He lists several contenders for historical hegemony.

* Portugal 1494 to 1580 (end of Italian Wars to Spanish/Hapsburg assimilation of Portugal ). Based on Portugal\'s dominance in navigation . * Holland 1580 to 1688 (1579 Treaty of Utrecht marks the foundation of the Dutch Republic to the Glorious Revolution , William of Orange's arrival in England). Based on Dutch control of credit and money . * Britain 1688 to 1792 ( Glorious Revolution to Napoleonic Wars ). Based on British textiles and command of the high seas. * Britain 1815 to 1914 ( Congress of Vienna to World War I ). Based on British industrial supremacy and railroads.

To this list could be added the hegemony of Habsburg Spain in 16th century Europe. However, after an attempt by Phillip IV to restore it, by the middle of the 17th century "Spain's pretensions to hegemony had definitely and irremediably failed."

In late 16th and 17th-century Holland, the Dutch Republic's mercantilist dominion was an early instance of commercial hegemony, made feasible with the development of wind power for the efficient production and delivery of goods and services. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam stock market and concomitant dominance of world trade.

In France, King Louis XIV (1638–1715) and (Emperor ) Napoleon I (1799–1815) attempted French hegemony via economic, cultural and military domination of most of Continental Europe . However, Jeremy Black writes that, because of Britain, France "was unable to enjoy the benefits" of this hegemony.

After the defeat and exile of Napoleon, hegemony largely passed to the British Empire , which became the largest empire in history, with Queen Victoria (1837–1901) ruling over one-quarter of the world's land and population at its zenith. Like the Dutch, the British Empire was primarily seaborne; many British possessions were located around the rim of the Indian Ocean , as well as numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea . Britain also controlled the Indian subcontinent and large portions of Africa .

In Europe, Germany, rather than Britain, may have been the strongest power after 1871, but Samuel Newland writes:

Bismarck defined the road ahead as … no expansion, no push for hegemony in Europe. Germany was to be the strongest power in Europe but without being a hegemon. … His basic axioms were first, no conflict among major powers in Central Europe; and second, German security without German hegemony."

20TH CENTURY

The early 20th century, like the late 19th century was characterized by multiple Great Powers but no global hegemon. World War I weakened the strongest of the Imperial Powers , Great Britain, but also strengthened the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan. Both of these states' governments pursued policies to expand their regional spheres of influence , the U.S. in Latin America and Japan in East Asia . France, the UK, Italy, the Soviet Union and later Nazi Germany (1933–1945) all either maintained imperialist policies based on spheres of influence or attempted to conquer territory but none achieved the status of a global hegemonic power.

After the Second World War , the United Nations was established and the five strongest global powers (China, France, the UK, the US, and the USSR) were given permanent seats on the U.N. Security Council , the organization's most powerful decision making body. Following the war, the US and the USSR were the two strongest global powers and this created a bi-polar power dynamic in international affairs, commonly referred to as the Cold War . The hegemonic conflict was ideological , between communism and capitalism , as well as geopolitical, between the Warsaw Pact countries (1955–1991) and NATO / SEATO /CENTO countries (1949–present). During the Cold War both hegemons competed against each other directly (during the arms race ) and indirectly (via proxy wars ). The result was that many countries, no matter how remote, were drawn into the conflict when it was suspected that their governments' policies might destabilise the balance of power. Reinhard Hildebrandt calls this a period of "dual-hegemony", where "two dominant states have been stabilizing their European spheres of influence _against and alongside each other_." Proxy wars became battle grounds between forces supported either directly or indirectly by the hegemonic powers and included the Korean War , the Laotian Civil War , the Arab–Israeli conflict , the Vietnam War , the Afghan War , the Angolan Civil War , and the Central American Civil Wars .

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 the United States was the world's sole hegemonic power .

21ST CENTURY

Various perspectives on whether the US was or continues to be a hegemon have been presented since the end of the Cold War . The American political scientists John Mearsheimer and Joseph Nye have argued that the US is not a true hegemon because it has neither the financial nor the military resources to impose a proper, formal, global hegemony. On the other hand, Anna Cornelia Beyer, in her book about counter-terrorism, argues that global governance is a product of American leadership and describes it as hegemonic governance.

The French Socialist politician Hubert Védrine in 1999 described the US as a hegemonic hyperpower , because of its unilateral military actions worldwide.

Pentagon strategist Edward Luttwak , in _The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire_, outlined three stages, with hegemonic being the first, followed by imperial. In his view the transformation proved to be fatal and eventually led to the fall of the Roman Empire. His book is an implicit advice to Washington to continue the present hegemonic strategy and refrain from establishing an empire.

In 2006, author Zhu Zhiqun claimed that China is already on the way to becoming the world hegemon and that the focus should be on how a peaceful transfer of power can be achieved between the U.S. and China. Ten years later, _ Forbes _ regarded Russian President Vladimir Putin as the world\'s most powerful leader , followed by Donald Trump , the President of the United States , and German Chancellor Angela Merkel .

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Main article: Cultural hegemony NATO countries account for over 70% of global military expenditure , with the United States alone accounting for 43% of global military expenditure in 2009. Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937), the theoretician of cultural hegemony

In the historical writing of the 19th century, the denotation of _hegemony_ extended to describe the predominance of one country upon other countries; and, by extension, _hegemonism_ denoted the Great Power politics (c. 1880s – 1914) for establishing hegemony (indirect imperial rule), that then leads to a definition of imperialism (direct foreign rule). In the early 20th century, in the field of international relations , the Italian Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci developed the theory of cultural domination (an analysis of economic class ) to include social class ; hence, the philosophic and sociologic theory of cultural hegemony analysed the social norms that established the social structures (social and economic classes) with which the ruling class establish and exert cultural dominance to impose their _ Weltanschauung _ (world view)—justifying the social, political, and economic _status quo _—as natural, inevitable, and beneficial to every social class, rather than as artificial social constructs beneficial solely to the ruling class.

From the Gramsci analysis derived the political science denotation of hegemony as _leadership_; thus, the historical example of Prussia as the militarily and culturally predominant province of the German Empire (Second Reich 1871–1918); and the personal and intellectual predominance of Napoleon Bonaparte upon the French Consulate (1799–1804). Contemporarily, in _ Hegemony and Socialist Strategy _ (1985), Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe defined hegemony as a political relationship of power wherein a sub-ordinate society (collectivity) perform social tasks that are culturally unnatural and not beneficial to them, but that are in exclusive benefit to the imperial interests of the hegemon, the superior, ordinate power; hegemony is a military, political, and economic relationship that occurs as an articulation within political discourse . Beyer analysed the contemporary hegemony of the United States at the example of the Global War on Terrorism and presented the mechanisms and processes of American exercise of power in 'hegemonic governance'.

SOCIOLOGY

Academics have argued that in the praxis of hegemony, imperial dominance is established by means of cultural imperialism , whereby the leader state (hegemon) dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence , either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. The imposition of the hegemon's way of life—an imperial _lingua franca _ and bureaucracies (social, economic, educational, governing)—transforms the concrete imperialism of direct military domination into the abstract power of the _status quo_, indirect imperial domination. Critics have said that this view is "deeply condescending" and "treats people as blank slates on which global capitalism’s moving finger writes its message, leaving behind another cultural automaton as it moves on."

Suggested examples of cultural imperialism include the latter-stage Spanish and British Empires , the 19th and 20th century Reichs of unified Germany (1871–1945), and by the end of the 20th century, the United States.

Culturally, hegemony also is established by means of language , specifically the imposed _lingua franca_ of the hegemon (leader state), which then is the official source of information for the people of the society of the sub-ordinate state. Writing on language and power, Andrea Mayr says, "As a practice of power, hegemony operates largely through language." In contemporary society, an example of the use of language in this way is in the way Western countries set up educational systems in African countries mediated by Western languages.

Another example of this is found in the way language helped "diminish the traditions" of African Americans in the US.

SEE ALSO

* 1954 Guatemalan _coup d\'état_ * Balance of power * Counter-hegemonic globalization * Colonialism * Cultural hegemony * Dominant ideology * Hegemonic masculinity * Hyperpower * _Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism _ (1916), by Lenin * Monetary hegemony * Post-hegemony * Regional hegemony * Soft power * Supremacism * Noam Chomsky * David Harvey * Chantal Mouffe * Edward Soja

REFERENCES

* ^ _ Oxford English Dictionary _ * ^ "Hegemony". _Oxford Advanced American Dictionary_. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2014. * ^ "Hegemony". _Merriam-Webster Online_. Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2014. Retrieved 2016-02-24. * ^ "Hegemony". _American Heritage Dictionary_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 2016-02-24. * ^ _A_ _B_ Chernow, Barbara A.; Vallasi, George A., eds. (1994). _The Columbia Encyclopedia_ (Fifth ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1215. ISBN 0-231-08098-0 . * ^ _Oxford English Dictionary_: "A leading or paramount power; a dominant state or person" * ^ _Oxford English Dictionary_: Def's 2a and 2b. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bullock, Alan; Trombley, Stephen, eds. (1999). _The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought_ (Third ed.). London: HarperCollins. pp. 387–388. ISBN 0-00-255871-8 . * ^ Terry Eagleton, _Ideology: An Introduction_ (London: Verso, 1991). * ^ Laurie, Timothy (2015). "Masculinity Studies and the Jargon of Strategy: Hegemony, Tautology, Sense". _Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities_. Retrieved 2016-02-24. * ^ _Oxford English Dictionary_. * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_, "Greeks, Romans, and barbarians (from Europe, history of)": "Fusions of power occurred in the shape of leagues of cities, such as the Peloponnesian League, the Delian League, and the Boeotian League. The efficacy of these leagues depended chiefly upon the hegemony of a leading city (Sparta, Athens, or Thebes)" * ^ Wickersham, JM., _ Hegemony and Greek Historians_, Rowman in 651 BCE it formed the little states of the area into a league, which was successful in staving off invasions from the semibarbarian regimes to the north and south. Although Ch'i thus gained hegemony over China, its rule was short-lived; after Duke Huan's death, internal disorders caused it to lose the leadership of the new confederation" * ^ Parchami, A., _Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana_, Routledge, 2009, p. 32. * ^ al-Tabari, _The History of al-Tabari_ * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_, "Harsha" * ^ Story, J. _Charlemagne: Empire and Society_, Manchester University Press, 2005, p. 193. * ^ Jayman. J., in Vassilis K. Fouskas, VK., _The Politics of International Political Economy_, Routledge, 2014, pp. 119-120. * ^ Watson, A., _The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis Reissue with a New Introduction by Barry Buzan and Richard Little_, Routledge, 2009, p. 131. * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_:"Phillip IV" * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_: "Spain under the Habsburgs. * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_, "Financial and economic affairs. (from Colbert, Jean-Baptiste)". * ^ Black, J., _ Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony: The World Order Since 1500_, Routledge, 2007, p. 76. * ^ Porter, A., _The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III: The Nineteenth Century_, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 258. * ^ Newland, Samuel J (2005). _Victories Are Not Enough: Limitations of the German Way of War_. DIANE Publishing. p. 30. Retrieved 2016-02-24. * ^ Hitchens, Christopher (2002). _Why Orwell Matters_. New York: Basic Books. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-465-03049-1 . * ^ Hilderbrandt, R., _US Hegemony: Global Ambitions and Decline : Emergence of the Interregional Asian Triangle and the Relegation of the US as a Hegemonic Power, the Reorientation of Europe_, Peter Lang, 2009, p. 14. (Author's italics). * ^ Mumford, A., _Proxy Warfare_, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, pp. 46–51. * ^ Hildebrandt, R., _US Hegemony: Global Ambitions and Decline : Emergence of the Interregional Asian Triangle and the Relegation of the US as a Hegemonic Power, the Reorientation of Europe_, Peter Lang, 2009, pp. 9–11. * ^ Nye, Joseph S., Sr. (1993). _Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History_. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 276–77. ISBN 0-06-500720-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Beyer, Anna Cornelia (2010). _Counterterrorism and International Power Relations_. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-892-1 . * ^ Reid, JIM., _Religion and Global Culture: New Terrain in the Study of Religion and the Work of Charles H. Long_, Lexington Books, 2004, p. 82. * ^ _The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century CE to the Third_, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976). * ^ Zhiqun, Zhu (2006). _US-China relations in the 21st century : power transition and peace_. London ; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-70208-9 . * ^ "The World\'s Most Powerful People 2016". _Forbes_. December 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Milexdata.sipri.org. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-22. * ^ "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2009". Archived from the original on 2010-03-28. Retrieved 2010-08-22.

* ^ Holsti, K. J. (1985). _The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory_. Boston: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-327077-8 . * ^ Cook, Chris (1983). _Dictionary of Historical Terms_. London: MacMillan. p. 142. ISBN 0-333-44972-X . * ^ Laclau, Ernest; Mouffe, Chantal (2001). _ Hegemony and Socialist Strategy_ (Second ed.). London: Verso. pp. 40–59, 125–144. ISBN 1-85984-330-1 . * ^ Bush, B., _ Imperialism and Postcolonialism_, Routledge, 2014, p. 123. * ^ Brutt-Griffler, J., in Karlfried Knapp, Barbara Seidlhofer, H. G. Widdowson, _Handbook of Foreign Language Communication and Learning_, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 264. * ^ Kissinger, Henry (1994). _Diplomacy_. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-671-65991-X . European coalitions were likely to arise to contain Germany's Nazis growing, potentially dominant, power As well as p. 145: "Unified Germany was achieving the strength to dominate Europe all by itself—an occurrence which Great Britain had always resisted in the past when it came about by conquest". * ^ Schoultz, Lars (1999). _Beneath the United States: A history of U.S. policy towards Latin America_. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * ^ Mayr, A., _ Language and Power: An Introduction to Institutional Discourse_, A&C Black, 2008, p.14. * ^ Clayton, T., _Rethinking Hegemony_, James Nicholas Publishers, 2006, pp. 202-203. * ^ Semmes, CE., _Cultural Hegemony and African American Development_, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995, p. 9.

FURTHER READING

* Beyer, Anna Cornelia (2010). _Counterterrorism and International Power Relations: The EU, ASEAN and Hegemonic Global Governance_. London: IB Tauris. * DuBois, T. D. (2005). "Hegemony, Imperialism and the Construction of Religion in East and Southeast Asia". _History & Theory_. 44 (4): 113–131. doi :10.1111/j.1468-2303.2005.00345.x . * Hopper, P. (2007). _Understanding Cultural Globalization_ (1st ed.). Malden, MA: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3557-6 . * Howson, Richard, ed. (2008). _Hegemony: Studies in Consensus and Coercion_. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-95544-7 . Retrieved 2016-02-24. * Joseph, Jonathan (2002). _Hegemony: A Realist Analysis_. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26836-2 . * Slack, Jennifer Daryl (1996). "The Theory and Method of Articulation in Cultural Studies". In Morley, David; Chen, Kuan-Hsing. _Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies_. Routledge. pp. 112–127.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up HEGEMONY _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* _ "Hegemony". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 13 (11th ed.).

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