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The Hebrides
Hebrides
(/ˈhɛbrɪdiːz/; Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall, pronounced [ĩːʃə gau̯l̪ˠ]; Old Norse: Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic, and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse, and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times. The Hebrides
Hebrides
are the source of much of Scottish Gaelic literature
Scottish Gaelic literature
and Gaelic music. Today the economy of the islands is dependent on crofting, fishing, tourism, the oil industry, and renewable energy. The Hebrides
Hebrides
have lower biodiversity than mainland Scotland, but there is a significant presence of seals and seabirds.

Contents

1 Geology, geography and climate 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Celtic era 2.3 Norwegian control 2.4 Scottish control 2.5 Early British era

3 Modern economy 4 Media and the arts

4.1 Music 4.2 Literature 4.3 Film 4.4 Influence on visitors

5 Language 6 Etymology

6.1 Outer Hebrides 6.2 Inner Hebrides 6.3 Uninhabited islands

7 Natural history 8 See also 9 References and footnotes

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations 9.3 General references

10 External links

Geology, geography and climate[edit]

The Caledonian MacBrayne
Caledonian MacBrayne
ferry MV Hebrides
MV Hebrides
leaving Lochmaddy
Lochmaddy
for Skye

Main articles: List of Inner Hebrides
Inner Hebrides
and List of Outer Hebrides The Hebrides
Hebrides
have a diverse geology ranging in age from Precambrian strata that are amongst the oldest rocks in Europe to Paleogene igneous intrusions.[1][2][Note 1] Raised shore platforms in the Hebrides
Hebrides
are identified as strandflats formed possibly in Pliocene times and later modified by the Quaternary glaciations.[3] The Hebrides
Hebrides
can be divided into two main groups, separated from one another by the Minch to the north and the Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
to the south. The Inner Hebrides
Inner Hebrides
lie closer to mainland Scotland
Scotland
and include Islay, Jura, Skye, Mull, Raasay, Staffa
Staffa
and the Small Isles. There are 36 inhabited islands in this group. The Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
are a chain of more than 100 islands and small skerries located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of mainland Scotland. There are 15 inhabited islands in this archipelago. The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda. In total, the islands have an area of approximately 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 sq mi) and a population of 44,759.[4] A complication is that there are various descriptions of the scope of the Hebrides. The Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland
Scotland
describes the Inner Hebrides
Hebrides
as lying "east of the Minch", which would include any and all offshore islands. There are various islands that lie in the sea lochs such as Eilean Bàn and Eilean Donan
Eilean Donan
that might not ordinarily be described as "Hebridean", but no formal definitions exist.[5][6] In the past, the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
were often referred to as the Long Isle (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Fada). Today, they are also known as the Western Isles, although this phrase can also be used to refer to the Hebrides
Hebrides
in general.[Note 2] The Hebrides
Hebrides
have a cool temperate climate that is remarkably mild and steady for such a northerly latitude, due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. In the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
the average temperature for the year is 6 °C (44 °F) in January and 14 °C (57 °F) in summer. The average annual rainfall in Lewis
Lewis
is 1,100 millimetres (43 in) and sunshine hours range from 1,100 – 1,200 per annum (13%). The summer days are relatively long, and May to August is the driest period.[8] History[edit] Main articles: Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides, and History of the Outer Hebrides Prehistory[edit]

Callanish stone circle

The Hebrides
Hebrides
were settled during the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
era around 6500 BC or earlier, after the climatic conditions improved enough to sustain human settlement. Occupation at a site on Rùm
Rùm
is dated to 8590 ±95 uncorrected radiocarbon years BP, which is amongst the oldest evidence of occupation in Scotland.[9][10] There are many examples of structures from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, the finest example being the standing stones at Callanish, dating to the 3rd millennium BC.[11] Cladh Hallan, a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
settlement on South Uist
South Uist
is the only site in the UK where prehistoric mummies have been found.[12][13] Celtic era[edit] Main article: Dál Riata In 55 BC, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
wrote that there was an island called Hyperborea
Hyperborea
(which means "beyond the North Wind"), where a round temple stood from which the moon appeared only a little distance above the earth every 19 years. This may have been a reference to the stone circle at Callanish.[14] A traveller called Demetrius of Tarsus related to Plutarch
Plutarch
the tale of an expedition to the west coast of Scotland
Scotland
in or shortly before AD 83. He stated it was a gloomy journey amongst uninhabited islands, but he had visited one which was the retreat of holy men. He mentioned neither the druids nor the name of the island.[15] The first written records of native life begin in the 6th century AD, when the founding of the kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
took place.[16] This encompassed roughly what is now Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute
and Lochaber
Lochaber
in Scotland
Scotland
and County Antrim
County Antrim
in Ireland.[17] The figure of Columba
Columba
looms large in any history of Dál Riata, and his founding of a monastery on Iona
Iona
ensured that the kingdom would be of great importance in the spread of Christianity in northern Britain. However, Iona
Iona
was far from unique. Lismore in the territory of the Cenél Loairn, was sufficiently important for the death of its abbots to be recorded with some frequency and many smaller sites, such as on Eigg, Hinba, and Tiree, are known from the annals.[18] North of Dál Riata, the Inner and Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
were nominally under Pictish control, although the historical record is sparse. Hunter (2000) states that in relation to King Bridei I of the Picts
Picts
in the sixth century: "As for Shetland, Orkney, Skye
Skye
and the Western Isles, their inhabitants, most of whom appear to have been Pictish in culture and speech at this time, are likely to have regarded Bridei as a fairly distant presence.”[19] Norwegian control[edit]

The Kingdom of the Isles
Kingdom of the Isles
about the year 1100

Main article: Kingdom of the Isles Viking
Viking
raids began on Scottish shores towards the end of the 8th century and the Hebrides
Hebrides
came under Norse control and settlement during the ensuing decades, especially following the success of Harald Fairhair at the Battle of Hafrsfjord
Battle of Hafrsfjord
in 872.[20][21] In the Western Isles Ketill Flatnose
Ketill Flatnose
may have been the dominant figure of the mid 9th century, by which time he had amassed a substantial island realm and made a variety of alliances with other Norse leaders. These princelings nominally owed allegiance to the Norwegian crown, although in practice the latter's control was fairly limited.[22] Norse control of the Hebrides
Hebrides
was formalised in 1098 when Edgar of Scotland
Scotland
formally signed the islands over to Magnus III of Norway.[23] The Scottish acceptance of Magnus III as King of the Isles came after the Norwegian king had conquered Orkney, the Hebrides
Hebrides
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
in a swift campaign earlier the same year, directed against the local Norwegian leaders of the various island petty kingdoms. By capturing the islands Magnus imposed a more direct royal control, although at a price. His skald Bjorn Cripplehand recorded that in Lewis
Lewis
"fire played high in the heaven" as "flame spouted from the houses" and that in the Uists "the king dyed his sword red in blood".[23][Note 3] The Hebrides
Hebrides
were now part of the Kingdom of the Isles, whose rulers were themselves vassals of the Kings of Norway. This situation lasted until the partitioning of the Western Isles in 1156, at which time the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
remained under Norwegian control while the Inner Hebrides
Hebrides
broke out under Somerled, the Norse-Gael
Norse-Gael
kinsman of the Manx royal house.[25] Following the ill-fated 1263 expedition of Haakon IV of Norway, the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth.[26] Although their contribution to the islands can still be found in personal and place names, the archaeological record of the Norse period is very limited. The best known find is the Lewis
Lewis
chessmen, which date from the mid 12th century.[27] Scottish control[edit]

Kisimul Castle, the ancient seat of Clan MacNeil, Castlebay, Barra

As the Norse era drew to a close, the Norse-speaking princes were gradually replaced by Gaelic-speaking clan chiefs including the MacLeods of Lewis
Lewis
and Harris, Clan Donald
Clan Donald
and MacNeil of Barra.[28][29][Note 4] This transition did little to relieve the islands of internecine strife although by the early 14th century the MacDonald Lords of the Isles, based on Islay, were in theory these chiefs' feudal superiors and managed to exert some control.[33] The Lords of the Isles ruled the Inner Hebrides
Inner Hebrides
as well as part of the Western Highlands as subjects of the King of Scots until John MacDonald, fourth Lord of the Isles, squandered the family's powerful position. A rebellion by his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh provoked an exasperated James IV to forfeit the family's lands in 1493.[34] In 1598, King James VI authorised some "Gentleman Adventurers" from Fife to civilise the "most barbarous Isle of Lewis".[35] Initially successful, the colonists were driven out by local forces commanded by Murdoch and Neil MacLeod, who based their forces on Bearasaigh
Bearasaigh
in Loch Ròg. The colonists tried again in 1605 with the same result, but a third attempt in 1607 was more successful and in due course Stornoway became a Burgh of Barony.[35][36] By this time, Lewis
Lewis
was held by the Mackenzies of Kintail
Kintail
(later the Earls of Seaforth), who pursued a more enlightened approach, investing in fishing in particular. The Seaforths' royalist inclinations led to Lewis
Lewis
becoming garrisoned during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
by Cromwell's troops, who destroyed the old castle in Stornoway.[37] Early British era[edit]

Telford's Clachan Bridge
Clachan Bridge
between the mainland of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Seil, also known as the "Bridge across the Atlantic", was built in 1792.[38]

With the implementation of the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
in 1707, the Hebrides became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain, but the clans' loyalties to a distant monarch were not strong. A considerable number of islesmen "came out" in support of the Jacobite Earl of Mar
Earl of Mar
in the "15" and again in the 1745 rising including Macleod of Dunvegan
Dunvegan
and MacLea of Lismore.[39][40] The aftermath of the decisive Battle of Culloden, which effectively ended Jacobite hopes of a Stuart restoration, was widely felt.[41] The British government's strategy was to estrange the clan chiefs from their kinsmen and turn their descendants into English-speaking landlords whose main concern was the revenues their estates brought rather than the welfare of those who lived on them.[42] This may have brought peace to the islands, but in the following century it came at a terrible price. In the wake of the rebellion, the clan system was broken up and islands of the Hebrides became a series of landed estates.[42][43] The early 19th century was a time of improvement and population growth. Roads and quays were built; the slate industry became a significant employer on Easdale
Easdale
and surrounding islands; and the construction of the Crinan and Caledonian canals and other engineering works such as Telford's "Bridge across the Atlantic" improved transport and access.[44] However, in the mid-19th century, the inhabitants of many parts of the Hebrides
Hebrides
were devastated by the Clearances, which destroyed communities throughout the Highlands and Islands as the human populations were evicted and replaced with sheep farms.[45] The position was exacerbated by the failure of the islands' kelp industry that thrived from the 18th century until the end of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in 1815[46][47] and large scale emigration became endemic.[48] As Iain Mac Fhearchair, a Gaelic poet from South Uist, wrote for his countrymen who were obliged to leave the Hebrides
Hebrides
in the late 18th century, emigration was the only alternative to "sinking into slavery" as the Gaels
Gaels
had been unfairly dispossessed by rapacious landlords.[49] In the 1880s, the "Battle of the Braes" involved a demonstration against unfair land regulation and eviction, stimulating the calling of the Napier Commission. Disturbances continued until the passing of the 1886 Crofters' Act.[50] Modern economy[edit]

Sea-filled slate quarries on Seil
Seil
(foreground) and Easdale
Easdale
in the Slate
Slate
Islands

For those who remained, new economic opportunities emerged through the export of cattle, commercial fishing and tourism.[51] Nonetheless emigration and military service became the choice of many[52] and the archipelago's populations continued to dwindle throughout the late 19th century and for much of the 20th century.[53][54] Lengthy periods of continuous occupation notwithstanding, many of the smaller islands were abandoned.[55] There were, however, continuing gradual economic improvements, among the most visible of which was the replacement of the traditional thatched blackhouse with accommodation of a more modern design[56] and with the assistance of Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Enterprise many of the islands' populations have begun to increase after decades of decline.[4] The discovery of substantial deposits of North Sea oil
North Sea oil
in 1965 and the renewables sector have contributed to a degree of economic stability in recent decades. For example, the Arnish yard
Arnish yard
has had a chequered history but has been a significant employer in both the oil and renewables industries.[57] The widespread immigration of mainlanders, particularly non-Gaelic speakers, has been a subject of controversy.[58][59] Media and the arts[edit] Music[edit]

Entrance to Fingal's Cave, Staffa

Many contemporary Gaelic musicians have roots in the Hebrides, including Julie Fowlis
Julie Fowlis
(North Uist),[60] Catherine-Ann MacPhee (Barra), Kathleen MacInnes (South Uist), and Ishbel MacAskill (Lewis). All of these singers have repertoire based on the Hebridean tradition, such as puirt à beul and òrain luaidh (waulking songs). This tradition includes many songs composed by little-known or anonymous poets before 1800, such as "Fear a' bhàta", "Ailein duinn" and "Alasdair mhic Cholla Ghasda". Several of Runrig's songs are inspired by the archipelago; Calum and Ruaraidh Dòmhnallach were raised on North Uist[61] and Donnie Munro on Skye.[62] Literature[edit] The Gaelic poet Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair
Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair
spent much of his life in the Hebrides
Hebrides
and often referred to them in his poetry, including in An Airce and Birlinn Chlann Raghnaill.[63] The best known Gaelic poet of her era, Màiri Mhòr nan Òran (Mary MacPherson, 1821–98), embodied the spirit of the land agitation of the 1870s and 1880s. This, and her powerful evocation of the Hebrides—she was from Skye—has made her among the most enduring Gaelic poets.[64] Allan MacDonald (1859–1905), who spent his adult life on Eriskay
Eriskay
and South Uist, composed hymns and verse in honour of the Blessed Virgin, the Christ Child, and the Eucharist. In his secular poetry, MacDonald praised the beauty of Eriskay
Eriskay
and its people. In his verse drama, Parlamaid nan Cailleach (The Old Wives' Parliament), he lampooned the gossiping of his female parishioners and local marriage customs.[citation needed] In the 20th century, Murdo Macfarlane of Lewis
Lewis
wrote Cànan nan Gàidheal, a well-known poem about the Gaelic revival in the Outer Hebrides.[65] Sorley MacLean, the most respected 20th-century Gaelic writer, was born and raised on Raasay, where he set his best known poem, Hallaig, about the devastating effect of the Highland Clearances.[66] Aonghas Phàdraig Caimbeul, described by MacLean as "one of the few really significant living poets in Scotland, writing in any language" (West Highland Free Press, October 1992),[67] and whose Scottish Gaelic-language novel, An Oidhche Mus do Sheòl Sinn, was voted in the Top Ten of the 100 Best-Ever Books from Scotland, was raised on South Uist. Film[edit]

The area around the Inaccessible Pinnacle of Sgurr Dearg
Sgurr Dearg
of Skye provided the setting for the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
feature film Seachd: The Inaccessible Pinnacle (2006).[68] The script was written by the actor, novelist, and poet Aonghas Phàdraig Chaimbeul, who also starred in the movie.[67] An Drochaid, an hour-long documentary in Scottish Gaelic, was made for BBC Alba
BBC Alba
documenting the battle to remove tolls from the Skye bridge.[69][70]

Influence on visitors[edit]

J.M. Barrie's Marie Rose contains references to Harris inspired by a holiday visit to Amhuinnsuidhe Castle
Amhuinnsuidhe Castle
and he wrote a screenplay for the 1924 film adaptation of Peter Pan whilst on Eilean Shona.[71][72][73][74] The Hebrides, also known as Fingal's Cave, is a famous overture composed by Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
while residing on these islands, while Granville Bantock
Granville Bantock
composed the Hebridean Symphony. Enya's song "Ebudæ" from Shepherd Moons
Shepherd Moons
is named for the Hebrides (see below).[75] The 1973 British horror film The Wicker Man is set on the fictional Hebridean island of Summerisle.[76] The 2011 British romantic comedy The Decoy Bride is set on the fictional Hebrides
Hebrides
island of Hegg.[77]

Language[edit]

Geographic distribution of Gaelic speakers in Scotland
Scotland
(2011)

The residents of the Hebrides
Hebrides
have spoken a variety of different languages during the long period of human occupation. It is assumed that Pictish must once have predominated in the northern Inner Hebrides
Inner Hebrides
and Outer Hebrides.[19][78] The Scottish Gaelic language arrived via Ireland
Ireland
due to the growing influence of the kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
from the 6th century AD onwards, and became the dominant language of the southern Hebrides
Hebrides
at that time.[79][80] For a few centuries, the military might of the Gall-Ghàidheil meant that Old Norse
Old Norse
was prevalent in the Hebrides. North of Ardnamurchan, the place names that existed prior to the 9th century have been all but obliterated.[80] The Old Norse
Old Norse
name for the Hebrides
Hebrides
during the Viking occupation was Suðreyjar, which means "Southern Isles"; in contrast to the Norðreyjar, or "Northern Isles" of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland.[81] South of Ardnamurchan, Gaelic place names are more common,[80] and after the 13th century, Gaelic became the main language of the entire Hebridean archipelago. Due to Scots and English being favoured in government and the educational system, the Hebrides
Hebrides
have been in a state of diglossia since at least the 17th century. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century accelerated the language shift away from Scottish Gaelic, as did increased migration and the continuing lower status of Gaelic speakers.[82] Nevertheless, as late as the end of the 19th century, there were significant populations of monolingual Gaelic speakers, and the Hebrides
Hebrides
still contain the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers in Scotland. This is especially true of the Outer Hebrides, where a slim majority speak the language.[82][83] The Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
college, Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, is based on Skye
Skye
and Islay.[84] Ironically, given the status of the Western Isles as the last Gaelic-speaking stronghold in Scotland, the Gaelic language name for the islands – Innse Gall – means "isles of the foreigners"; from the time when they were under Norse colonisation.[85] Etymology[edit] The earliest written references that have survived relating to the islands were made by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
in his Natural History, where he states that there are 30 Hebudes, and makes a separate reference to Dumna, which Watson (1926) concludes is unequivocally the Outer Hebrides. Writing about 80 years later, in 140-150 AD, Ptolemy, drawing on the earlier naval expeditions of Agricola, writes that there are five Ebudes (possibly meaning the Inner Hebrides) and Dumna.[86][87][88] Later texts in classical Latin, by writers such as Solinus, use the forms Hebudes and Hæbudes.[89] The name Ebudes recorded by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
may be pre-Celtic.[88] Islay
Islay
is Ptolemy's Epidion,[90] the use of the "p" hinting at a Brythonic or Pictish tribal name, Epidii,[91] although the root is not Gaelic.[92] Woolf (2012) has suggested that Ebudes may be "an Irish attempt to reproduce the word Epidii
Epidii
phonetically rather than by translating it" and that the tribe's name may come from the root epos meaning "horse".[93] Watson (1926) also notes the possible relationship between Ebudes and the ancient Irish Ulaid
Ulaid
tribal name Ibdaig and the personal name of a king Iubdán recorded in the Silva Gadelica.[88] The names of other individual islands reflect their complex linguistic history. The majority are Norse or Gaelic but the roots of several other Hebrides
Hebrides
may have a pre-Celtic origin.[88] Adomnán, the 7th century abbot of Iona, records Colonsay
Colonsay
as Colosus and Tiree
Tiree
as Ethica, both of which may be pre-Celtic names.[94] The etymology of Skye
Skye
is complex and may also include a pre-Celtic root.[92] Lewis
Lewis
is Ljoðhús in Old Norse
Old Norse
and although various suggestions have been made as to a Norse meaning (such as "song house")[95] the name is not of Gaelic origin and the Norse credentials are questionable.[92] The earliest comprehensive written list of Hebridean island names was undertaken by Donald Monro in 1549, which in some cases also provides the earliest written form of the island name. The derivations of all of the inhabited islands of the Hebrides
Hebrides
and some of the larger uninhabited ones are listed below. Outer Hebrides[edit] Lewis
Lewis
and Harris is the largest island in Scotland
Scotland
and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland.[96] It incorporates Lewis
Lewis
in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are frequently referred to as individual islands, although they are joined by a land border. Remarkably, the island does not have a common name in either English or Gaelic and is referred to as " Lewis
Lewis
and Harris", " Lewis
Lewis
with Harris", "Harris with Lewis" etc. For this reason it is treated as two separate islands below.[97] The derivation of Lewis
Lewis
may be pre-Celtic (see above) and the origin of Harris is no less problematic. In the Ravenna Cosmography, Erimon may refer to Harris[98] (or possibly the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
as a whole). This word may derive from the Ancient Greek: ἐρῆμος (erimos "desert".[99] The origin of Uist
Uist
(Old Norse: Ívist) is similarly unclear.[92]

Island Derivation Language Meaning Munro (1549) Modern Gaelic name Alternative Derivations

Baleshare Baile Ear Gaelic east town[100]

Baile Sear

Barra Barrøy Norse Finbar's island[101] Barray Barraigh

Benbecula Peighinn nam Fadhla Gaelic pennyland of the fords[102]

Beinn nam Fadhla "little mountain of the ford" or "herdsman's mountain"[100]

Berneray Bjarnarøy Norse Bjorn's island[102]

Beàrnaraigh bear island[100]

Eriskay Uruisg Gaelic goblin island[100] Eriskeray Èirisgeigh Erik's island[100][103]

Flodaigh

Norse float island[104]

Flodaigh

Fraoch-eilean

Gaelic heather island

Fraoch-eilean

Great Bernera Bjarnarøy Norse Bjorn's island[105] Berneray-Moir Beàrnaraigh Mòr bear island[105]

Grimsay[Note 5]

Norse Grim's island[100]

Griomasaigh

Grimsay[Note 6]

Norse Grim's island[100]

Griomasaigh

Harris Erimon[98] Ancient Greek? desert Harrey na Hearadh Ptolemy's Adru. In Old Norse
Old Norse
(and in modern Icelandic), a Hérað is a type of administrative district.[106] Alternatives are the Norse haerri, meaning "hills" and Gaelic na h-airdibh meaning "the heights".[105]

Lewis Limnu Pre-Celtic? marshy Lewis Leòdhas Ptolemy's Limnu is literally "marshy". The Norse Ljoðhús may mean "song house" — see above.[92][106]

North Uist

English/Pre-Celtic?[92]

Ywst Uibhist a Tuath "Uist" may possibly be "corn island"[107] or "west"[105]

Scalpay Skalprøy Norse scallop island[105] Scalpay of Harray Sgalpaigh na Hearadh

South Uist

English/Pre-Celtic?

Uibhist a Deas See North Uist

Vatersay

Norse water island[108] Wattersay Bhatarsaigh fathers' island, priest island, glove island, wavy island[105]

Inner Hebrides[edit] There are various examples of Inner Hebridean island names that were originally Gaelic but have become completely replaced. For example, Adomnán
Adomnán
records Sainea, Elena, Ommon and Oideacha in the Inner Hebrides, which names must have passed out of usage in the Norse era and whose locations are not clear.[109] One of the complexities is that an island may have had a Celtic name, which was replaced by a similar-sounding Norse name, but then reverted to an essentially Gaelic name with a Norse "øy" or "ey" ending.[110] See for example Rona below.

Island Derivation Language Meaning Munro (1549) Modern Gaelic name Alternative Derivations

Canna Cana Gaelic porpoise island[111] Kannay Eilean Chanaigh Possibly from Old Irish cana, meaning "wolf-whelp" or Norse kneøy - "knee island"[111]

Coll Colosus Pre-Celtic

Colla Possibly from Gaelic coll - a hazel[112]

Colonsay

Pre-Celtic[113]

Colnansay Colbhasa Norse for "Columba's island"[114]

Danna

Norse Unknown[115]

Danna

Easdale

Eisdcalfe Eilean Eisdeal Eas is "waterfall" in Gaelic and dale is the Norse for "valley".[116] However the combination seems inappropriate for this small island. Also known as Ellenabeich - "island of the birches"[117]

Eigg Eag Gaelic a notch[118] Egga Eige Also called Eilean Nimban More - "island of the powerful women" until the 16th century.[119]

Eilean Bàn

Gaelic white isle Naban Eilean Bàn

Eilean dà Mhèinn

Gaelic

Eilean Donan

Gaelic island of Donnán

Eilean Donnáin

Eilean Shona

Norse sea island[120]

Eilean Seòna Adomnán
Adomnán
records the pre-Norse Gaelic name of Airthrago - the foreshore isle".[121]

Eilean Tioram

Gaelic dry island

Eriska

Norse Erik's island[103]

Uruisg !Ùruisg

Erraid Possibly Arthràigh Gaelic foreshore island[120] Erray Eilean Earraid

Gigha Guðey[122] Norse "good island" or "God island"[123] Gigay Giogha Various including the Norse Gjáey - "island of the geo" or "cleft", or "Gydha's isle".[124]

Gometra Goðrmaðrey[125] Norse "The good-man's island", or "God-man's island"[125]

Gòmastra "Godmund's island".[126]

Isle of Ewe Eubh Gaelic echo Ellan Ew Eilean Iùbh Old Irish: eo - "yew"[127]

Iona Hí Gaelic Possibly "yew-place" Colmkill I Chaluim Chille !Ì Chaluim Chille Numerous. Adomnán
Adomnán
uses Ioua insula which became "Iona" through misreading.[128]

Islay

Pre-Celtic

Ila Ile !Ìle Various - see above

Jura Dyrøy Norse deer island[129] Duray Diùra Norse: Jurøy - udder island[129]

Kerrera Kjarbarøy Norse Kjarbar's island[130]

Cearrara Norse: ciarrøy - "brushwood island"[130] or "copse island"[131]

Lismore

Gaelic big garden[132] Lismoir Lios Mòr

Luing

Gaelic ship island[133] Lunge An t-Eilean Luinn Norse: lyng - heather island[133] or pre-Celtic[134]

Lunga Langrøy Norse longship isle[135] Lungay Lunga Gaelic long is also "ship"[135]

Muck Eilean nam Muc Gaelic isle of pigs[136] Swynes Ile Eilean nam Muc Eilean nam Muc-mhara- "whale island". John of Fordun recorded it as Helantmok - "isle of swine".[136]

Mull Malaios Pre-Celtic[92]

Mull Muile Recorded by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
as Malaios[90] possibly meaning "lofty isle".[88] In Norse times it became Mýl.[92]

Oronsay

Norse ebb island[137] Ornansay Orasaigh Norse: "Oran's island"[114]

Raasay Raasøy Norse roe deer island[138] Raarsay Ratharsair Rossøy - "horse island"[138]

Rona Hraunøy or Rònøy Norse or Gaelic/Norse "rough island" or "seal island" Ronay Rònaigh

Rùm

Pre-Celtic[139]

Ronin Rùm Various including Norse rõm-øy for "wide island" or Gaelic ì-dhruim - "isle of the ridge"[140]

Sanday sandøy Norse sandy island[111]

Sandaigh

Scalpay Skalprøy Norse scallop island[141] Scalpay Sgalpaigh Norse: "ship island"[142]

Seil Possibly Sal Probably pre-Celtic[143] "stream"[117] Seill Saoil Gaelic: sealg - "hunting island"[117]

Shuna Unknown Norse Possibly "sea island"[120] Seunay Siuna Gaelic sidhean - "fairy"[144]

Skye Scitis[145] Pre-Celtic? Possibly "winged isle"[146] Skye An t-Eilean Sgitheanach Numerous - see above

Soay So-øy Norse sheep island Soa Urettil Sòdhaigh

Tanera Mòr Hawnarøy Norse island of the haven[147] Hawrarymoir(?) Tannara Mòr Brythonic: Thanaros, the thunder god[147]

Tiree Eth, Ethica Possibly pre-Celtic Unknown[94]

Tioridh Norse: Tirvist of unknown meaning and numerous Gaelic versions, some with a possible meaning of "land of corn"[94]

Ulva Ulvøy Norse wolf island[148]

Ulbha Ulfr's island[148]

Uninhabited islands[edit]

Dhu Heartach Lighthouse, During Construction by Sam Bough (1822–1878)

The names of uninhabited islands follow the same general patterns as the inhabited islands. The following are the ten largest in the Hebrides
Hebrides
and their outliers. The etymology of St Kilda, a small archipelago west of the Outer Hebrides, and its main island Hirta, is very complex. No saint is known by the name of Kilda, and various theories have been proposed for the word's origin, which dates from the late 16th century.[149] Haswell-Smith (2004) notes that the full name "St Kilda" first appears on a Dutch map dated 1666, and that it may have been derived from Norse sunt kelda ("sweet wellwater") or from a mistaken Dutch assumption that the spring Tobar Childa was dedicated to a saint. (Tobar Childa is a tautological placename, consisting of the Gaelic and Norse words for well, i.e. "well well").[150] The origin of the Gaelic for "Hirta"—Hiort, Hirt, or Irt[151]—which long pre-dates the use of "St Kilda", is similarly open to interpretation. Watson (1926) offers the Old Irish hirt, a word meaning "death", possibly relating to the dangerous seas.[152] Maclean (1977), drawing on an Icelandic saga describing an early 13th-century voyage to Ireland
Ireland
that mentions a visit to the islands of Hirtir, speculates that the shape of Hirta
Hirta
resembles a stag, hirtir being "stags" in Norse.[153] The etymology of small islands may be no less complex. In relation to Dubh Artach, R. L. Stevenson believed that "black and dismal" was a translation of the name, noting that "as usual, in Gaelic, it is not the only one."[154]

Island Derivation Language Meaning Munro (1549) Alternatives

Taransay

Norse Taran's island[155] Tarandsay

Scarba

Norse cormorant island[143] Skarbay

Scarp Skarpoe[156] Norse "barren"[143] or "stony" Scarpe

Pabbay

Norse priest island[157] Pabay

Hirta Hirt Possibly Old Irish death Hirta Numerous - see above

Mingulay Mikilay Norse big island[158] Megaly "Main hill island".[159] Murray (1973) states that the name “appropriately means Bird Island”.[160]

Ronay

Norse rough island[161]

Sandray Sandray[162] Norse sand island[142] Sanderay

Wiay

Norse Possibly "house island"[163]

Ceann Ear Ceann Ear Gaelic east headland

Natural history[edit] In some respects the Hebrides
Hebrides
lack biodiversity in comparison to mainland Britain; for example, there are only half as many mammalian species.[164] However, these islands provide breeding grounds for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of northern gannets.[165] Avian life includes the corncrake, red-throated diver, rock dove, kittiwake, tystie, Atlantic puffin, goldeneye, golden eagle and white-tailed sea eagle.[166][167] The last named was re-introduced to Rùm
Rùm
in 1975 and has successfully spread to various neighbouring islands, including Mull.[168] There is a small population of red-billed chough concentrated on the islands of Islay
Islay
and Colonsay.[169] Red deer
Red deer
are common on the hills and the grey seal and common seal are present around the coasts of Scotland. Colonies of seals are found on Oronsay and the Treshnish Isles.[170][171] The rich freshwater streams contain brown trout, Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
and water shrew.[172][173] Offshore, minke whales, Killer whales, basking sharks, porpoises and dolphins are among the sealife that can be seen.[174][175]

The open landscapes of Benbecula

Heather moor containing ling, bell heather, cross-leaved heath, bog myrtle and fescues is abundant and there is a diversity of Arctic and alpine plants including Alpine pearlwort and mossy cyphal.[176] Loch Druidibeg
Loch Druidibeg
on South Uist
South Uist
is a national nature reserve owned and managed by Scottish Natural Heritage. The reserve covers 1,677 hectares across the whole range of local habitats.[177] Over 200 species of flowering plants have been recorded on the reserve, some of which are nationally scarce.[178] South Uist
South Uist
is considered the best place in the UK for the aquatic plant slender naiad, which is a European Protected Species.[179][180] Hedgehogs are not native to the Outer Hebrides—they were introduced in the 1970s to reduce garden pests—and their spread poses a threat to the eggs of ground nesting wading birds. In 2003, Scottish Natural Heritage undertook culls of hedgehogs in the area although these were halted in 2007 due to protests; trapped animals were instead relocated to the mainland.[181][182] See also[edit]

Scottish island names Geology
Geology
of Scotland Timeline of prehistoric Scotland Fauna of Scotland New Hebrides Languages of Scotland Goidelic substrate hypothesis Insular Celtic languages Canadian Boat-Song The Lewis
Lewis
Awakening (Religious Revival)

References and footnotes[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Rollinson (1997) states that the oldest rocks in Europe have been found "near Gruinard Bay" on the Scottish mainland. Gillen (2003) p. 44 indicates the oldest rocks in Europe are found "in the Northwest Highlands and Outer Hebrides". McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007) Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology
Geology
and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 93 state of the Lewisian gneiss bedrock of much of the Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
that "these rocks are amongst the oldest to be found anywhere on the planet". Other non-geological sources sometimes claim the rocks of Lewis
Lewis
and Harris are "the oldest in Britain", meaning that they are the oldest deposits of large bedrock. As Rollinson makes clear they are not the location of the oldest small outcrop. ^ Murray (1973) notes that "Western Isles" has tended to mean "Outer Hebrides" since the creation of the Na h-Eileanan an Iar or Western Isles parliamentary constituency in 1918. Murray also notes that "Gneiss Islands" – a reference to the underlying geology – is another name used to refer to the Outer Hebrides, but that its use is "confined to books".[7] ^ Thompson (1968) provides a more literal translation: "Fire played in the fig-trees of Liodhus; it mounted up to heaven. Far and wide the people were driven to flight. The fire gushed out of the houses".[24] ^ The transitional relationships between Norse and Gaelic-speaking rulers are complex. The Gall-Ghàidhels who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland
Scotland
at this time were of joint Gaelic and Scandinavian origin. When Somerled
Somerled
wrested the southern Inner Hebrides
Inner Hebrides
from Godred the Black in 1156, this was the beginnings of a break with nominal Norse rule in the Hebrides. Godred remained the ruler of Mann and the Outer Hebrides, but two years later Somerled's invasion of the former caused him to flee to Norway. Norse control was further weakened in the ensuring century, but the Hebrides were not formally ceded by Norway until 1266.[30][31] The transitions from one language to another are also complex. For example, many Scandinavian sources from this period of time typically refer to individuals as having a Scandinavian first name and a Gaelic by-name.[32] ^ There are two inhabited islands called "Grimsay" or Griomasaigh that are joined to Benbecula
Benbecula
by a road causeway, one to the north at grid reference NF855572 and one to the south east at grid reference NF831473. ^ See above note.

Citations[edit]

^ Rollinson, Hugh (September 1997). "Britain's oldest rocks" Geology Today. 13 no. 5 pp. 185-190. ^ Gillen, Con (2003). Geology
Geology
and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra Publishing. Pages 44 and 142. ^ Dawson, Alastrair G.; Dawson, Sue; Cooper, J. Andew G.; Gemmell, Alastair; Bates, Richard (2013). "A Pliocene
Pliocene
age and origin for the strandflat of the Western Isles of Scotland: a speculative hypothesis". Geological Magazine. 150 (2): 360–366.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b General Register Office for Scotland
Scotland
(28 November 2003) Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. (pdf) Retrieved 22 January 2011. Archived 22 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Keay & Keay (1994) p. 507. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1978) states: Hebrides
Hebrides
– group of islands of the west coast of Scotland
Scotland
extending in an arc between 55.35 and 58.30 N and 5.26 and 8.40 W." This includes Gigha, St Kilda and everything up to Cape Wrath
Cape Wrath
– although not North Rona. ^ Murray (1973) p. 32. ^ Thompson (1968) pp. 24–26 ^ Edwards, Kevin J. and Whittington, Graeme "Vegetation Change" in Edwards & Ralston (2003) p. 70 ^ Edwards, Kevin J., and Mithen, Steven (Feb., 1995) "The Colonization of the Hebridean Islands of Western Scotland: Evidence from the Palynological and Archaeological Records," World Archaeology. 26. No. 3. p. 348. Retrieved 20 April 2008. ^ Li, Martin (2005) Adventure Guide to Scotland. Hunter Publishing. p. 509. ^ "Mummification in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Britain" BBC History. Retrieved 11 February 2008. ^ "The Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Village at Cladh Hallan". University of Sheffield. Retrieved 21 February 2008. ^ See for example Haycock, David Boyd. "Much Greater, Than Commonly Imagined." Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. The Newton Project. Retrieved 14 March 2008. ^ Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. pp. 239-40. ^ Nieke, Margaret R. "Secular Society from the Iron Age to Dál Riata and the Kingdom of Scots" in Omand (2006) p. 60 ^ Lynch (2007) pp. 161 162 ^ Clancy, Thomas Owen "Church institutions: early medieval" in Lynch (2001). ^ a b Hunter (2000) pp. 44, 49 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 74 ^ Rotary Club (1995) p. 12 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 78 ^ a b Hunter (2000) p. 102 ^ Thompson (1968) p 39 ^ "The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles" thevikingworld.com Retrieved 6 July 2010. ^ Hunter (2000) pp. 109-111 ^ Thompson (1968) p. 37 ^ Thompson (1968) p. 39 ^ Rotary Club (1995) pp. 27, 30 ^ Gregory (1881) pp. 13-15, 20-21 ^ Downham (2007) pp. 174-75. ^ Gammeltoft, Peder "Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides: A Way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels and Picts?" in Ballin Smith et al (2007) p. 480 ^ Hunter (2000) pp. 127, 166 ^ Oram, Richard "The Lordship of the Isles: 1336–1545" in Omand (2006) pp. 135–38 ^ a b Rotary Club (1995) pp. 12-13 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 312 ^ Thompson (1968) pp. 41-42 ^ Murray (1977) p. 121 ^ "Dunvegan" Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. castlescotland.net Retrieved 17 January 2011. ^ "Incidents of the Jacobite Risings - Donald Livingstone" clanmclea.co.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2011. ^ "The Battle of Culloden" BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2011. ^ a b Hunter (2000) pp. 195–96, 204–06 ^ Hunter (2000) pp. 207–08 ^ Duncan, P. J. "The Industries of Argyll: Tradition and Improvement" in Omand (2006) pp. 152-53 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 212 ^ Hunter (2000) pp. 247, 262 ^ Duncan, P. J. "The Industries of Argyll: Tradition and Improvement" in Omand (2006) pp. 157–58 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 280 ^ Newton, Michael. " Highland Clearances
Highland Clearances
Part 3". The Virtual Gael. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Hunter (2000) pp. 308-23 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 292 ^ Hunter (2000) p. 343 ^ Duncan, P. J. "The Industries of Argyll: Tradition and Improvement" in Omand (2006) p. 169 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 47, 87 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 57, 99 ^ "Blackhouses" Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. isle-of-lewis.com Retrieved 17 January 2011. ^ "Yard wins biggest wind tower job". BBC News Online. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2011.  ^ Emily McEwan-Fujita - Academia.edu. "Ideology, Affect and Socialization in Language Shift and Revitalization: The Experiences of Adults Learning Gaelic in the Western Isles of Scotland". academia.edu. Retrieved 15 April 2017.  ^ Charles Jedrej; Mark Nuttall (1996). White Settlers: Impact/Cultural. p. 117. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "Julie Fowlis". Thistle and Shamrock. NPR. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Hebrides
Hebrides
on IMDb. Retrieved 15 April 2017. ^ "Donnie Munro: Biography" Archived 30 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. donniemunro.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2007. ^ John Lorne Campbell, "Canna: The Story of a Hebridean Island," Oxford University Press, 1984, pages 104–105. ^ J. MacDonald, "Gaelic literature" in M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7, pp. 255-7. ^ "Làrach nam Bàrd". BBC Alba.  ^ MacLean, Sorley (1954) Hallaig. Gairm magazine. Translation by Seamus Heaney (2002). Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2011. ^ a b " Angus Peter Campbell Aonghas Phadraig Caimbeul - Fiosrachadh/Biog". Angus Peter Campbell. Retrieved 15 April 2017.  ^ Seachd: The Inaccessible Pinnacle (2007) on IMDb ^ "An Drochaid / The Bridge Rising". Media Co-op. January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "An Drochaid". BBC Alba. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "Famous Visitors to the Islands - Luchd-tadhail Ainmeil" Culture Hebrides. Retrieved 26 July 2008. ^ Thomson, Gordon (28 May 2009) "The house where Big Brother was born" New Statesman. Retrieved 11 July 2011. ^ Bold, Alan (29 December 1983) The Making of Orwell's 1984The Glasgow Herald - Google News Archive Search . Retrieved 11 July 2011. ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 130 ^ "Translations for Shepherd Moons". pathname.com. Retrieved 20 May 2011. ^ "The various versions of The Wicker Man". Steve Philips. Retrieved 18 June 2013. ^ The Decoy Bride on IMDb ^ Watson (1994) p. 65 ^ Armit, Ian "The Iron Age" in Omand (2006) p. 57 ^ a b c Woolf, Alex "The Age of the Sea-Kings: 900-1300" in Omand (2006) p. 95 ^ Brown, James (1892) "Place-names of Scotland" p. 4 ebooksread.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. ^ a b Duwe, Kurt C. "Gàidhlig (Scottish Gaelic) Local Studies". Linguae Celticae.  ^ Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2004) "1901–2001 Gaelic in the Census" (PowerPoint) Linguae Celticae. Retrieved 1 June 2008. ^ "A' Cholaiste". UHI. Retrieved 30 May 2011. ^ Hunter (2000) p. 104 ^ Breeze, David J. "The ancient geography of Scotland" in Smith and Banks (2002) pp. 11-13 ^ Watson (1926) pp. 40–41 ^ a b c d e Watson (1994) p. 38 ^ Louis Deroy & Marianne Mulon (1992) Dictionnaire de noms de lieux, Paris: Le Robert, article "Hébrides" ^ a b Watson (1994) p. 37 ^ Watson (1994) p. 45 ^ a b c d e f g h Gammeltoft, Peder "Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides
Hebrides
- A Way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels
Gaels
and Picts?" in Ballin Smith et al (2007) p. 487 ^ Woolf, Alex (2012) Ancient Kindred? Dál Riata
Dál Riata
and the Cruthin. Academia.edu. Retrieved 21 January 2015. ^ a b c Watson (1994) p. 85-86 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 80 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 262. ^ Thompson (1968) p. 13. ^ a b "The Roman Map of Britain Maiona (Erimon) 7 Lougis Erimon Isles of Harris and Lewis, Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
" Archived 27 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. romanmap.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011. ^ Megaw, J.V. S. and SIMPSON, D.A. (1960) "A short cist burial on North Uist
North Uist
and some notes on the prehistory of the Outer Isles in the second millennium BC" (pdf) p. 72 Proc Soc Antiq Scot. archaeologydataservice.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2011. ^ a b c d e f g Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 236 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 17 ^ a b Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 19 ^ a b Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 46 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 50 ^ a b c d e f Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 218 ^ a b Mac an Tàilleir (2003) ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 116 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 117 ^ Watson (1994) p. 93 ^ Gammeltoft (2010) pp. 482, 486 ^ a b c Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 143 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 118 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 31 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 52 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 38 ^ "Etymology of British place-names" Archived 9 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. www.pbenyon1.plus.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. ^ a b c Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 76 ^ Watson (1994) p. 85 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 134 ^ a b c Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 105 ^ Watson (1994) p. 77 ^ Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar, § 328, line 8 Retrieved 2 February 2011. ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 72 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 32 ^ a b Gillies (1906) p. 129. "Gometra, from N., is gottr + madr + ey." ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) pp. 58-59 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 185 ^ Watson (1926) p. 87 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 47 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 84 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 69 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 109 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 70 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 83 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 65 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 132 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 93 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 161 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 102 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 138 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 153 ^ a b Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 103 ^ a b c Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 104 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 63 ^ "Group 34: islands in the Irish Sea and the Western Isles 1" kmatthews.org.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2008. ^ Munro, D. (1818) Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
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called Hybrides, by Mr. Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, who travelled through most of them in the year 1549. Miscellanea Scotica, 2. Quoted in Murray (1966) p. 146 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 195 ^ a b Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 102 ^ Buchanan (1983) Pages 2–6. ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 314–25. ^ Newton, Michael Steven. The Naughty Little Book of Gaelic: All the Scottish Gaelic
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You Need to Curse, Swear, Drink, Smoke and Fool around. Sydney, Nova Scotia: Cape Breton UP, 2014. ^ Watson (1994) p. 97 ^ Maclean (1977) page 33. ^ Stevenson (1872) p. 10. ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 111 ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p 285 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 94 ^ Buxton (1995) p. 33 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 87 ^ Murray (1973) p. 41. ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 101 ^ Buxton (1995) p. 158 ^ Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 118 ^ Murray (1973) p. 72 ^ "Seabirds" Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. National Trust for Scotland. Retrieved 20 July 2013. ^ Fraser Darling (1969) p. 79 ^ "Trotternish Wildlife" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Duntulm Castle. Retrieved 25 October 2009. ^ Watson, Jeremy (12 October 2006). "Sea eagle spreads its wings...". Edinburgh: Scotland
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on Sunday.  ^ Benvie (2004) p. 118. ^ "Protected mammals - Seals". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 6 March 2011. ^ Murray (1973) pp. 96-98 ^ Fraser Darling (1969) p. 286 ^ "Trout Fishing
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Uist
cull called off". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 

General references[edit]

Ballin Smith, B. and Banks, I. (eds) (2002) In the Shadow of the Brochs, the Iron Age in Scotland. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2517-X Ballin Smith, Beverley; Taylor, Simon; and Williams, Gareth (2007) West over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300. Leiden. Brill. Benvie, Neil (2004) Scotland's Wildlife. London. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-978-2 Buchanan, Margaret (1983) St Kilda: a Photographic Album. W. Blackwood. ISBN 0-85158-162-5 Buxton, Ben. (1995) Mingulay: An Island and Its People. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-874744-24-6 Downham, Clare " England
England
and the Irish-Sea Zone in the Eleventh Century" in Gillingham, John (ed) (2004) Anglo-Norman Studies XXVI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2003. Woodbridge. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-072-8 Fraser Darling, Frank; Boyd, J. Morton (1969). The Highlands and Islands. The New Naturalist. London: Collins.  First published in 1947 under title: Natural history in the Highlands & Islands; by F. Fraser Darling. First published under the present title 1964. Gammeltoft, Peder (2010) " Shetland
Shetland
and Orkney
Orkney
Island-Names – A Dynamic Group". Northern Lights, Northern Words. Selected Papers from the FRLSU Conference, Kirkwall
Kirkwall
2009, edited by Robert Mc Coll
Coll
Millar. "Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands". (28 November 2003) General Register Office for Scotland. Edinburgh. Retrieved 22 January 2011. Gillies, Hugh Cameron (1906) The Place Names of Argyll. London. David Nutt. Gregory, Donald (1881) The History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland
Scotland
1493–1625. Edinburgh. Birlinn. 2008 reprint - originally published by Thomas D. Morrison. ISBN 1-904607-57-8 Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.  Hunter, James (2000) Last of the Free: A History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Edinburgh. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-376-4 Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Lynch, Michael (ed) (2007) Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923482-0. Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2003) Ainmean-àite/Placenames. (pdf) Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Retrieved 26 August 2012.

Maclean, Charles (1977) Island on the Edge of the World: the Story of St. Kilda. Edinburgh. Canongate ISBN 0-903937-41-7 Monro, Sir Donald (1549) A Description Of The Western Isles of Scotland. Appin Regiment/Appin Historical Society. Retrieved 3 March 2007. First published in 1774. Murray, W. H. (1966) The Hebrides. London. Heinemann. Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen. ISBN 0-413-30380-2 Omand, Donald (ed.) (2006) The Argyll Book. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-480-0 Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(2009) "Get-a-map". Retrieved 1–15 August 2009. Rotary Club of Stornoway
Stornoway
(1995) The Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
Handbook and Guide. Machynlleth. Kittiwake. ISBN 0-9511003-5-1 Slesser, Malcolm (1970) The Island of Skye. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Club. Steel, Tom (1988) The Life and Death of St. Kilda. London. Fontana. ISBN 0-00-637340-2 Stevenson, Robert Louis (1995) The New Lighthouse on the Dhu Heartach Rock, Argyllshire. California. Silverado Museum. Based on an 1872 manuscript and edited by Swearingen, R.G. Thompson, Francis (1968) Harris and Lewis, Outer Hebrides. Newton Abbot. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4260-6 Watson, W. J. (1994) The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published 1926. Woolf, Alex (2007). From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hebrides.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hebrides.

Hebrides/Western Isles Guide National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE (selection of archive films about the Hebrides)  "Hebrides, The". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Inhabited islands of the Hebrides

Inner Hebrides

Canna Coll Colonsay Danna Eigg Eilean dà Mhèinn Eilean Shona Eilean Tioram Erraid Gigha Gometra Iona Islay Isle of Ewe Jura Kerrera Lismore Muck Mull Oronsay Raasay Sanday Scalpay Rona Rùm Skye Slate
Slate
Islands Soay Summer Isles Tiree Ulva

Outer Hebrides

Baleshare Barra Benbecula Berneray Eriskay Flodaigh Fraoch-eilean Great Bernera Grimsay
Grimsay
(North) Grimsay
Grimsay
(South) Lewis
Lewis
and Harris North Uist Scalpay South Uist Vatersay

v t e

Islands of Scotland

Geography

Northern Isles

Shetland

list

Orkney

list

Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

list

Inner Hebrides

list

St Kilda

Other

Islands of the Clyde Islands of the Forth Freshwater Islands Outlying Islands

Prehistory

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Orkney

Heart of Neolithic
Neolithic
Orkney
Orkney
World Heritage Site: Maeshowe Ness of Brodgar Ring of Brodgar Skara Brae Standing Stones of Stenness

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Shetland

Crucible of Iron Age Shetland: Broch of Mousa Jarlshof Old Scatness

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Western Isles

Callanish Stones Dun Carloway Rubha an Dùnain Dun Nosebridge

History

Dál Riata

Columba

Kingdom of the Isles

Scandinavian Scotland Rulers of the Kingdom of the Isles Bishop of the Isles

Lordship of the Isles

Treaty of Perth Treaty of Ardtornish-Westminster Finlaggan

Earldom of Orkney

Buckquoy spindle-whorl Udal law

18th and 19th Century

Clearances Jacobite risings Flora MacDonald

Literature

Orkneyinga Saga Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Monro) A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Martin) A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
Scotland
(Johnson) The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (Boswell)

Etymology

General

Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba

Specific

Arran Gigha Skye St Kilda

Economy

Towns

Kirkwall Lerwick Rothesay Stornoway Stromness

Agencies

Community Energy Scotland Crofters Commission DTA Scotland Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Enterprise Scottish Islands Federation

Oil industry

Flotta Sullom Voe

Culture

Shetland

Aly Bain Thomas Fraser Peerie Willie Johnson Shetland
Shetland
Amenity Trust Up Helly Aa Vagaland

Orkney

George Mackay Brown Peter Maxwell Davies F. Marian McNeill Kirkwall
Kirkwall
Ba game Orkney
Orkney
Heritage Society St Magnus Festival

Outer Hebrides

Compton Mackenzie Fèis Bharraigh Free Church of Scotland Iain Crichton Smith

Inner Hebrides

Islay
Islay
whisky Runrig Sorley MacLean West Highland Free Press

Politics

Local authorities

Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council Orkney
Orkney
Islands Council Comhairle nan Eilean Siar Highland Council Argyll and Bute North Ayrshire

Wildlife

Fauna

Fair Isle wren Orkney
Orkney
vole Shetland
Shetland
wren St Kilda field mouse St Kilda wren

Flora

Arran whitebeams Scottish Primrose Shetland
Shetland
Mouse-ear

Domesticated animals

Cairn Terrier Eriskay
Eriskay
Pony Hebridean Blackface Luing
Luing
cattle North Ronaldsay sheep Scottie Sheltie Shetland
Shetland
cattle Shetland
Shetland
Goose Shetland
Shetland
pony Shetland
Shetland
sheep Soay sheep Westie

Geology

Shetland

Geopark Shetland

Geology
Geology
of Orkney

Eday Group Orcadian Basin Yesnaby Sandstone Group

Hebrides

Colonsay
Colonsay
Group Great Estuarine Group Hebridean Terrane Lewisian complex Lorne plateau lavas Moine Supergroup Moine Thrust Belt Rhinns complex Skye Staffa Torridonian

Islands of the Clyde

Highland Boundary Fault

v t e

British Isles

Terminology

Alba Albion Prydain Britain Éire Hibernia

Naming dispute

Politics

Sovereign states

Ireland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales)

Crown dependencies

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Sark

Political cooperation

Ireland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area

Geography

Island groups

Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides

Inner Outer

Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles

Orkney Shetland

Isles of Scilly

Lists of islands of

Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom

England Scotland Wales

History

Island groups

Ireland

Current states

Ireland United Kingdom

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man

Former states

Irish Free State Kingdom of England

Principality of Wales

Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland

Society

Modern languages

Germanic

English Scots

Celtic

Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh

Romance

Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais

Other

British Sign Language Irish Sign Language Northern Ireland
Ireland
Sign Language Shelta

People

British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Northern Irish Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh

Coordinates: 57°50′N 7°00′W / 57.833°N 7.000°W / 57.833; -7.000

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136497476 GN

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