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Outline of Bible-related topics
Outline of Bible-related topics
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Page from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

HEBREW BIBLE or HEBREW SCRIPTURES ( Latin : Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (Hebrew : תנ"ך‎‎; Latin : Thanach), the canonical collection of Jewish texts. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others).

The Hebrew Bible
Bible
is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
. The content to which the Protestant Old Testament
Old Testament
closely corresponds does not act as a source for the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic or to the Anagignoskomena portions of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Old Testaments. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with later Christian biblical canons
Christian biblical canons
.

The term Hebrew Bible
Bible
is an attempt to provide specificity with respect to contents but avoid allusion to any particular interpretative tradition or theological school of thought. It is widely used in academic writing and interfaith discussion in relatively neutral contexts meant to include dialogue among all religious traditions but not widely in the inner discourse of the religions that use its text.

CONTENTS

* 1 Usage

* 1.1 Additional difficulties

* 2 Origins of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
and its components * 3 Scholarly editions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

USAGE

Hebrew Bible
Bible
refers to the Jewish biblical canon . In its Latin form, Biblia Hebraica, it traditionally serves as a title for printed editions of the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
. Many biblical studies scholars advocate use of the term "Hebrew Bible" (or "Hebrew Scriptures") as a neutral substitute to terms with religious connotations (e.g., the non-neutral term "Old Testament"). The Society of Biblical Literature 's Handbook of Style, which is the standard for major academic journals like the Harvard Theological Review and conservative Protestant journals like the Bibliotheca Sacra
Bibliotheca Sacra
and the Westminster Theological Journal , suggests that authors "be aware of the connotations of alternative expressions such as... Hebrew Bible
Bible
Old Testament" without prescribing the use of either. McGrath points out that while the term emphasises that it is largely written in Hebrew and "is sacred to the Hebrew people", it "fails to do justice to the way in which Christianity sees an essential continuity between the Old and New Testaments", arguing that there is "no generally accepted alternative to the traditional term "Old Testament." However, he accepts that there is no reason why non-Christians should feel obliged to refer to these books as the Old Testament, "apart from custom of use."

ADDITIONAL DIFFICULTIES

In terms of theology, Christianity has recognised the close relationship between the Old and New Testaments from its very beginnings, although there have sometimes been movements like Marcionism
Marcionism
(viewed as heretical by the early church), that have struggled with it. Modern Christian
Christian
formulations of this tension include Supersessionism
Supersessionism
, Covenant Theology
Covenant Theology
, New Covenant Theology
Covenant Theology
, Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
and Dual-covenant theology
Dual-covenant theology
. All of these formulations, except some forms of Dual-covenant theology, are objectionable to mainstream Judaism and to many Jewish scholars and writers, for whom there is one eternal covenant between God and the Israelites
Israelites
, and who therefore reject the term "Old Testament" as a form of antinomianism .

In terms of canon , Christian
Christian
usage of "Old Testament" does not refer to a universally agreed upon set of books but, rather, varies depending on denomination . Lutheranism and Protestant denominations that follow the Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
accept the entire Jewish canon as the Old Testament
Old Testament
without additions, however in translation they sometimes give preference to the Septuagint
Septuagint
rather than the Masoretic Text; for example, see Isaiah 7:14 .

In terms of language, "Hebrew" refers to the original language of the books, but it may also be taken as referring to the Jews of the Second Temple era and Jewish diaspora , and their descendants, who preserved the transmission of the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
up to the present day. The Hebrew Bible
Bible
includes small portions in Aramaic (mostly in the books of Daniel and Ezra ), written and printed in Aramaic square-script , which was adopted as the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
after the Babylonian exile .

ORIGINS OF THE HEBREW BIBLE AND ITS COMPONENTS

Main articles: Dating the Bible
Bible
and Development of the Hebrew Bible canon

The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible
Bible
developed over roughly a millennium. The oldest texts seem to come from the 11th or 10th centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together.

Since the 19th century, most biblical scholars have agreed that the Pentateuch (the first five books of Scriptures) consists of four sources which have been woven together. These four sources are J (Yahwist), D (Deuteronomist), E (Elohist) and P (Priestly) sources. They were combined to form the Pentateuch sometime in the 6th century BCE. This theory is now known as the documentary hypothesis , and has been the dominant theory for the past two hundred years. The Deuteronomist credited with the Pentateuch's book of Deuteronomy is also said to be the source of the books of Joshua , Judges , Samuel , and Kings (the Deuteronomistic history, or DtrH) and also in the book of Jeremiah .

SCHOLARLY EDITIONS

Several editions, all titled Biblia Hebraica, have been produced by various German publishers since 1906.

* Between 1906 and 1955, Rudolf Kittel
Rudolf Kittel
published nine editions of it. * 1966, the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
published the renamed Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia in six editions until 1997. * Since 2004 the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
has published the Biblia Hebraica Quinta , including all variants of the Qumran
Qumran
manuscripts as well as the Masorah Magna .

Other projects include:

* Hebrew University Bible
Bible
Project * Hebrew Bible: A Critical Edition

SEE ALSO

* Judaism portal

* Biblical canon
Biblical canon
* Books of the Bible
Bible
* Early editions of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
* Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible
Bible
* Torah
Torah

REFERENCES

* ^ Eliezer Segal, Introducing Judaism (New York, NY: Routledge, 2009). Page: 12 * ^ Safire, William (1997-05-25). "The New Old Testament". The New York Times . * ^ Hamilton, Mark. "From Hebrew Bible
Bible
to Christian
Christian
Bible: Jews, Christians and the Word of God". Retrieved 2007-11-19. Modern scholars often use the term 'Hebrew Bible' to avoid the confessional terms Old Testament and Tanakh. * ^ Alexander, Patrick H; et al., eds. (1999). The SBL Handbook of Style (PDF). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 17 (section 4.3). ISBN 1-56563-487-X . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-14. See Society of Biblical Literature: Questions Regarding Digital Editions… * ^ A B McGrath, Alister, Christian
Christian
Theology, Oxford: Blackwell, 2011, p. 120, 123. ISBN 9781444335149 . * ^ "Marcion", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 . * ^ For the recorded teachings of Jesus on the subject see Antithesis of the Law#Antitheses , for the modern debate, see Christian
Christian
views on the old covenant * ^ McDermott, John J. (2002). Reading the Pentateuch : a historical introduction. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809140824 .

* ^ Hamilton, Mark (April 1998). "From Hebrew Bible
Bible
to Christian Bible: Jews, Christians and the Word of God". Frontline. From Jesus to Christ. WGBH Educational Foundation.

FURTHER READING

* Brueggemann, Walter (1997). An introduction to the Old Testament: the canon and Christian
Christian
imagination. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22412-7 . * Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews (First, hardback ed.). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79091-9 . * Kugel, James L. (1997). The Bible
Bible
as It Was. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-06940-4 . * Kuntz, John Kenneth. The People of Ancient Israel: an introduction to Old Testament
Old Testament
Literature, History, and Thought, Harper and Row, 1974. ISBN 0-06-043822-3 * Leiman, Sid. The Canonization of Hebrew Scripture. (Hamden, CT: Archon, 1976). * Levenson, Jon. Sinai and Zion: An Entry into the Jewish Bible. (San Francisco: HarperSan Francisco, 1985). * Minkoff, Harvey. "Searching for the Better Text". Biblical Archaeology Review (online). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2011. * Pritchard, James B. (1973). The Ancient Near East, Volume I. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691035016 . An abridgement of Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament * Noth, Martin . A History of Pentateuchal Traditions. (1948; trans. by Bernhard