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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic 32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana 18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals )

* v * t * e

The HEBREW ALPHABET (Hebrew : אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי‎ , Alefbet Ivri), known variously by scholars as the JEWISH SCRIPT, SQUARE SCRIPT and BLOCK SCRIPT, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages
Jewish languages
, most notably in Yiddish
Yiddish
(lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
. Historically, there have been two separate abjad scripts to write Hebrew. The original, old Hebrew script, is known as the paleo- Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
(which has been largely preserved, in an altered form, in the Samaritan alphabet ), while the present "Jewish script" or "square script" to write Hebrew is a stylized form of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
and was known by Jewish sages as the Ashuri alphabet (lit. "Assyrian"), since its origins were alleged to be from Assyria
Assyria
. Various "styles" (in current terms, "fonts ") of representation of the Jewish script letters described in this article also exist, as well as a cursive form which has also varied over time and place, and today is referred to as cursive Hebrew . In the remainder of this article, the term "Hebrew alphabet" refers to the Jewish square script unless otherwise indicated.

The Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
has 22 letters. It does not have case , but five letters have different forms when used at the end of a word. Hebrew is written from right to left . Originally, the alphabet was an abjad consisting only of consonants , but is now considered an "impure abjad ". As with other abjads, such as the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel points, known in Hebrew as niqqud . In both biblical and rabbinic Hebrew, the letters א ה ו י‎ are also used as matres lectionis (the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel) to represent vowels. There is a trend in modern Modern Hebrew toward the use of matres lectionis to indicate vowels that have traditionally gone unwritten, a practice known as "full spelling ".

The Yiddish alphabet
Yiddish alphabet
, a modified version of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
used to write Yiddish, is a true alphabet, with all vowels rendered in the spelling, except in the case of inherited Hebrew words, which typically retain their Hebrew spellings.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Description

* 2.1 General * 2.2 Vowels * 2.3 Alphabet
Alphabet

* 3 Pronunciation

* 3.1 Alphabet
Alphabet

* 3.1.1 Shin and sin * 3.1.2 Dagesh * 3.1.3 Sounds represented with diacritic geresh * 3.1.4 Identical pronunciation * 3.1.5 Ancient Hebrew pronunciation * 3.1.6 Regional and historical variation

* 3.2 Vowels

* 3.2.1 Matres lectionis

* 3.2.2 Vowel
Vowel
points

* 3.2.2.1 Meteg * 3.2.2.2 Sh\'va * 3.2.2.3 Comparison table

* 3.3 Gershayim

* 4 Stylistic variants

* 4.1 Yiddish
Yiddish
symbols

* 5 Numeric values of letters * 6 Transliterations and transcriptions * 7 Religious use * 8 Mathematical use * 9 Unicode
Unicode
and HTML * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Bibliography

* 14 External links

* 14.1 General * 14.2 Keyboards

HISTORY

The Aleppo Codex , a tenth century Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
. Book of Joshua 1:1 Main article: History of the Hebrew alphabet

A distinct Hebrew variant of the Phoenician script , called by scholars the paleo- Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
, emerged by the 10th century BCE, examples of which are represented in the Gezer calendar and the Siloam inscription .

The paleo- Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
was used in the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah . Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
in the sixth century BCE during the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
, Jews
Jews
began using a form of the Assyrian Aramaic alphabet, which was another offshoot of the same family of scripts. The Samaritans
Samaritans
, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. During the third century BCE, Jews
Jews
began to use a stylized, "square" form of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
that was used by the Persian Empire (and which in turn had been adopted from the Assyrians ), while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the paleo-Hebrew script called the Samaritan alphabet. After the fall of the Persian Empire in 330 BCE, Jews
Jews
used both scripts before settling on the Assyrian form.

The square Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
was later adapted and used for writing languages of the Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
– such as Karaim , the Judeo-Arabic languages , Judaeo-Spanish, and Yiddish. The Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
continued in use for scholarly writing in Hebrew and came again into everyday use with the rebirth of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
as a spoken language in the 18th and 19th centuries, especially in Israel
Israel
.

DESCRIPTION

א‎  ב‎  ג‎  ד‎  ה‎  ו‎  ז‎  ח‎  ט‎  י‎ כ‎  ך‎  ל‎  מ‎  ם‎  נ‎  ן‎  ס‎  ע‎  פ‎ ף‎  צ‎  ץ‎  ק‎  ר‎  ש‎  ת‎   •  ﭏ‎

Features: Abjad Mater lectionis Begadkefat

Variants: Cursive • Rashi • Solitreo Braille
Braille

Numerals: Gematria • Numeration

Ancillaries: Diacritics • Punctuation
Punctuation
Cantillation
Cantillation

Translit.: Romanization of Hebrew
Romanization of Hebrew
Hebraization of English IPA
IPA
• ISO

Computers: Keyboard • Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

GENERAL

In the traditional form, the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
is an abjad consisting only of consonants , written from right to left . It has 22 letters, five of which use different forms at the end of a word.

VOWELS

In the traditional form, vowels are indicated by the weak consonants Aleph (א‎), He (ה‎), Vav (ו‎), or Yodh (י‎) serving as vowel letters, or matres lectionis : the letter is combined with a previous vowel and becomes silent, or by imitation of such cases in the spelling of other forms. Also, a system of vowel points to indicate vowels (diacritics), called niqqud , was developed. In modern forms of the alphabet, as in the case of Yiddish
Yiddish
and to some extent Modern Hebrew , vowels may be indicated. Today, the trend is toward full spelling with the weak letters acting as true vowels.

When used to write Yiddish
Yiddish
, vowels are indicated, using certain letters, either with or without niqqud-diacritics (e.g., respectively: "אָ", "יִ" or "י", "ע"), except for Hebrew words, which in Yiddish
Yiddish
are written in their Hebrew spelling.

To preserve the proper vowel sounds, scholars developed several different sets of vocalization and diacritical symbols called niqqud (ניקוד‎, literally "applying points"). One of these, the Tiberian system , eventually prevailed. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher , and his family for several generations, are credited for refining and maintaining the system. These points are normally used only for special purposes, such as Biblical books intended for study, in poetry or when teaching the language to children. The Tiberian system also includes a set of cantillation marks, called "trope ", used to indicate how scriptural passages should be chanted in synagogue recitations of scripture (although these marks do not appear in the scrolls). In everyday writing of modern Hebrew, niqqud are absent; however, patterns of how words are derived from Hebrew roots (called shorashim or "triliterals") allow Hebrew speakers to determine the vowel-structure of a given word from its consonants based on the word's context and part of speech.

ALPHABET

Neither the old Hebrew script nor the modern Hebrew script have case , but five letters have special final forms , called SOFIT (Hebrew : סופית‎‎, meaning in this context "final" or "ending") form, used only at the end of a word, somewhat as in the Greek or in the Arabic
Arabic
and Mandaic alphabets . These are shown below the normal form in the following table (letter names are Unicode
Unicode
standard ). Although Hebrew is read and written from right to left, the following table shows the letters in order from left to right.

ALEF BET GIMEL DALET HE VAV ZAYIN HET TET YOD KAF

א‎ ב‎ ג‎ ד‎ ה‎ ו‎ ז‎ ח‎ ט‎ י‎ כ‎

ך‎

LAMED MEM NUN SAMEKH AYIN PE TSADI QOF RESH SHIN TAV

ל‎ מ‎ נ‎ ס‎ ע‎ פ‎ צ‎ ק‎ ר‎ ש‎ ת‎

ם‎ ן‎ ף‎ ץ‎

PRONUNCIATION

ALPHABET

Main articles: Biblical Hebrew phonology , Modern Hebrew phonology , International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
for Hebrew , and Yiddish
Yiddish
phonology

The descriptions that follow are based on the pronunciation of modern standard Israeli Hebrew.

LETTER IPA
IPA
NAME OF LETTER

UNICODE HEBREW Modern Hebrew pronunciation Yiddish
Yiddish
/ Ashkenazi pronunciation

א‎ , ∅ Alef אָלֶף‎ /ˈalef/ /ˈaləf/

בּ‎

Bet בֵּית‎ /bet/ /bɛɪs/, /bɛɪz/

ב‎

בֵית‎ /vet/ /vɛɪs/, /vɛɪz/

ג‎

Gimel
Gimel
גִּימֵל‎ /ˈɡimel/ /ˈɡiməl/

ד‎

Dalet
Dalet
דָּלֶת‎ /ˈdalet/, /ˈdaled/ /ˈdaləd/, /ˈdaləs/

ה‎ ~, ∅ He הֵא‎ /he/, /hej/ /hɛɪ/

ו‎ ~ Vav וָו‎ /vav/ /vɔv/

ז‎

Zayin זַיִן‎ /ˈzajin/, /ˈza.in/ /ˈzajin/

ח‎ ~ Het חֵית‎ /ħet/, /χet/ /χɛs/

ט‎

Tet טֵית‎ /tet/ /tɛs/

י‎

Yod יוֹד‎ /jod/, /jud/ /jud/

כּ‎

Kaf כַּף‎ /kaf/ /kɔf/

כ‎

כַף‎ /χaf/ /χɔf/

ךּ‎

כַּף סוֹפִית‎ /kaf sofit/ /ˈlaŋɡə kɔf/

ך‎

כַף סוֹפִית‎ /χaf sofit/ /ˈlaŋɡə χɔf/

ל‎

Lamed לָמֶד‎ /ˈlamed/ /ˈlaməd/

מ‎

Mem מֵם‎ /mem/ /mɛm/

ם‎ מֵם סוֹפִית‎ /mem sofit/ /ˈʃlɔs mɛm/

נ‎

Nun נוּן‎ /nun/ /nun/

ן‎ נוּן סוֹפִית‎ /nun sofit/ /ˈlaŋɡə nun/

ס‎

Samekh ְסָמֶך‎ /ˈsameχ/ /ˈsaməχ/

ע‎ ~, ∅ Ayin עַיִן‎ /ˈʕajin/, /ˈʔa.in/ /ˈajin/

פּ‎

Pe פֵּא, פה‎ /pe/, /pej/ /pɛɪ/

פ‎

פֵא, פה‎ /fe/, /fej/ /fɛɪ/

ף‎ פֵּא סוֹפִית, פה סופית‎ /pe sofit/, /pej sofit/ /ˈlaŋɡə fɛɪ/

צ‎

Tsadik צַדִי, צדיק‎ /ˈtsadik/ /ˈtsadik/, /ˈtsadək/

ץ‎ צַדִי סוֹפִית, צדיק סופית‎ /ˈtsadik sofit/ /ˈlaŋɡə ˈtsadik/, /ˈlaŋɡə ˈtsadək/

ק‎

Qof קוֹף‎ /kuf/ /kuf/

ר‎ ~ Resh רֵישׁ‎ /reʃ/, /ʁejʃ/ /ʁɛɪʃ/

שׁ‎

Shin שִׁין‎ /ʃin/ /ʃin/

שׂ‎

שִׂין‎ /sin/ /sin/

תּ‎

Tav תּו‎ /tav/, /taf/ /tɔv/, /tɔf/

ת‎ תו‎ /sɔv/, /sɔf/

Note that dotless tav, ת, would be expected to be pronounced /θ/ (voiceless dental fricative ), but this pronunciation was lost among most Jews
Jews
due to its not existing in the countries where they lived (such as in nearly all of Eastern Europe). Yiddish
Yiddish
modified this /θ/ to /s/ (cf. seseo in Spanish), but in modern Israeli Hebrew, it is simply pronounced /t/.

Shin And Sin

Further information: Shin (letter)

Shin and sin are represented by the same letter, ש‎, but are two separate phonemes . When vowel diacritics are used, the two phonemes are differentiated with a shin-dot or sin-dot; the shin-dot is above the upper-right side of the letter, and the sin-dot is above the upper-left side of the letter.

SYMBOL NAME TRANSLITERATION IPA
IPA
EXAMPLE

שׁ‎ (right dot) shin sh /ʃ/ SHop

שׂ‎ (left dot) sin s /s/ Sour

Historically, left-dot-sin corresponds to Proto-Semitic *ś, which in biblical-Judaic-Hebrew corresponded to the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/, as evidenced in the Greek transliteration of Hebrew words such as balsam (בֹּשֶׂם‎) (the ls - 'שׂ') as is evident in the Targum Onkelos . The retention of /ɬ/ is evident in the Soqotri language .

Dagesh

Main article: Dagesh

Historically, the consonants ב‎ beth, ג‎ gimel, ד‎ daleth, כ‎ kaf, פ‎ pe and ת‎ tav each had two sounds: one hard (plosive ), and one soft (fricative ), depending on the position of the letter and other factors. When vowel diacritics are used, the hard sounds are indicated by a central dot called dagesh (דגש‎), while the soft sounds lack a dagesh. In modern Hebrew, however, the dagesh only changes the pronunciation of ב‎ beth, כ‎ kaf, and פ‎ pe, and does not affect the name of the letter. The differences are as follows:

NAME WITH DAGESH WITHOUT DAGESH

SYMBOL TRANSLITERATION IPA
IPA
EXAMPLE SYMBOL TRANSLITERATION IPA
IPA
EXAMPLE

beth בּ‎ b /b/ Bun ב‎ v /v/ Van

kaf כּ ךּ‎ k /k/ Kangaroo כ ך‎ kh/ch/x /χ/ loCH

pe פּ‎ p /p/ Pass פ ף‎ f/ph /f/ Find

In other dialects (mainly liturgical) there are variations from this pattern.

* In some Sephardi and Mizrahi dialects, bet without dagesh is pronounced , like bet with dagesh * In Syrian and Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
, gimel without dagesh is pronounced . * In Yemenite Hebrew, and in the Iraqi pronunciation of the word "Adonai", dalet without dagesh is pronounced as in "these" * In Ashkenazi Hebrew , tav without dagesh is pronounced as in "silk" * In Iraqi and Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
, and formerly in some other dialects, tav without dagesh is pronounced is in "thick"

Sounds Represented With Diacritic
Diacritic
Geresh

Main articles: Geresh and Hebraization of English

The sounds , , , written "צ׳‎", "ג׳‎", "ז׳‎", and , non-standardly sometimes transliterated וו‎, are often found in slang and loanwords that are part of the everyday Hebrew colloquial vocabulary. The apostrophe-looking symbol after the Hebrew letter modifies the pronunciation of the letter and is called a geresh . (As mentioned above, while still done, using to represent is non-standard.

HEBREW SLANG AND LOANWORDS

NAME SYMBOL IPA
IPA
TRANSLITERATION EXAMPLE

Gimel
Gimel
with a geresh ג׳‎

ǧ ǧáḥnun

גַּ׳חְנוּן‎

Zayin with a geresh ז׳‎

ž koláž

קוֹלַאז׳‎

Tsadi with a geresh צ׳‎

č čupár (treat)

צ׳וּפָּר‎

Vav with a geresh or double Vav וו‎ or ו׳‎(non standard)[]

w aWánta (boastful act)

אַוַּנְטַה‎

The pronunciation of the following letters can also be modified with the geresh diacritic, the represented sounds are however foreign to Hebrew phonology , i.e., these symbols mainly represent sounds in foreign words or names when transliterated with the Hebrew alphabet, and not loanwords .

TRANSLITERATION OF NON-NATIVE SOUNDS

NAME SYMBOL IPA
IPA
ARABIC LETTER EXAMPLE COMMENT

Dalet
Dalet
with a geresh ד׳‎

Dhāl (ذ) Voiced th DHū al-Ḥijjah (ذو الحجة)‎ ד׳ו אל-חיג׳ה‎ * Also used for English voiced th * Often a simple ד is written.

Tav with a geresh ת׳‎

Thāʼ (ﺙ) Voiceless th THurston ת׳רסטון‎

Ḥet with a geresh ח׳‎

Khāʼ (خ) SheiKH (شيخ)‎ שייח׳‎ * Unlike the other sounds in this table, the sound represented by ח׳‎ is indeed a native sound in Hebrew; the geresh is however used only when transliteration must distinguish between and , in which case ח׳‎ transliterates the former and ח the latter, whereas in everyday usage ח without geresh is pronounced only dialectically but commonly.

Resh with a geresh ר׳‎ or ע׳‎

Ghayn (غ) GHajar (غجر) ר׳ג׳ר‎ Sometimes an ʻayin with a geresh (ע׳‎) is used to transliterate غ – inconsistently with the guidelines specified by the Academy of the Hebrew Language

A geresh is also used to denote acronyms pronounced as a string of letters, and to denote a Hebrew numeral . Geresh also is the name of one of the notes of cantillation in the reading of the Torah
Torah
, but its appearance and function is different.

Identical Pronunciation

In Israel
Israel
's general population, many letters have the same pronunciation. They are as follows:

LETTERS TRANSLITERATION PRONUNCIATION (IPA)

א‎ Alef* ע‎ Ayin* not transliterated Usually when in medial word position: /. / (separation of vowels in a hiatus )

When in initial or final word position, sometimes also in medial word position: silent

alternatingly

' or ’ /ʔ / (glottal stop )

ב‎ Bet (without dagesh) Vet ו‎ Vav v /v /

ח‎ Het כ‎ Kaf (without dagesh) Khaf kh/ch/h /χ /

ט‎ Tet תּ‎ Tav t /t /

כּ‎ Kaf (with dagesh) ק‎ Qof k /k /

ס‎ Samekh שׂ‎ Sin (with left dot) s /s /

צ‎ Tsadi* תס‎ Tav-Samekh* and תשׂ‎ Tav-Sin* ts/tz /ts /

צ׳‎ Tsadi (with geresh) טשׁ‎ Tet-Shin* and תשׁ‎ Tav-Shin* ch/tsh (chair) /tʃ /

* Varyingly

Ancient Hebrew Pronunciation

Some of the variations in sound mentioned above are due to a systematic feature of Ancient Hebrew. The six consonants /b ɡ d k p t/ were pronounced differently depending on their position. These letters were also called BeGeD KeFeT letters /ˌbeɪɡɛdˈkɛfɛt/ . The full details are very complex; this summary omits some points. They were pronounced as plosives /b ɡ d k p t/ at the beginning of a syllable, or when doubled. They were pronounced as fricatives /v ɣ ð x f θ/ when preceded by a vowel (commonly indicated with a macron, ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ). The plosive and double pronunciations were indicated by the dagesh. In Modern Hebrew the sounds ḏ and ḡ have reverted to and , respectively, and ṯ has become , so only the remaining three consonants /b k p/ show variation. ר‎ resh may have also been a "doubled" letter, making the list BeGeD KePoReS. (Sefer Yetzirah , 4:1)

* ח‎ chet and ע‎ ayin represented pharyngeal fricatives , צ‎ tsadi represented the emphatic consonant /sˤ/, ט‎ tet represented the emphatic consonant /tˤ/, and ק‎ qof represented the uvular plosive /q/. All these are common Semitic consonants . * שׂ‎ sin (the /s/ variant of ש‎ shin) was originally different from both שׁ‎ shin and ס‎ samekh, but had become /s/ the same as ס‎ samekh by the time the vowel pointing was devised. Because of cognates with other Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, this phoneme is known to have originally been a lateral consonant , most likely the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/ (the sound of modern Welsh ll) or the voiceless alveolar lateral affricate /tɬ/ (like Náhuatl tl).

Regional And Historical Variation

The following table contains the pronunciation of the Hebrew letters in reconstructed historical forms and dialects using the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
. The apostrophe-looking symbol after some letters is not a yud but a geresh . It is used for loanwords with non-native Hebrew sounds. The dot in the middle of some of the letters, called a "dagesh kal", also modifies the sounds of the letters ב , כ and פ in modern Hebrew (in some forms of Hebrew it modifies also the sounds of the letters ג , ד and/or ת ; the "dagesh chazak" – orthographically indistinguishable from the "dagesh kal" – designates gemination , which today is realized only rarely – e.g. in biblical recitations or when using Arabic
Arabic
loanwords ).

SYMBOL PRONUNCIATION

ISRAELI ASHKENAZI SEPHARDI YEMENITE RECONSTRUCTED

TIBERIAN MISHNAIC BIBLICAL

א

בּ

ב

גּ

ג

דּ

ד

ה

ו

וּ

? ? ?

וֹ

? ? ?

ז

ח

ט

(1)

(2) (3)

י

ִי

? ? ?

כּ

כ ך

ל

מ ם

נ ן

ס

ע

פּ

פ ף

צ ץ

(1)

(2) (3)

ק

, ,

(3)

ר

~ ~ ~

שׁ

שׂ

תּ

ת

* velarized or pharyngealized * pharyngealized * sometimes said to be ejective but more likely glottalized .

VOWELS

Matres Lectionis

Main article: Mater lectionis

א‎ alef, ע ayin, ו‎ vav and י‎ yod are letters that can sometimes indicate a vowel instead of a consonant (which would be, respectively, /ʔ/, /ʔ/, /v/ and /j/). When they do, ו‎ and י‎ are considered to constitute part of the vowel designation in combination with a niqqud symbol – a vowel diacritic (whether or not the diacritic is marked), whereas א‎ and ע are considered to be mute, their role being purely indicative of the non-marked vowel.

LETTER Name of letter Consonant indicated when letter consonantal Vowel designation Name of vowel designation Indicated Vowel
Vowel

א‎ alef /ʔ/ — — ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô

ע ayin /ʔ/ — — ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô

ו‎ vav /v/ וֹ‎ ḥolám malé ô

וּ‎ shurúq û

י‎ yud /j/ ִי‎ ḥiríq malé î

ֵי‎ tseré malé ê, ệ

Vowel
Vowel
Points

Niqqud is the system of dots that help determine vowels and consonants. In Hebrew, all forms of niqqud are often omitted in writing, except for children's books, prayer books, poetry, foreign words, and words which would be ambiguous to pronounce. Israeli Hebrew has five vowel phonemes, /i e a o u/, but many more written symbols for them:

NAME SYMBOL ISRAELI HEBREW

IPA
IPA
TRANSLITERATION English example

Hiriq

i wEEk

Zeire

, ( with succeeding yod ) e, (ei with succeeding yod) mEn, mAIn

Segol

e mEn

Patach

a fAther

Kamatz סָ‎ , (or ) a, (or o) fAther, mOre

Holam Haser

o mOre

Holam Male וֹ

Shuruk

u mOOn

Kubutz

NOTE 1: The symbol "ס" represents whatever Hebrew letter is used. NOTE 2: The pronunciation of zeire and sometimes segol – with or without the letter yod – is sometimes ei in Modern Hebrew. This is not correct in the normative pronunciation and not consistent in the spoken language. NOTE 3: The dagesh , mappiq , and shuruk have different functions, even though they look the same. NOTE 4: The letter ו (vav) is used since it can only be represented by that letter.

Meteg

Main article: Meteg

By adding a vertical line (called Meteg ) underneath the letter and to the left of the vowel point, the vowel is made long. The meteg is only used in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, not Modern Hebrew .

Sh\'va

Main article: Sh\'va

By adding two vertical dots (called Sh\'va ) underneath the letter, the vowel is made very short.

NAME SYMBOL ISRAELI HEBREW

IPA
IPA
TRANSLITERATION English example

Shva

or ∅ apostrophe, e, or nothing

Reduced Segol

e mEn

Reduced Patach

a fAther

Reduced Kamatz סֳ‎

o mOre

Comparison Table

VOWEL COMPARISON TABLE

Vowel
Vowel
Length (phonetically not manifested in Israeli Hebrew) IPA
IPA
TRANSLITERATION English example

LONG SHORT VERY SHORT

ָ‎ ַ‎ ֲ‎

a fAr

ֵ‎ ֶ‎ ֱ‎

e mEn

וֹ‎ ָ ‎ ֳ ‎

o mOre

וּ‎ ֻ‎ n/a

u sOOn

ִי‎ ִ‎

i skI

NOTE I: By adding two vertical dots (sh\'va ) ְ‎ the vowel is made very short.

NOTE II: The short o and long a have the same niqqud.

NOTE III: The short o is usually promoted to a long o in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation

NOTE IV: The short u is usually promoted to a long u in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation

GERSHAYIM

Main article: Gershayim

The symbol ״‎ is called a gershayim and is a punctuation mark used in the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
to denote acronyms. It is written before the last letter in the acronym, e.g. ר״ת‎. Gershayim is also the name of a note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah
Torah
, printed above the accented letter, e.g. א֞‎.

STYLISTIC VARIANTS

Further information: Cursive Hebrew , Rashi script , Ashuri alphabet , and History of the Hebrew alphabet

The following table displays typographic and chirographic variants of each letter. For the five letters that have a different final form used at the end of words, the final forms are displayed beneath the regular form.

The block (square, or "print" type) and cursive ("handwritten" type) are the only variants in widespread contemporary use. Rashi is also used, for historical reasons, in a handful of standard texts.

Letter name ( Unicode
Unicode
) VARIANTS

CONTEMPORARY EARLY MODERN ANCESTRAL

BLOCK SERIF BLOCK SANS-SERIF CURSIVE RASHI PHOENICIAN PALEO-HEBREW ARAMAIC

Alef א א

𐤀

Bet ב ב

𐤁

Gimel ג ג

𐤂

Dalet ד ד

𐤃

He ה ה

𐤄

Vav ו ו

𐤅

Zayin ז ז

𐤆

Het ח ח

𐤇

Tet ט ט

𐤈

Yod י י

𐤉

Kaf כ כ

𐤊

Final Kaf ך ך

Lamed ל ל

𐤋

Mem מ מ

𐤌

Final Mem ם ם

Nun נ נ

𐤍

Final Nun ן ן

Samekh ס ס

𐤎

Ayin ע ע

𐤏

Pe פ פ

𐤐

Final Pe ף ף

Tsadi צ צ

𐤑

,

Final Tsadi ץ ץ

Qof ק ק

𐤒

Resh ר ר

𐤓

Shin ש ש

𐤔

Tav ת ת

𐤕

YIDDISH SYMBOLS

SYMBOL EXPLANATION

װ ױ ײ ײַ ‎ These are intended for Yiddish
Yiddish
. They are not used in Hebrew, aside from in loan words .

בֿ‎ The rafe (רפה‎) diacritic is no longer regularly used in Hebrew. In Masoretic Texts and some other older texts, lenited consonants and sometimes matres lectionis are indicated by a small line on top of the letter. Its use has been largely discontinued in modern printed texts. It is still used to mark fricative consonants in the YIVO orthography of Yiddish
Yiddish
.

NUMERIC VALUES OF LETTERS

Main article: Hebrew numerals
Hebrew numerals

Hebrew letters are used to denote numbers, nowadays used only in specific contexts, e.g. denoting dates in the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
, denoting grades of school in Israel, other listings (e.g. של ב א׳, של ב ב׳ – "phase a, phase b"), commonly in Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism ) in a practice known as gematria , and often in religious contexts. The lower clock on the Jewish Town Hall building in Prague
Prague
, with Hebrew numerals
Hebrew numerals
in counterclockwise order.

LETTER NUMERIC VALUE

LETTER NUMERIC VALUE

LETTER NUMERIC VALUE

א 1 י 10 ק 100

ב 2 כ 20 ר 200

ג 3 ל 30 ש 300

ד 4 מ 40 ת 400

ה 5 נ 50 ך 500

ו 6 ס 60 ם 600

ז 7 ע 70 ן 700

ח 8 פ 80 ף 800

ט 9 צ 90 ץ 900

The numbers 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 are commonly represented by the juxtapositions ק״ת, ר״ת, ש״ת, ת״ת, and ק״תת respectively. Adding a geresh ("׳") to a letter multiplies its value by one thousand, for example, the year 5769 is portrayed as ה׳תשס״ט, where ה represents 5000, and תשס״ט represents 769.

TRANSLITERATIONS AND TRANSCRIPTIONS

Main articles: Romanization of Hebrew
Romanization of Hebrew
, Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, Biblical Hebrew orthography , Yiddish
Yiddish
, and Yiddish
Yiddish
orthography

The following table lists transliterations and transcriptions of Hebrew letters used in Modern Hebrew .

Clarifications:

* For some letters, the Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
offers a precise transliteration that differs from the regular standard it has set. When omitted, no such precise alternative exists and the regular standard applies. * The IPA
IPA
phonemic transcription is specified whenever it uses a different symbol from the one used for the REGULAR standard Israeli transliteration. * The IPA
IPA
phonetic transcription is specified whenever it differs from IPA
IPA
PHONEMIC transcription.

Note: SBL\'s transliteration system, recommended in its Handbook of Style, differs slightly from the 2006 precise transliteration system of the Academy of the Hebrew Language; for " צ " SBL uses "ṣ" (≠ AHL "ẓ"), and for בג״ ד כפ״ ת with no dagesh, SBL uses the same symbols as for with dagesh (i.e. "b", "g", "d", "k", "f", "t").

CLICK "SHOW" TO VIEW EXTENDED TABLE INCLUDING EXAMPLES.

HEBREW LETTER EXAMPLE TRANSLATION

Standard Israeli transliteration – regular EXAMPLE

standard Israeli transliteration – precise EXAMPLE

IPA
IPA
phonemic transcription EXAMPLE

IPA
IPA
phonetic transcription EXAMPLE

א consonantal, in initial word positions אִם if none im

א consonantal, in non initial word positions שָׁאַל asked ' sha'ál ʾ shaʾál /ʔ / /ʃaˈʔal/

א silent רִאשׁוֹן first none rishón

בּ בֵּן son b ben

ב טוֹב good v tov

גּ גַּג roof g gag g gaḡ

ג ḡ

ג׳ ג׳וּק roach ǧ ǧuk

/d͡ʒ / /d͡ʒuk/

דּ דּוּד boiler d dud d duḏ

ד ḏ

ה consonantal הֵד echo h hed

ה silent פֹּה here none po

ו consonantal וָו hook v vav w waw

וּ הוּא he u hu

וֹ לוֹ to him o lo

or

ז זֶה this z ze

ז׳ זָ׳רְגוֹן jargon ž žargón

/ʒ / /ʒarˈɡon/

ח חַם hot ẖ ẖam ḥ ḥam /x / or /χ / /xam/

dialectical

ט קָט tiny t kat ṭ kaṭ

י consonantal יָם sea y yam

/j / /jam/

י part of hirik male (/i/ vowel) בִּי in me i bi

י part of tsere male (/e/ vowel or /ei/ diphthong) מֵידָע information e medá é médá /e / or /ej/ /meˈda/ or /mejˈda/ or /e̞j/ or

כּ, ךּ כֹּה so k ko

כ, ך סְכָךְ branch-roofing kh skhakh ḵ sḵaḵ /x / or /χ / /sxax/

ל לִי to me l li

מ, ם מוּם defect m mum

נ, ן נִין great-grandson n nin

ס סוֹף end s sof

ע in initial or final word positions עַדְלֹאיָדַע Purim -parade none adloyáda ʿ ʿadloyádaʿ

only in initial word position

dialectical /ʕ / /ˌʕadloˈjadaʕ/

ע in medial word positions מוֹעִיל useful ' mo'íl ʿ moʿíl /ʔ / /moˈʔil/

dialectical /ʕ / /moˈʕil/

פּ טִיפּ tip p tip

פ, ף פִסְפֵס missed f fisfés

צ, ץ צִיץ bud ts tsits ẓ ẓiẓ /t͡s / /t͡sit͡s/

צ׳, ץ׳ ריצ׳רץ׳ zip č ríčrač

/t͡ʃ / /ˈrit͡ʃrat͡ʃ/

ק קוֹל sound k kol q qol

ר עִיר city r ir

or or

dialectical or or

שׁ שָׁם there sh sham š šam /ʃ / /ʃam/

שׂ שָׂם put s sam ś śam

תּ תּוּת strawberry t tut t tuṯ

ת ṯ

HEBREW LETTER

Standard Israeli transliteration – regular standard Israeli transliteration – precise IPA
IPA
phonemic transcription IPA
IPA
phonetic transcription

א consonantal, in initial word positions none

א consonantal, in non initial word positions ' ʾ /ʔ /

א silent none

בּ b

ב v

גּ g g

ג ḡ

ג׳ ǧ

/d͡ʒ /

דּ d d

ד ḏ

ה consonantal h

ה silent none

ו consonantal v w

וּ u

וֹ o

or

ז z

ז׳ ž

/ʒ /

ח ẖ ḥ /x / or /χ /

dialectical

ט t ṭ

י consonantal y

/j /

י part of hirik male (/i/ vowel) i

י part of tsere male (/e/ vowel or /ei/ diphthong) e é /e / or /ej/ or /

כּ, ךּ k

כ, ך kh ḵ /x / or /χ /

ל l

מ, ם m

נ, ן n

ס s

ע in initial or final word positions none ʿ

only in initial word position

dialectical /ʕ /

ע in medial word positions ' ʿ /ʔ /

dialectical /ʕ /

פּ p

פ, ף f

צ, ץ ts ẓ /t͡s /

צ׳, ץ׳ č

/t͡ʃ /

ק k q

ר r

or

dialectical or

שׁ sh š /ʃ /

שׂ s ś

תּ t t

ת ṯ

Notes

A1^ 2^ 3^ 4^ In transliterations of modern Israeli Hebrew, initial and final ע (in regular transliteration), silent or initial א, and silent ה are not transliterated. To the eye of readers orientating themselves on Latin (or similar) alphabets, these letters might seem to be transliterated as vowel letters; however, these are in fact transliterations of the vowel diacritics – niqqud (or are representations of the spoken vowels). E.g., in אִם ("if", ), אֵם ("mother", ) and אֹם ("nut ", ), the letter א always represents the same consonant: (glottal stop ), whereas the vowels /i/, /e/ and /o/ respectively represent the spoken vowel, whether it is orthographically denoted by diacritics or not. Since the Academy of the Hebrew Language ascertains that א in initial position is not transliterated, the symbol for the glottal stop ʾ is omitted from the transliteration, and only the subsequent vowels are transliterated (whether or not their corresponding vowel diacritics appeared in the text being transliterated), resulting in "im", "em" and "om", respectively.

B1^ 2^ 3^ The diacritic geresh – "׳" – is used with some other letters as well (ד׳, ח׳, ט׳, ע׳, ר׳, ת׳), but only to transliterate from other languages to Hebrew – never to spell Hebrew words; therefore they were not included in this table (correctly translating a Hebrew text with these letters would require using the spelling in the language from which the transliteration to Hebrew was originally made). The non-standard "ו׳" and "וו" are sometimes used to represent /w /, which like /d͡ʒ /, /ʒ / and /t͡ʃ / appears in Hebrew slang and loanwords.

C1^ 2^ The Sound /χ / (as "ch" in loch ) is often transcribed "ch", inconsistently with the guidelines specified by the Academy of the Hebrew Language: חם /χam/ → "cham"; סכך /sχaχ/ → "schach".

D^ Although the Bible
Bible
does include a single occurrence of a final pe with a dagesh ( Book of Proverbs 30, 6: "אַל-תּוֹסְףְּ עַל-דְּבָרָיו: פֶּן-יוֹכִיחַ בְּךָ וְנִכְזָבְתָּ.‎"), in modern Hebrew /p / is always represented by pe in its regular, not final, form "פ", even when in final word position, which occurs with loanwords (e.g. שׁוֹפּ /ʃop/ "shop"), foreign names (e.g. פִילִיפּ /ˈfilip/ "Philip") and some slang (e.g. חָרַפּ /χaˈrap/ "slept deeply").

RELIGIOUS USE

The letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
have played varied roles in Jewish religious literature over the centuries, primarily in mystical texts. Some sources in classical rabbinical literature seem to acknowledge the historical provenance of the currently used Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
and deal with them as a mundane subject (the Jerusalem Talmud , for example, records that "the Israelites took for themselves square calligraphy", and that the letters "came with the Israelites from Ashur "); others attribute mystical significance to the letters, connecting them with the process of creation or the redemption . In mystical conceptions, the alphabet is considered eternal, pre-existent to the Earth, and the letters themselves are seen as having holiness and power, sometimes to such an extent that several stories from the Talmud
Talmud
illustrate the idea that they cannot be destroyed.

The idea of the letters' creative power finds its greatest vehicle in the Sefer Yezirah , or Book of Creation, a mystical text of uncertain origin which describes a story of creation highly divergent from that in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
, largely through exposition on the powers of the letters of the alphabet. The supposed creative powers of the letters are also referenced in the Talmud
Talmud
and Zohar
Zohar
. The four-pronged Shin

Another book, the 13th-century Kabbalistic text Sefer HaTemunah , holds that a single letter of unknown pronunciation, held by some to be the four-pronged shin on one side of the teffilin box, is missing from the current alphabet. The world's flaws, the book teaches, are related to the absence of this letter, the eventual revelation of which will repair the universe . Another example of messianic significance attached to the letters is the teaching of Rabbi Eliezer that the five letters of the alphabet with final forms hold the "secret of redemption".

In addition, the letters occasionally feature in aggadic portions of non-mystical rabbinic literature. In such aggada the letters are often given anthropomorphic qualities and depicted as speaking to God. Commonly their shapes are used in parables to illustrate points of ethics or theology. An example from the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(a parable intended to discourage speculation about the universe before creation): Why does the story of creation begin with bet?... In the same manner that the letter bet is closed on all sides and only open in front, similarly you are not permitted to inquire into what is before or what was behind, but only from the actual time of Creation. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Hagigah, 77c

Extensive instructions about the proper methods of forming the letters are found in Mishnat Soferim, within Mishna Berura of Yisrael Meir Kagan .

MATHEMATICAL USE

See aleph number and beth number and gimel function .

In set theory , 0 {displaystyle aleph _{0}} , pronounced aleph-naught or aleph-zero, is used to mark the cardinal number of an infinite countable set , such as Z {displaystyle mathbb {Z} } , the set of all integers. More generally, the {displaystyle aleph _{alpha }} (aleph) notation marks the ordered sequence of all distinct infinite cardinal numbers.

Less frequently used, the {displaystyle beth _{alpha }} (beth) notation is used for the iterated power sets of 0 {displaystyle aleph _{0}} . The 2nd element 1 {displaystyle beth _{1}} is the cardinality of the continuum . Very occasionally, gimel is used in cardinal notation.

UNICODE AND HTML

An example of a Hebrew keyboard. Main articles: Unicode
Unicode
and HTML for the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
and Hebrew keyboard

The Unicode
Unicode
Hebrew block extends from U+0590 to U+05FF and from U+FB1D to U+FB4F. It includes letters , ligatures , combining diacritical marks ( Niqqud and cantillation marks) and punctuation . The Numeric Character References is included for HTML. These can be used in many markup languages, and they are often used in Wiki to create the Hebrew glyphs compatible with the majority of web browsers.

Standard Hebrew keyboards have a 101-key layout. Like the standard QWERTY
QWERTY
layout, the Hebrew layout was derived from the order of letters on Hebrew typewriters .

SEE ALSO

* Hebrew braille * Hebrew diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
* Hebrew punctuation * Help:Hebrew * Inverted nun * Koren Type * Significance of numbers of Judaism
Judaism

NOTES

a^ "Alef-bet" is commonly written in Israeli Hebrew without the maqaf (מקף, " hyphen"), אלפבי ת עברי, as opposed to with the hyphen, אלף־בי ת עברי.

b^ The Arabic
Arabic
letters generally (as six of the primary letters can have only two variants) have four forms, according to their place in the word. The same goes with the Mandaic ones , except for three of the 22 letters, which have only one form.

c^ In forms of Hebrew older than Modern Hebrew, כ״ף, בי״ ת and פ״א can only be read b, k and p, respectively, at the beginning of a word, while they will have the sole value of v, kh and f in a sofit (final) position, with few exceptions. In medial positions, both pronunciations are possible. In Modern Hebrew this restriction is not absolute, e.g. פִיזִיקַאי /fiziˈkaj/ and never /piziˈkaj/ (= "physicist"), סְנוֹבּ /snob/ and never /snov/ (= "snob"). A dagesh may be inserted to unambiguously denote the plosive variant: בּ = /b/, כּ = /k/, פּ =/p/; similarly (though today very rare in Hebrew and common only in Yiddish
Yiddish
) a rafé placed above the letter unambiguously denotes the fricative variant: בֿ = /v/, כֿ = /χ/ and פֿ = /f/. In Modern Hebrew orthography , the sound at the end of a word is denoted by the regular form "פ", as opposed to the final form "ף", which always denotes (see table of transliterations and transcriptions , comment ).

d^ However, וו (two separate vavs), used in Ktiv male , is to be distinguished from the Yiddish
Yiddish
ligature װ (also two vavs but together as one character).

e1^ e2^ e3^ e4^ e5^ The Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
states that both and be indistinguishably represented in Hebrew using the letter Vav. Sometimes the Vav is indeed doubled, however not to denote as opposed to but rather, when spelling without niqqud , to denote the phoneme /v/ at a non-initial and non-final position in the word, whereas a single Vav at a non-initial and non-final position in the word in spelling without niqqud denotes one of the phonemes /u/ or /o/. To pronounce foreign words and loanwords containing the sound , Hebrew readers must therefore rely on former knowledge and context.

REFERENCES

* ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(Sanhedrin 21b–22a); Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 10a). Cf. Mishnah
Mishnah
(Megillah 1:8): "The Books differ from phylacteries and Mezuzahs only in that the Books may be written in any language, while phylacteries and Mezuzahs may be written IN THE ASSYRIAN WRITING ONLY." See: The Mishnah,(ed. Herbert Danby), Oxford University Press: London 1977, p. 202. * ^ A B Ancient Scripts.com: Old Hebrew * ^ A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1993. ISBN 0-521-55634-1 . * ^ A B C Chart of Hebrew glyphs at unicode.org * ^ A B Unicode
Unicode
names of Hebrew characters at fileformat.info. * ^ Kaplan, Aryeh. Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation. pp. 8, 22. * ^ A B C D "ךּ" is rare but exists, e.g. last word in Deuteronomy 7 1 (דברים פרק ז׳ פסוק א׳) in the word "מִמֶּךָּ‎" – see תנ״ך מנוקד, דברים פרק ז׳. There is a single occurrence of "ףּ", see this comment . * ^ A B C D E F G H I Transliteration guidelines preceding 2006-update, p. 3 Academy of the Hebrew Language * ^ Laufer, Asher (2008). Chapters in Phonetics and Phonetic Transcription. Jerusalem: Magnes. pp. 207–211. ISBN 978-965-493-401-5 . * ^ Hebrew lessons for Christians * ^ Resources for New Testament Exegesis – Transliteration Standards of The SBL Handbook of Style * ^ A B C D Transliteration guidelines Archived 2014-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, November 2006 * ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 21b * ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Pesach 87b, Avodah Zarah 18a. * ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot 55c * ^ Zohar
Zohar
1:3; 2:152 * ^ A B The Book of Letters. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, Woodstock. 1990 * ^ " Transliteration Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-03. issued by the Academy of the Hebrew Language.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Gesenius\' Hebrew Grammar, §5 ff. * Hoffman, Joel M. 2004. In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. New York: New York University Press. * Saenz-Badillos, Angel. 1993. A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. * Steinberg, David. History of the Hebrew Language. * Mathers table * Hebrew Alphabet
Alphabet
Guide

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HEBREW ALPHABET .

GENERAL

* How to draw letters * Official Unicode
Unicode
standards document for Hebrew * Hebrew Alphabet
Alphabet
Charts * Hypertext Hebrew Alphabet * Interactive Hebrew Alphabet
Alphabet
Lesson * Mobile OCR Hebrew Dictionary

KEYBOARDS

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* t * e

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Hebrew language

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ORTHOGRAPHY

ERAS

* Biblical

SCRIPTS

* Rashi * Braille
Braille
* Ashuri * Cursive * Crowning * Paleo-Hebrew

ALPHABET

* Alef * Bet * Gimel
Gimel
* Dalet
Dalet
* Hei * Vav * Zayin * Het * Tet * Yud * Kaf * Lamed * Mem * Nun * Samech * Ayin * Pei * Tsadi * Kuf * Reish * Shin * Taw

NIQQUD

* Tiberian * Babylonian * Palestinian * Samaritan

* Shva * Hiriq * Tzere * Segol * Patach * Kamatz * Holam * Kubutz and Shuruk * Dagesh * Mappiq * Maqaf * Rafe * Sin/Shin Dot

SPELLING

* with Niqqud / missing / full * Mater lectionis * Abbreviations

PUNCTUATION

* Diacritics * Meteg * Cantillation
Cantillation
* Geresh * Gershayim * Inverted nun * Shekel sign * Numerals

PHONOLOGY

* Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
* Modern Hebrew * Philippi\'s law * * Law of attenuation

GRAMMAR

* Biblical * Modern

* Verbal morphology * Semitic roots * Prefixes * Suffixes * Segolate * Waw-consecutive

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* Revival * Academy * Study * Ulpan * Keyboard * Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature * Names * Surnames * Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

REFERENCE WORKS

* Brown–Driver–Briggs * Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors *

.