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HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew
Hebrew
in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew
Hebrew
belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew
Hebrew
is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language .

Hebrew
Hebrew
had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish
Jewish
commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the lingua franca of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel
Israel
. According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers, mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel
Israel
(the other being Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
), while premodern Hebrew
Hebrew
is used for prayer or study in Jewish
Jewish
communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans
Samaritans
, while modern Hebrew
Hebrew
or Arabic
Arabic
is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews
Jews
and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East
Middle East
and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible , is written in Biblical Hebrew , with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
. For this reason, Hebrew
Hebrew
has been referred to by Jews
Jews
as Leshon Hakodesh (לשון הקדש), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Oldest Hebrew
Hebrew
inscriptions

* 2.2 Classical Hebrew
Hebrew

* 2.2.1 Biblical Hebrew * 2.2.2 Early post- Biblical Hebrew

* 2.3 Aramaic displaces Hebrew
Hebrew
as a spoken language * 2.4 Mishnah and Talmud * 2.5 Medieval Hebrew * 2.6 Revival * 2.7 Modern Hebrew

* 3 Current status

* 4 Phonology

* 4.1 Consonants

* 5 Hebrew
Hebrew
grammar

* 5.1 Morphology * 5.2 Syntax

* 6 Writing system * 7 Liturgical use in Judaism * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The modern word "Hebrew" is derived from the word "Ivri" (plural "Ivrim"; English: Hebrews
Hebrews
), one of several names for the Israelite ( Jewish
Jewish
and Samaritan) people. It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham's ancestor, Eber ("Evr" עבר in Hebrew), mentioned in Genesis 10:21. This name is possibly based upon the root "ʕ-b-r" (עבר) meaning "to cross over". Interpretations of the term "ʕibrim" link it to this verb; cross over and homiletical or the people who crossed over the river Euphrates .

In the Bible, the Hebrew
Hebrew
language is called Yәhudit (יהודית) because Judah (Yәhuda) was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation (late 8th century BCE (Is 36, 2 Kings 18)). In Isaiah 19:18 it is called the " Language of Canaan" (שפת כנען).

HISTORY

Hebrew
Hebrew
belongs to the Canaanite group of languages . In turn, the Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of languages.

According to Avraham ben-Yosef , Hebrew
Hebrew
flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel
Israel
and Judah during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew
Hebrew
was a spoken vernacular in ancient times following the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
, when the predominant international language in the region was Old Aramaic .

Hebrew
Hebrew
was nearly extinct as a spoken language by Late Antiquity , but it continued to be used as a literary language and as the liturgical language of Judaism, evolving various dialects of literary Medieval Hebrew , until its revival as a spoken language in the late 19th century.

OLDEST HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS

Further information: Ancient Hebrew writings

In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa
Khirbet Qeiyafa
which he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew
Hebrew
writing yet discovered, dating around 3000 years ago. Hebrew University archaeologist Amihai Mazar said that the inscription was "proto-Canaanite" but cautioned that, "The differentiation between the scripts, and between the languages themselves in that period, remains unclear," and suggested that calling the text Hebrew
Hebrew
might be going too far.

The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, the traditional time of the reign of David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
. Classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The Gezer calendar (named after the city in whose proximity it was found) is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the Phoenician one that through the Greeks and Etruscans later became the Roman script . The Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places where later Hebrew
Hebrew
spelling requires it. The Shebna Inscription , from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam , dates to the 7th century BCE.

Numerous older tablets have been found in the region with similar scripts written in other Semitic languages, for example Protosinaitic . It is believed that the original shapes of the script go back to Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
, though the phonetic values are instead inspired by the acrophonic principle. The common ancestor of Hebrew
Hebrew
and Phoenician is called Canaanite , and was the first to use a Semitic alphabet distinct from Egyptian. One ancient document is the famous Moabite Stone written in the Moabite dialect; the Siloam Inscription , found near Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, is an early example of Hebrew. Less ancient samples of Archaic Hebrew
Hebrew
include the ostraca found near Lachish which describe events preceding the final capture of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
of 586 BCE.

CLASSICAL HEBREW

Biblical Hebrew

Main article: Biblical Hebrew

In its widest sense, Biblical Hebrew means the spoken language of ancient Israel
Israel
flourishing between the 10th century BCE and the turn of the 4th century CE . It comprises several evolving and overlapping dialects. The phases of Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
are often named after important literary works associated with them.

* Archaic Biblical Hebrew from the 10th to the 6th century BCE, corresponding to the Monarchic Period until the Babylonian Exile and represented by certain texts in the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh ), notably the Song of Moses (Exodus 15) and the Song of Deborah (Judges 5). Also called Old Hebrew
Hebrew
or Paleo-Hebrew. It was written in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet . A script descended from this, Samaritan alphabet , is still used by the Samaritans
Samaritans
.

Hebrew
Hebrew
script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.

* Standard Biblical Hebrew around the 8th to 6th centuries BCE, corresponding to the late Monarchic period and the Babylonian Exile. It is represented by the bulk of the Hebrew Bible that attains much of its present form around this time. Also called Biblical Hebrew, Early Biblical Hebrew, Classical Biblical Hebrew (or Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
in the narrowest sense). * Late Biblical Hebrew , from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BCE, that corresponds to the Persian Period and is represented by certain texts in the Hebrew Bible , notably the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Basically similar to Classical Biblical Hebrew, apart from a few foreign words adopted for mainly governmental terms, and some syntactical innovations such as the use of the particle shel (of, belonging to). It adopted the Imperial Aramaic script (from which the modern Hebrew
Hebrew
script descends). * Israelian Hebrew is a proposed northern dialect of biblical Hebrew, attested in all eras of the language, in some cases competing with late biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
as an explanation for non-standard linguistic features of biblical texts.

Early Post-Biblical Hebrew

* Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew
Hebrew
from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, corresponding to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and represented by the Qumran Scrolls that form most (but not all) of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Commonly abbreviated as DSS Hebrew, also called Qumran
Qumran
Hebrew. The Imperial Aramaic script of the earlier scrolls in the 3rd century BCE evolved into the Hebrew square script of the later scrolls in the 1st century CE, also known as ketav Ashuri (Assyrian script), still in use today. * Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE, corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and Tosefta within the Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba letters and the Copper Scroll . Also called Tannaitic Hebrew
Hebrew
or Early Rabbinic Hebrew.

Sometimes the above phases of spoken Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
are simplified into "Biblical Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 10th century BCE to 2nd century BCE and extant in certain Dead Sea Scrolls) and "Mishnaic Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE and extant in certain other Dead Sea Scrolls). However, today, most Hebrew
Hebrew
linguists classify Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew
Hebrew
as a set of dialects evolving out of Late Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
and into Mishnaic Hebrew, thus including elements from both but remaining distinct from either. By the start of the Byzantine Period in the 4th century CE, Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
ceases as a regularly spoken language, roughly a century after the publication of the Mishnah, apparently declining since the aftermath of the catastrophic Bar Kokhba War around 135 CE.

ARAMAIC DISPLACES HEBREW AS A SPOKEN LANGUAGE

Rashi script A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Hebrew
See also: Aramaic language

Around the 6th century BCE, the Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered the ancient Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
, destroying much of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and exiling its population far to the East in Babylon . During the Babylonian captivity , many Israelites learned Aramaic, the closely related Semitic language of their captors. Thus for a significant period, the Jewish
Jewish
elite became influenced by Aramaic.

After Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon, he allowed the Jewish
Jewish
people to return from captivity. As a result, a local version of Aramaic came to be spoken in Israel
Israel
alongside Hebrew. By the beginning of the Common Era , Aramaic was the primary colloquial language of Samarian , Babylonian and Galileean Jews, and western and intellectual Jews
Jews
spoke Greek , but a form of so-called Rabbinic Hebrew continued to be used as a vernacular in Judea until it was displaced by Aramaic, probably in the 3rd century CE. Certain Sadducee , Pharisee , Scribe , Hermit, Zealot and Priest classes maintained an insistence on Hebrew, and all Jews
Jews
maintained their identity with Hebrew
Hebrew
songs and simple quotations from Hebrew
Hebrew
texts.

While there is no doubt that at a certain point, Hebrew
Hebrew
was displaced as the everyday spoken language of most Jews, and that its chief successor in the Middle East
Middle East
was the closely related Aramaic language, then Greek , scholarly opinions on the exact dating of that shift have changed very much. In the first half of the 20th century, most scholars followed Geiger and Dalman in thinking that Aramaic became a spoken language in the land of Israel
Israel
as early as the beginning of Israel's Hellenistic Period in the 4th century BCE, and that as a corollary Hebrew
Hebrew
ceased to function as a spoken language around the same time. Segal, Klausner, and Ben Yehuda are notable exceptions to this view. During the latter half of the 20th century, accumulating archaeological evidence and especially linguistic analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls has disproven that view. The Dead Sea Scrolls, uncovered in 1946-1948 near Qumran
Qumran
revealed ancient Jewish
Jewish
texts overwhelmingly in Hebrew, not Aramaic.

The Qumran
Qumran
scrolls indicate that Hebrew
Hebrew
texts were readily understandable to the average Israelite, and that the language had evolved since Biblical times as spoken languages do. Recent scholarship recognizes that reports of Jews
Jews
speaking in Aramaic indicates a multilingual society, not necessarily the primary language spoken. Alongside Aramaic, Hebrew
Hebrew
co-existed within Israel
Israel
as a spoken language. Most scholars now date the demise of Hebrew
Hebrew
as a spoken language to the end of the Roman Period , or about 200 CE. It continued on as a literary language down through the Byzantine Period from the 4th century CE.

The exact roles of Aramaic and Hebrew
Hebrew
remain hotly debated. A trilingual scenario has been proposed for the land of Israel. Hebrew functioned as the local mother tongue with powerful ties to Israel's history, origins, and golden age and as the language of Israel's religion; Aramaic functioned as the international language with the rest of the Middle East; and eventually Greek functioned as another international language with the eastern areas of the Roman Empire. According to another summary, Greek was the language of government, Hebrew
Hebrew
the language of prayer, study and religious texts, and Aramaic was the language of legal contracts and trade. There was also a geographic pattern: according to Spolsky, by the beginning of the Common Era, " Judeo-Aramaic was mainly used in Galilee
Galilee
in the north, Greek was concentrated in the former colonies and around governmental centers, and Hebrew
Hebrew
monolingualism continued mainly in the southern villages of Judea." In other words, "in terms of dialect geography, at the time of the tannaim Palestine could be divided into the Aramaic-speaking regions of Galilee
Galilee
and Samaria and a smaller area, Judaea, in which Rabbinic Hebrew was used among the descendants of returning exiles." In addition, it has been surmised that Koine Greek was the primary vehicle of communication in coastal cities and among the upper class of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, while Aramaic was prevalent in the lower class of Jerusalem, but not in the surrounding countryside. After the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century CE, Judaeans were forced to disperse. Many relocated to Galilee, so most remaining native speakers of Hebrew
Hebrew
at that last stage would have been found in the north.

The Christian New Testament contains some Semitic place names and quotes. The language of such Semitic glosses (and in general the language spoken by Jews
Jews
in scenes from the New Testament) is often referred to as "Hebrew" in the text, although this term is often re-interpreted as referring to Aramaic instead and is rendered accordingly in recent translations. Nonetheless, these glosses can be interpreted as Hebrew
Hebrew
as well. It has been argued that Hebrew, rather than Aramaic or Koine Greek, lay behind the composition of the Gospel of Matthew . (See the Hebrew Gospel hypothesis or Language of Jesus for more details on Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic in the gospels.)

MISHNAH AND TALMUD

Main article: Mishnaic Hebrew

The term "Mishnaic Hebrew" generally refers to the Hebrew
Hebrew
dialects found in the Talmud , excepting quotations from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The dialects organize into Mishnaic Hebrew (also called Tannaitic Hebrew, Early Rabbinic Hebrew, or Mishnaic Hebrew I), which was a spoken language , and Amoraic Hebrew
Hebrew
(also called Late Rabbinic Hebrew or Mishnaic Hebrew II), which was a literary language . The earlier section of the Talmud is the Mishnah that was published around 200 CE, although many of the stories take place much earlier, and was written in the earlier Mishnaic dialect. The dialect is also found in certain Dead Sea Scrolls. Mishnaic Hebrew is considered to be one of the dialects of Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
that functioned as a living language in the land of Israel. A transitional form of the language occurs in the other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning with the completion of the Mishnah. These include the halachic Midrashim ( Sifra , Sifre
Sifre
, Mechilta etc.) and the expanded collection of Mishnah-related material known as the Tosefta . The Talmud contains excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not attested elsewhere; the generic term for these passages is Baraitot . The dialect of all these works is very similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.

About a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew fell into disuse as a spoken language. The later section of the Talmud, the Gemara , generally comments on the Mishnah and Baraitot in two forms of Aramaic. Nevertheless, Hebrew
Hebrew
survived as a liturgical and literary language in the form of later Amoraic Hebrew, which sometimes occurs in the text of the Gemara.

Because as early as the Torah's transcription the Scribe has been the highest position in Judaism, Hebrew
Hebrew
was always regarded as the language of Israel's religion, history and national pride, and after it faded as a spoken language, it continued to be used as a lingua franca among scholars and Jews
Jews
traveling in foreign countries. After the 2nd century CE when the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
exiled most of the Jewish population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
following the Bar Kokhba revolt , they adapted to the societies in which they found themselves, yet letters, contracts, commerce, science, philosophy, medicine, poetry, and laws continued to be written mostly in Hebrew, which adapted by borrowing and inventing terms.

MEDIEVAL HEBREW

Main article: Medieval Hebrew Aleppo Codex : 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1). Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi
Kochi
, India dated to 1344.

After the Talmud, various regional literary dialects of Medieval Hebrew
Hebrew
evolved. The most important is Tiberian Hebrew or Masoretic Hebrew, a local dialect of Tiberias
Tiberias
in Galilee
Galilee
that became the standard for vocalizing the Hebrew Bible and thus still influences all other regional dialects of Hebrew. This Tiberian Hebrew from the 7th to 10th century CE is sometimes called "Biblical Hebrew" because it is used to pronounce the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible; however, properly it should be distinguished from the historical Biblical Hebrew of the 6th century BCE, whose original pronunciation must be reconstructed. Tiberian Hebrew
Hebrew
incorporates the remarkable scholarship of the Masoretes (from masoret meaning "tradition"), who added vowel points and grammar points to the Hebrew
Hebrew
letters to preserve much earlier features of Hebrew, for use in chanting the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The Masoretes inherited a biblical text whose letters were considered too sacred to be altered, so their markings were in the form of pointing in and around the letters. The Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
, precursor to the Arabic alphabet , also developed vowel pointing systems around this time. The Aleppo Codex , a Hebrew Bible with the Masoretic pointing, was written in the 10th century, likely in Tiberias
Tiberias
, and survives to this day. It is perhaps the most important Hebrew
Hebrew
manuscript in existence.

During the Golden age of Jewish
Jewish
culture in Spain , important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
. Important Hebrew
Hebrew
grammarians were Judah ben David
David
Hayyuj , Jonah ibn Janah , Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra
and later (in Provence) David
David
Kimhi . A great deal of poetry was written, by poets such as Dunash ben Labrat , Solomon
Solomon
ibn Gabirol , Judah ha-Levi and the two Ibn Ezras , in a "purified" Hebrew
Hebrew
based on the work of these grammarians, and in Arabic
Arabic
quantitative or strophic meters. This literary Hebrew
Hebrew
was later used by Italian Jewish
Jewish
poets.

The need to express scientific and philosophical concepts from Classical Greek and Medieval Arabic
Arabic
motivated Medieval Hebrew to borrow terminology and grammar from these other languages, or to coin equivalent terms from existing Hebrew
Hebrew
roots, giving rise to a distinct style of philosophical Hebrew. This is used in the translations made by the Ibn Tibbon family. (Original Jewish
Jewish
philosophical works were usually written in Arabic.) Another important influence was Maimonides , who developed a simple style based on Mishnaic Hebrew for use in his law code, the Mishneh Torah . Subsequent rabbinic literature is written in a blend between this style and the Aramaized Rabbinic Hebrew
Hebrew
of the Talmud.

Hebrew
Hebrew
persevered through the ages as the main language for written purposes by all Jewish
Jewish
communities around the world for a large range of uses—not only liturgy, but also poetry, philosophy, science and medicine, commerce, daily correspondence and contracts. There have been, of course, many deviations from this generalization such as Bar Kokhba 's letters to his lieutenants, which were mostly in Aramaic, and Maimonides
Maimonides
' writings, which were mostly in Arabic
Arabic
; but overall, Hebrew
Hebrew
did not cease to be used for such purposes. This meant not only that well-educated Jews
Jews
in all parts of the world could correspond in a mutually intelligible language, and that books and legal documents published or written in any part of the world could be read by Jews
Jews
in all other parts, but that an educated Jew could travel and converse with Jews
Jews
in distant places, just as priests and other educated Christians could converse in Latin. For example, Rabbi Avraham Danzig wrote the Chayei Adam in Hebrew, as opposed to Yiddish , as a guide to Halacha for the "average 17-year old" (Ibid. Introduction 1). Similarly, the Chofetz Chaim , Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan ’s purpose in writing the Mishna Berurah was to "produce a work that could be studied daily so that Jews
Jews
might know the proper procedures to follow minute by minute". The work was nevertheless written in Talmudic Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic, since, "the ordinary Jew of a century ago, was fluent enough in this idiom to be able to follow the Mishna Berurah without any trouble."

REVIVAL

Main article: Revival of the Hebrew language
Revival of the Hebrew language

Hebrew
Hebrew
has been revived several times as a literary language, most significantly by the Haskalah (Enlightenment) movement of early and mid-19th-century Germany. Near the end of that century the Jewish activist Eliezer Ben-Yehuda , owing to the ideology of the national revival (Shivat Tziyon , later Zionism ), began reviving Hebrew
Hebrew
as a modern spoken language. Eventually, as a result of the local movement he created, but more significantly as a result of the new groups of immigrants known under the name of the Second Aliyah , it replaced a score of languages spoken by Jews
Jews
at that time. Those languages were Jewish
Jewish
dialects of local languages, including Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
(also called "Judezmo" and "Ladino"), Yiddish , Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
, and Bukhori (Tajiki), or local languages spoken in the Jewish
Jewish
diaspora such as Russian , Persian , and Arabic
Arabic
.

The major result of the literary work of the Hebrew
Hebrew
intellectuals along the 19th century was a lexical modernization of Hebrew. New words and expressions were adapted as neologisms from the large corpus of Hebrew
Hebrew
writings since the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, or borrowed from Arabic (mainly by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda) and older Aramaic and Latin. Many new words were either borrowed from or coined after European languages, especially English, Russian, German, and French. Modern Hebrew became an official language in British-ruled Palestine in 1921 (along with English and Arabic), and then in 1948 became an official language of the newly declared State of Israel
Israel
. Hebrew
Hebrew
is the most widely spoken language in Israel
Israel
today.

In the Modern Period, from the 19th century onward, the literary Hebrew
Hebrew
tradition revived as the spoken language of modern Israel, called variously Israeli Hebrew, Modern Israeli Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, New Hebrew, Israeli Standard Hebrew, Standard Hebrew, and so on. Israeli Hebrew
Hebrew
exhibits some features of Sephardic Hebrew from its local Jerusalemite tradition but adapts it with numerous neologisms, borrowed terms (often technical) from European languages and adopted terms (often colloquial) from Arabic. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda

The literary and narrative use of Hebrew
Hebrew
was revived beginning with the Haskalah movement. The first secular periodical in Hebrew, HaMe\'assef (The Gatherer), was published by maskilim in Königsberg (today's Kaliningrad ) from 1783 onwards. In the mid-19th century, publications of several Eastern European Hebrew-language newspapers (e.g. Hamagid , founded in Ełk in 1856) multiplied. Prominent poets were Hayim Nahman Bialik
Hayim Nahman Bialik
and Shaul Tchernichovsky ; there were also novels written in the language.

The revival of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language as a mother tongue was initiated in the late 19th century by the efforts of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. He joined the Jewish
Jewish
national movement and in 1881 immigrated to Palestine , then a part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Motivated by the surrounding ideals of renovation and rejection of the diaspora "shtetl " lifestyle, Ben-Yehuda set out to develop tools for making the literary and liturgical language into everyday spoken language . However, his brand of Hebrew
Hebrew
followed norms that had been replaced in Eastern Europe by different grammar and style, in the writings of people like Ahad Ha\'am and others. His organizational efforts and involvement with the establishment of schools and the writing of textbooks pushed the vernacularization activity into a gradually accepted movement. It was not, however, until the 1904-1914 Second Aliyah that Hebrew
Hebrew
had caught real momentum in Ottoman Palestine with the more highly organized enterprises set forth by the new group of immigrants. When the British Mandate of Palestine recognized Hebrew
Hebrew
as one of the country's three official languages (English, Arabic, and Hebrew, in 1922), its new formal status contributed to its diffusion. A constructed modern language with a truly Semitic vocabulary and written appearance, although often European in phonology , was to take its place among the current languages of the nations.

While many saw his work as fanciful or even blasphemous (because Hebrew
Hebrew
was the holy language of the Torah and therefore some thought that it should not be used to discuss everyday matters), many soon understood the need for a common language amongst Jews
Jews
of the British Mandate who at the turn of the 20th century were arriving in large numbers from diverse countries and speaking different languages. A Committee of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language was established. After the establishment of Israel, it became the Academy of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language . The results of Ben-Yehuda's lexicographical work were published in a dictionary (The Complete Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew). The seeds of Ben-Yehuda's work fell on fertile ground, and by the beginning of the 20th century, Hebrew
Hebrew
was well on its way to becoming the main language of the Jewish
Jewish
population of both Ottoman and British Palestine. At the time, members of the Old Yishuv and a very few Hasidic sects, most notably those under the auspices of Satmar , refused to speak Hebrew
Hebrew
and spoke only Yiddish.

In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the use of Hebrew, along with other Jewish cultural and religious activities, was suppressed. Soviet authorities considered the use of Hebrew
Hebrew
"reactionary" since it was associated with Zionism , and the teaching of Hebrew
Hebrew
at primary and secondary schools was officially banned by the People\'s Commissariat for Education as early as 1919, as part of an overall agenda aiming to secularize education (the language itself did not cease to be studied at universities for historical and linguistic purposes ). The official ordinance stated that Yiddish, being the spoken language of the Russian Jews, should be treated as their only national language, while Hebrew
Hebrew
was to be treated as a foreign language. Hebrew
Hebrew
books and periodicals ceased to be published and were seized from the libraries, although liturgical texts were still published until the 1930s. Despite numerous protests, a policy of suppression of the teaching of Hebrew
Hebrew
operated from the 1930s on. Later in the 1980s in the USSR , Hebrew
Hebrew
studies reappeared due to people struggling for permission to go to Israel
Israel
(refuseniks ). Several of the teachers were imprisoned, e.g. Yosef Begun , Ephraim Kholmyansky
Ephraim Kholmyansky
, Yevgeny Korostyshevsky and others responsible for a Hebrew
Hebrew
learning network connecting many cities of the USSR.

MODERN HEBREW

Main article: Modern Hebrew Hebrew, Arabic
Arabic
and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard

Standard Hebrew, as developed by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda , was based on Mishnaic spelling and Sephardi Hebrew pronunciation. However, the earliest speakers of Modern Hebrew had Yiddish as their native language and often brought into Hebrew
Hebrew
idioms and calques from Yiddish.

The pronunciation of modern Israeli Hebrew
Hebrew
is based mostly on the Sephardic Hebrew pronunciation. However, the language has adapted to Ashkenazi Hebrew phonology in some respects, mainly the following:

* the elimination of pharyngeal articulation in the letters chet (ח ‎) and ayin ( ע ‎) by many speakers. * the conversion of (ר‎ ) /r/ from an alveolar flap to a voiced uvular fricative or uvular trill , by most of the speakers, like in most varieties of standard German or Yiddish. see Guttural R * the pronunciation (by many speakers) of tzere ֵ ‎ as in some contexts (sifréj and téjša instead of Sephardic sifré and tésha) * the partial elimination of vocal Shva ְ ‎ (zmán instead of Sephardic zĕman) * in popular speech, penultimate stress in proper names (Dvóra instead of Dĕvorá; Yehúda instead of Yĕhudá) and some other words

* similarly in popular speech, penultimate stress in verb forms with a second person plural suffix (katávtem "you wrote" instead of kĕtavtém).

The vocabulary used within the Hebrew
Hebrew
language has been altered from its original form due to its reintroduction to various cultures throughout the ages. The mouth-to-ear pedagogical method used in transmitting Hebrew
Hebrew
to generations of children has undergone Europeanization in each attempt, resulting in the radically unique and unpredictable course that maintains its current form under the classification of Modern Hebrew. This "course that Modern Hebrew has embarked upon is the sure sign that Hebrew
Hebrew
has been reborn."

In Israel, Modern Hebrew is currently taught in institutions called Ulpanim (singular: Ulpan). There are government owned as well as private Ulpanim offering online courses and face-to-face programs.

CURRENT STATUS

Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language

Modern Hebrew is the primary official language of the State of Israel. As of 2013, there are about 9 million Hebrew
Hebrew
speakers worldwide, of whom 7 million speak it fluently.

Currently, 90% of Israeli Jews
Jews
are proficient in Hebrew, and 70% are highly proficient. Some 60% of Israeli Arabs are also proficient in Hebrew, and 30% prefer speaking Hebrew
Hebrew
over Arabic. However, Hebrew is the native language of only 49% of Israelis over the age of 20, with Russian , Arabic
Arabic
, French, English, Yiddish and Ladino being the native tongues of most of the rest. Some 26% of Russian immigrants and 12% of Arabs speak Hebrew
Hebrew
poorly or not at all.

Due to the current climate of globalization and Americanization , steps have been taken to keep Hebrew
Hebrew
the primary language of use, and to prevent large-scale incorporation of English words into Hebrew vocabulary. The Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
currently invents about 2,000 new Hebrew
Hebrew
words each year for modern words by finding an original Hebrew
Hebrew
word that captures the meaning, as an alternative to incorporating more English words into Hebrew
Hebrew
vocabulary. The Haifa
Haifa
municipality has banned officials from using English words in official documents, and is fighting to stop businesses from using only English signs to market their services. In 2012, a Knesset bill for the preservation of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language was proposed, which includes the stipulation that all signage in Israel
Israel
must first and foremost be in Hebrew, as with all speeches by Israeli officials abroad. The bill's author, MK Akram Hasson , stated that the bill was proposed as a response to Hebrew "losing its prestige", and children incorporating more English words into their vocabulary. Hebrew
Hebrew
is also an official national minority language in Poland
Poland
, since 6 January 2005.

PHONOLOGY

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .

Further information: Biblical Hebrew § Phonology , and Modern Hebrew phonology

Biblical Hebrew had a typical Semitic consonant inventory, with pharyngeal /ʕ ħ/, a series of "emphatic" consonants (possibly ejective , but this is debated), lateral fricative /ɬ/, and in its older stages also uvular /χ ʁ/. /χ ʁ/ merged into /ħ ʕ/ in later Biblical Hebrew, and /b ɡ d k p t/ underwent allophonic spirantization to (known as begadkefat ). The earliest Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
vowel system contained the Proto-Semitic vowels /a aː i iː u uː/ as well as /oː/, but this system changed dramatically over time.

By the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls, /ɬ/ had shifted to /s/ in the Jewish
Jewish
traditions, though for the Samaritans
Samaritans
it merged with /ʃ/ instead. (Elisha Qimron 1986. Hebrew
Hebrew
of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 29). The Tiberian reading tradition of the Middle Ages had the vowel system /a ɛ e i ɔ o u ă ɔ̆ ɛ̆/, though other Medieval reading traditions had fewer vowels.

A number of reading traditions have been preserved in liturgical use. In Oriental (Sephardi and Mizrahi ) Jewish
Jewish
reading traditions, the emphatic consonants are realized as pharyngealized, while the Ashkenazi (northern and eastern European) traditions have lost emphatics and pharyngeals (although according to Ashkenazi law, pharyngeal articulation is preferred over uvular or glottal articulation when representing the community in religious service such as prayer and Torah reading ), and show the shift of /w/ to /v/. The Samaritan tradition has a complex vowel system which does not correspond closely to the Tiberian systems.

Modern Hebrew pronunciation developed from a mixture of the different Jewish
Jewish
reading traditions, generally tending towards simplification. Emphatic consonants have shifted to their ordinary counterparts, /w/ to /v/, and are not present. Many Israelis merge /ʕ ħ/ with /ʔ χ/, do not have contrastive gemination, and pronounce /r/ as a uvular trill or fricative rather than an alveolar trill, as in many varieties of Ashkenazi Hebrew. The consonants /tʃ dʒ/ have become phonemic due to loan words, and /w/ has similarly been re-introduced.

CONSONANTS

Proto Semitic IPA HEBREW EXAMPLE

WRITTEN BIBLICAL TIBERIAN MODERN WORD MEANING

*B

ב‎3 ḇ/B /B/ /V/, /B/ /V/, /B/ בית house

*D

ד‎3 ḏ/D /D/ /ð/, /D/ /D/ דב bear

*G

ג‎3 ḡ/G /ɡ/ /ɣ/, /G/ /ɡ/ גמל camel

*P

פ‎3 P̄/P /P/ /F/, /P/ /F/, /P/ פחם coal

*T

ת‎3 ṯ/T /T/ /θ/, /T/ /T/ תחת under

*K

כ‎3 ḵ/K /K/ /X/, /K/ /χ/, /K/ כוכב star

*ṭ

ט‎ ṭ ṭ /Tˤ/ /T/ טבח cook

*Q

ק‎ Q Q /Q/ /K/ קבר tomb

*ḏ / ז‎2 Z /ð/ /Z/ /Z/ זכר male

*Z / /z/ זרק to throw

*S / ס‎ S /S/ /S/ /S/ סוכר sugar

*š / שׁ‎2 š /ʃ/ /ʃ/ /ʃ/ שׁמים sky

*ṯ / /θ/ שׁמונה eight

*ś / שׂ‎1 ś /ɬ/ /S/ /S/ שׂמאל left

*ṱ / צ‎ ṣ ṱ /Sˤ/ /TS/ צל shadow

*ṣ / צרח to scream

*ṣ́ / צחק to laugh

*ġ ~ ע‎ ʻ /ʁ/ /ʕ/ /ʔ/, - עורב raven

/ʕ/ עשׂר ten

א‎ ʼ /ʔ/ /ʔ/ /ʔ/, - אב father

*ḫ ~ ח‎2 ḥ /χ/ /ħ/ /χ/ חמשׁ five

*ḥ

/ħ/ חבל rope

*H

ה‎ H /H/ /H/ /H/, - הגר to emigrate

*M

מ‎ M /M/ /M/ /M/ מים water

*N

נ‎ N /N/ /N/ /N/ נביא prophet

*R

ר‎ R /ɾ/ /ɾ/ /ʁ/ רגל leg

*L

ל‎ L /L/ /L/ /L/ לשׁון tongue

*Y

י‎ Y /J/ /J/ /J/ יד hand

*W

ו‎ W /W/ /W/ /V/ ורד rose

PROTO-SEMITIC IPA HEBREW BIBLICAL TIBERIAN MODERN EXAMPLE

Notes:

* Proto-Semitic *ś was still pronounced as in Biblical Hebrew, but no letter was available in the Phoenician alphabet, so the letter ש‎ did double duty, representing both /ʃ/ and /ɬ/. Later on, however, /ɬ/ merged with /s/, but the old spelling was largely retained, and the two pronunciations of ש‎ were distinguished graphically in Tiberian Hebrew as שׁ‎ /ʃ/ vs. שׂ‎ /s/ < /ɬ/. * Biblical Hebrew as of the 3rd century BCE apparently still distinguished the phonemes ġ /ʁ/, ḫ /χ/, ḏ /ð/ and ṯ /θ/, based on transcriptions in the Septuagint . As in the case of /ɬ/, no letters were available to represent these sounds, and existing letters did double duty: ח‎ /χ/ /ħ/, ע‎ /ʁ/ /ʕ/, שׁ‎ /θ/ /ʃ/ and ז‎ /ð/ /z/. In all of these cases, however, the sounds represented by the same letter eventually merged, leaving no evidence (other than early transcriptions) of the former distinctions. * Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic underwent begadkefat spirantization at a certain point, whereby the stop sounds /b ɡ d k p t/ were softened to the corresponding fricatives (written ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ) when occurring after a vowel and not geminated. This change probably happened after the original Old Aramaic phonemes /θ, ð/ disappeared in the 7th century BCE, and most likely occurred after the loss of Hebrew
Hebrew
/χ, ʁ/ c. 200 BCE. It is known to have occurred in Hebrew
Hebrew
by the 2nd century. After a certain point this alternation became contrastive in word-medial and final position (though bearing low functional load ), but in word-initial position they remained allophonic. In Modern Hebrew , the distinction has a higher functional load due to the loss of gemination, although only the three fricatives /v χ f/ are still preserved (the fricative /x/ is pronounced /χ/ in modern Hebrew). (The others are pronounced like the corresponding stops, apparently under the influence of later non-native speakers whose native European tongues lacked the sounds /ɣ ð θ/ as phonemes.)

HEBREW GRAMMAR

Main article: Modern Hebrew grammar Further information: History of Hebrew
Hebrew
grammar

Hebrew
Hebrew
grammar is partly analytic , expressing such forms as dative , ablative , and accusative using prepositional particles rather than grammatical cases . However, inflection plays a decisive role in the formation of the verbs and nouns. For example, nouns have a construct state , called "smikhut", to denote the relationship of "belonging to": this is the converse of the genitive case of more inflected languages. Words in smikhut are often combined with hyphens . In modern speech, the use of the construct is sometimes interchangeable with the preposition "shel", meaning "of". There are many cases, however, where older declined forms are retained (especially in idiomatic expressions and the like), and "person"-enclitics are widely used to "decline" prepositions.

MORPHOLOGY

Like all Semitic languages, the Hebrew
Hebrew
language exhibits a pattern of stems consisting typically of "triliteral ", or 3-consonant consonantal roots (4-consonant roots also exist), from which nouns, adjectives, and verbs are formed in various ways: e.g. by inserting vowels, doubling consonants, lengthening vowels, and/or adding prefixes, suffixes, or infixes .

Hebrew
Hebrew
uses a number of one-letter prefixes that are added to words for various purposes. These are called inseparable prepositions or "Letters of Use" ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אותיות השימוש, Otiyot HaShimush). Such items include: the definite article ha- (/ha/) (="the"); prepositions be- (/bə/) (="in"), le- (/lə/) (="to"; a shortened version of the preposition el), mi- (/mi/) (="from"; a shortened version of the preposition min); conjunctions ve- (/və/) (="and"), she- (/ʃe/) (="that"; a shortened version of the Biblical conjunction asher), ke- (/kə/) (="as", "like"; a shortened version of the conjunction kmo).

The vowel accompanying each of these letters may differ from those listed above, depending on the first letter or vowel following it. The rules governing these changes, hardly observed in colloquial speech as most speakers tend to employ the regular form, may be heard in more formal circumstances. For example, if a preposition is put before a word which begins with a moving Shva , then the preposition takes the vowel /i/ (and the initial consonant may be weakened): colloquial be-kfar (="in a village") corresponds to the more formal bi-khfar.

The definite article may be inserted between a preposition or a conjunction and the word it refers to, creating composite words like mé-ha-kfar (="from the village"). The latter also demonstrates the change in the vowel of mi-. With be and le, the definite article is assimilated into the prefix, which then becomes ba or la. Thus *be-ha-matos becomes ba-matos (="in the plane"). Note that this does not happen to mé (the form of "min" or "mi-" used before the letter "he"), therefore mé-ha-matos is a valid form, which means "from the airplane". * indicates that the given example is grammatically non-standard .

SYNTAX

Like most other languages, the vocabulary of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language is divided into verbs, nouns, adjectives, and so on, and its sentence structure can be analyzed by terms like object, subject, and so on.

* Many Hebrew
Hebrew
sentences have several correct orders of words. One can change the order of the words in the sentence and keep the same meaning. For example, the sentence "Dad went to work", in Hebrew, includes a word for Dad (אבא aba), for went (הלך halaḵ), and for to work (to the working place = לעבודה la-ʿavoda). However, unlike in English, those three words can be put in almost any combination (אבא הלך לעבודה/ לעבודה אבא הלך/ לעבודה הלך אבא/ הלך אבא לעבודה and so on). * In Hebrew, there is no word that is supposed to come before every singular noun (i.e. an article ). * Hebrew
Hebrew
sentences do not have to include verbs; the copula in the present tense is omitted (although might be implied). For example, the sentence "I am here" (אני פה ani po) has only two words; one for I (אני) and one for here (פה). In the sentence "I am that person" (אני הוא אדם זה ani hu adam ze), the word for "am" corresponds to the word for "he" (הוא). However, this may also be omitted. Thus, the sentence (אני אדם זה) is identical in meaning. * Unlike the verb "to have" in English, none of the possession terms in Hebrew
Hebrew
are verbs. * Though early Biblical Hebrew had a verb-subject-object ordering, this gradually transitioned to a subject-verb-object ordering. * In Hebrew
Hebrew
there is a specific preposition (את et) for direct objects that would not have a preposition marker in English. The English phrase "he ate the cake" would in Hebrew
Hebrew
be הוא אכל את העוגה hu akhal et ha'ugah (literally, "He ate את the cake"). The word את, however, can be omitted, making הוא אכל העוגה hu akhal ha'ugah ("He ate the cake"). Former Israeli Prime Minister David
David
Ben-Gurion was convinced that את should never be used as it elongates the sentence without adding meaning.

WRITING SYSTEM

Main articles: Hebrew alphabet and Hebrew
Hebrew
braille Hebrew alphabet

Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet , which is an abjad , or consonant-only script of 22 letters. The ancient paleo- Hebrew alphabet is similar to those used for Canaanite and Phoenician . Modern scripts are based on the "square" letter form, known as Ashurit (Assyrian), which was developed from the Aramaic script. A cursive Hebrew
Hebrew
script is used in handwriting: the letters tend to be more circular in form when written in cursive, and sometimes vary markedly from their printed equivalents. The medieval version of the cursive script forms the basis of another style, known as Rashi script . When necessary, vowels are indicated by diacritic marks above or below the letter representing the syllabic onset, or by use of matres lectionis , which are consonantal letters used as vowels. Further diacritics are used to indicate variations in the pronunciation of the consonants (e.g. bet/vet, shin/sin); and, in some contexts, to indicate the punctuation, accentuation, and musical rendition of Biblical texts (see Cantillation
Cantillation
).

LITURGICAL USE IN JUDAISM

Audio example of liturgical Hebrew
Hebrew
This is a portion of the blessing that is traditionally chanted before the Aliyah La-Torah (reading of the Torah). -------------------------

Problems playing this file? See media help .

Hebrew
Hebrew
has always been used as the language of prayer and study, and the following pronunciation systems are found.

Ashkenazi Hebrew , originating in Central and Eastern Europe, is still widely used in Ashkenazi Jewish
Jewish
religious services and studies in Israel
Israel
and abroad, particularly in the Haredi
Haredi
and other Orthodox communities. It was influenced by the Yiddish language.

Sephardi Hebrew is the traditional pronunciation of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews
Jews
and Sephardi Jews
Jews
in the countries of the former Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, with the exception of Yemenite Hebrew
Hebrew
. This pronunciation, in the form used by the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Sephardic community, is the basis of the Hebrew
Hebrew
phonology of Israeli native speakers. It was influenced by the Judezmo language.

Mizrahi (Oriental) Hebrew
Hebrew
is actually a collection of dialects spoken liturgically by Jews
Jews
in various parts of the Arab
Arab
and Islamic world. It was possibly influenced by the Aramaic and Arabic
Arabic
languages , and in some cases by Sephardi Hebrew , although some linguists maintain that it is the direct heir of Biblical Hebrew and thus represents the true dialect of Hebrew. The same claim is sometimes made for Yemenite Hebrew
Hebrew
or Temanit, which differs from other Mizrahi dialects by having a radically different vowel system, and distinguishing between different diacritically marked consonants that are pronounced identically in other dialects (for example gimel and "ghimel".)

These pronunciations are still used in synagogue ritual and religious study, in Israel
Israel
and elsewhere, mostly by people who are not native speakers of Hebrew, though some traditionalist Israelis are bi-dialectal.

Many synagogues in the diaspora, even though Ashkenazi by rite and by ethnic composition, have adopted the "Sephardic" pronunciation in deference to Israeli Hebrew. However, in many British and American schools and synagogues, this pronunciation retains several elements of its Ashkenazi substrate, especially the distinction between tsere and segol .

SEE ALSO

* Israel
Israel
portal * Language portal

* Hebraism * Hebraization of English * Hebrew
Hebrew
abbreviations * Hebrew
Hebrew
literature * Jewish
Jewish
languages * List of English words of Hebrew
Hebrew
origin * Romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew
* Study of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language

NOTES

* ^ Sephardi ; Iraqi ; Yemenite ; Ashkenazi realization or strict pronunciation or * ^ In the Tanakh ( Jewish
Jewish
Bible), the language was referred to as Yehudit "the language of Judah" or səpaṯ kəna‘an "the language of Canaan". Later Hellenistic writers such as Josephus
Josephus
and the Gospel of John used the term Hebraisti to refer to both Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic. * ^ A B Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde: "There is general agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed. The second stage begins with the Amoraim and sees RH being replaced by Aramaic as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings until the tenth century in, for example, the Hebrew
Hebrew
portions of the two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature." * ^ Fernández -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B C D Sáenz-Badillos, Angel (1993) . A History of the Hebrew Language. Translated by Elwolde, John. Cambridge University Press. * ^ H. S. Nyberg 1952. Hebreisk Grammatik. s. 2. Reprinted in Sweden by Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala 2006.

* ^ A B Modern Hebrew at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Classical Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Samaritan Hebrew (liturgical) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Moabite (extinct) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Edomite (extinct) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ A B Thompson, Irene (June 15, 2016). "Hebrew". About World Languages. * ^ Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy (2013). A Language in Space: The Story of Israeli Sign Language. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hebrewic". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ A B Gur, Nachman; Haredim, Behadrey. "\'Kometz Aleph – Au\': How many Hebrew
Hebrew
speakers are there in the world?". Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ Rick Aschmann, "Hebrew" in Genesis * ^ "Most ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
biblical inscription deciphered". Physorg.com. January 7, 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ Grenoble, Leonore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J. (2005). Saving Languages: An Introduction to Language Revitalization. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0521016520 . Retrieved 28 March 2017. Hebrew
Hebrew
is cited by Paulston et al. (1993:276) as 'the only true example of language revival.' * ^ Fesperman, Dan (26 April 1998). "Once \'dead\' language brings Israel
Israel
to life Hebrew: After 1,700 years, a revived language becomes a common thread knitting together a nation of immigrants with little in common except religion". The Baltimore Sun. Sun Foreign Staff. Retrieved 28 March 2017. * ^ A B "Hebrew" in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edit. F.L. Cross, first edition (Oxford, 1958), 3rd edition (Oxford 1997). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church which once said, in 1958 in its first edition, that Hebrew
Hebrew
"ceased to be a spoken language around the fourth century BCE", now says, in its 1997 (third) edition, that Hebrew
Hebrew
"continued to be used as a spoken and written language in the New Testament period". * ^ A B C Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language. P.170-171 * ^ "If you couldn't speak Greek by say the time of early Christianity you couldn't get a job. You wouldn't get a good job. a professional job. You had to know Greek in addition to your own language. And so you were getting to a point where Jews...the Jewish community in say Egypt and large cities like Alexandria didn't know Hebrew
Hebrew
anymore they only knew Greek. And so you need a Greek version in the synagogue." – Josheph Blankinsopp, Professor of Biblical Studies University of Notre Dame in A&E's Who Wrote the Bible * ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau, archived from the original on 2007-12-25, retrieved 2011-12-27 * ^ "הספריה של מט"ח". Lib.cet.ac.il. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew, Baker Academic, 2001. * ^ אברהם בן יוסף ,מבוא לתולדות הלשון העברית (Avraham ben-Yosef, Introduction to the History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language), page 38, אור-עם, Tel-Aviv, 1981. * ^ "\'Oldest Hebrew
Hebrew
script\' is found". BBC News. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010. * ^ "\'Proof\' David
David
slew Goliath found as Israeli archaeologists unearth \'oldest ever Hebrew
Hebrew
text\'". Daily Mail. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010. * ^ "Have Israeli Archaeologists Found World\'s Oldest Hebrew Inscription?". Haaretz. AP. 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010. * ^ William M. Schniedewind, "Prolegomena for the Sociolinguistics of Classical Hebrew", The Journal of Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures vol. 5 article 6 Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ M. Segal, A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927). * ^ Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew
Hebrew
of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Harvard Semitic Studies 29 (Atlanta: Scholars Press 1986). * ^ Nicholas Ostler, Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, Harper Perennial, London, New York, Toronto, Sydney 2006 p80 * ^ A B C Spolsky, Bernard and Elana Goldberg Shohamy. The languages of Israel: policy, ideology and practice. P.9 * ^ A B Miguel Perez Fernandez, An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew
Hebrew
(Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill 1997). * ^ An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew (Fernández 22:2; 26:14: têi hebraḯdi dialéktôi, lit. 'in the Hebrew dialect/language' * ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A. 1979. A Wandering Armenian: Collected Aramaic Essays. P.43 * ^ Geoffrey W. Bromley (ed.) The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, W.B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1979, 4 vols. vol.1 sub.'Aramaic' p.233: 'in the Aramaic vernacular of Palestine' * ^ Randall Buth and Chad Pierce "EBRAISTI in Ancient Texts, Does ἑβραιστί ever Mean 'Aramaic'?" in Buth and Notley eds., Language Environment of First Century Judaea, Brill,2014:66-109. p109 "no, Ἑβραιστί does not ever appear to mean Aramaic in attested texts during the Second Temple and Graeco-Roman periods."; p. 107 "John did not mention what either βεθεσδα or γαββαθα meant. They may both have been loanwords from Greek and Latin respectively." p103 "βεθεσδα ... (בית-אסטא(ן ... house of portico ... 3Q15 אסטאן הדרומית southern portico," and Latin gabata (p. 106) "means platter, dish... perhaps a mosaic design in the pavement ... " The Latin loanword is attested as "bowl" in later Christian Palestinian Aramaic and גבתא is (p106) "unattested in other Aramaic dialects" . * ^ J. M. Griatz, " Hebrew
Hebrew
in the Days of the Second Temple" QBI, 79 (1960) pp.32-47 * ^ Languages of the World (Hebrew) Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Abraham ibn Ezra, Hebrew
Hebrew
Grammar, Venice 1546 (Hebrew) * ^ T. Carmi, Penguin Book of Hebrew
Hebrew
Verse. * ^ Safrai, Shmuel, Shemuel Safrai, M. Stern. 1976. The Jewish people in the first century. P.1036 * ^ Fox, Marvin. 1995. Interpreting Maimonides. P.326 * ^ Mishnah B\'rurah - Israel
Israel
Meir (ha-Kohen), Aharon Feldman, Aviel Orenstein - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1980. ISBN 9780873061988 . Retrieved 2013-05-03. * ^ Shalom
Shalom
Spiegel , Hebrew
Hebrew
Reborn,(1930) Meridian Books reprint 1962, New York p.56 * ^ Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the Resurgence of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language by Libby Kantorwitz * ^ "The Transformation of Jewish
Jewish
Culture in the USSR from 1930 to the Present (in Russian)". Jewish-heritage.org. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ Michael Nosonovsky (25 August 1997). "Nosonovski, Michael (in Russian)". Berkovich-zametki.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ Protest against the suppression of Hebrew
Hebrew
in the Soviet Union 1930-1931 signed by Albert Einstein , among others. * ^ Rosen, Rosén (1966). A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. p. 0.161. ISBN 0-226-72603-7 . * ^ Shisha Halevy, Ariel (1989). The Proper Name: Structural Prolegomena to its Syntax - a Case Study in Coptic. Vienna: VWGÖ. p. 33. * ^ Greenberg, Moshe (1965). Introduction to Hebrew. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, INC. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0134844696 . * ^ Klein, Zeev (March 18, 2013). "A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew". Israel
Israel
Hayom . Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ "The differences between English and Hebrew". Frankfurt International School . Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ " Hebrew
Hebrew
- UCL". University College London
University College London
. Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ "Why Learn a Language?". Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ A B C "CBS: 27% of Israelis struggle with Hebrew
Hebrew
- Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. * ^ "Some Arabs Prefer Hebrew
Hebrew
- Education - News". Israel
Israel
National News. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ "Keeping Hebrew
Hebrew
Israel\'s living language - Israel
Israel
Culture, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ Danan, Deborah (28 December 2012). "Druse MK wins prize for helping preserve Hebrew
Hebrew
JPost Israel
Israel
News". JPost. Retrieved 2013-04-25. * ^ http://www.efnil.org/documents/conference-publications/dublin-2009/16-Dublin-Pisarek-Mother.pdf * ^ Dolgopolsky (1999 :72) * ^ Dolgopolsky (1999 :73) * ^ Blau (2010 :78–81) * ^ "Basic Word Order in the Biblical Hebrew Verbal Clause, Part 6 Ancient Hebrew Grammar". Ancienthebrewgrammar.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-3654-8 . * Izre'el, Shlomo (2001). Benjamin Hary , ed. "The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew". (CoSIH): Working Papers I. * Klein, Reuven Chaim (2014). "Lashon HaKodesh: History, Holiness, & Hebrew". Mosaica Press. ISBN 978-1937887360 . * Kuzar, Ron (2001). Hebrew
Hebrew
and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic Cultural Study. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016993-2 . * Laufer, Asher (1999). Hebrew
Hebrew
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-65236-7 . * Sáenz-Badillos, Angel (1993). A History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language. Translated by John Elwolde. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55634-1 .

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