HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית, Ivrit ( listen ) or
( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to
Israel , spoken
by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as
the language of the
Israelites and their ancestors, although the
language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the
Tanakh . The
earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century
BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic
language family. Hebrew is the only living
Canaanite language left,
and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language .
Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between
200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
. Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as
international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It
survived into the medieval period as the language of
Jewish liturgy ,
rabbinic literature , intra-
Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the
19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It
became the lingua franca of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the
Israel . According to
Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the
language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United
States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000
fluent speakers, mostly from Israel.
Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of
Israel (the other being
Modern Standard Arabic ), while premodern
Hebrew is used for prayer or study in
Jewish communities around the
world today. The Samaritan dialect is also the liturgical tongue of
Samaritans , while modern Hebrew or
Arabic is their vernacular. As
a foreign language, it is studied mostly by
Jews and students of
Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing
Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in
Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew
Bible , is written in
Biblical Hebrew , with much of its present form
specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around
the 6th century BCE, around the time of the
Babylonian captivity . For
this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by
Jews as Leshon Hakodesh
(לשון הקדש), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Oldest Hebrew inscriptions
* 2.2 Classical Hebrew
* 2.2.2 Early post-
* 2.3 Displacement by Aramaic
* 2.6 Revival
* 3 Current status
* 4.1 Consonants
* 5 Hebrew grammar
* 5.1 Morphology
* 5.2 Syntax
* 7 Liturgical use in
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Bibliography
* 12 External links
The modern word "Hebrew" is derived from the word "Ivri" (plural
Hebrews ), one of several names for the Israelite
Jewish and Samaritan) people. It is traditionally understood to be an
adjective based on the name of Abraham's ancestor,
Eber ("Ever" עבר
in Hebrew), mentioned in Genesis 10:21. This name is possibly based
upon the root "ʕ-b-r" (עבר) meaning "to cross over".
Interpretations of the term "ʕibrim" link it to this verb; cross over
or the people who crossed over the river
In the Bible, the
Hebrew language is called Yәhudit (יהודית)
because Judah (Yәhuda) was the surviving kingdom at the time of the
quotation (late 8th century BCE (Is 36, 2 Kings 18)). In Isaiah 19:18
it is called the "
Language of Canaan" (שפת כנען).
Hebrew belongs to the Canaanite group of languages . In turn, the
Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of
According to Avraham Ben-Yosef, Hebrew flourished as a spoken
language in the Kingdoms of
Israel and Judah during about 1200 to 586
BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew was a spoken
vernacular in ancient times following the
Babylonian exile , when the
predominant international language in the region was
Old Aramaic .
Hebrew was extinct as a colloquial language by
Late Antiquity , but
it continued to be used as a literary language and as the liturgical
language of Judaism, evolving various dialects of literary Medieval
Hebrew , until its revival as a spoken language in the late 19th
OLDEST HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS
Ancient Hebrew writings
In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a
ceramic shard at
Khirbet Qeiyafa which he claimed may be the earliest
Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating around 3000 years ago. Hebrew
University archaeologist Amihai Mazar said that the inscription was
"proto-Canaanite" but cautioned that, "The differentiation between the
scripts, and between the languages themselves in that period, remains
unclear," and suggested that calling the text Hebrew might be going
Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the
beginning of the Monarchic Period, the traditional time of the reign
Solomon . Classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the
calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural
Gezer calendar (named after the city in whose
proximity it was found) is written in an old Semitic script, akin to
the Phoenician one that through the Greeks and Etruscans later became
Roman script . The
Gezer calendar is written without any vowels,
and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places
Hebrew spelling requires it. The
Shebna Inscription ,
from the tomb of a royal steward found in
Siloam , dates to the 7th
Numerous older tablets have been found in the region with similar
scripts written in other Semitic languages, for example Protosinaitic
. It is believed that the original shapes of the script go back to
Egyptian hieroglyphs , though the phonetic values are instead inspired
by the acrophonic principle. The common ancestor of Hebrew and
Phoenician is called Canaanite , and was the first to use a Semitic
alphabet distinct from Egyptian. One ancient document is the famous
Moabite Stone written in the Moabite dialect; the
Siloam Inscription ,
Jerusalem , is an early example of Hebrew. Less ancient
samples of Archaic Hebrew include the ostraca found near
describe events preceding the final capture of
Nebuchadnezzar and the
Babylonian captivity of 586 BCE.
In its widest sense,
Biblical Hebrew means the spoken language of
Israel flourishing between the 10th century BCE and the turn
of the 4th century CE . It comprises several evolving and overlapping
dialects. The phases of Classical Hebrew are often named after
important literary works associated with them.
Biblical Hebrew from the 10th to the 6th century BCE,
corresponding to the Monarchic Period until the Babylonian Exile and
represented by certain texts in the
Hebrew Bible (
Tanakh ), notably
the Song of Moses (Exodus 15) and the Song of Deborah (Judges 5). Also
called Old Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew. It was written in the Paleo-Hebrew
alphabet . A script descended from this, the
Samaritan alphabet , is
still used by the
Hebrew script used in writing a
Torah scroll. Note ornamental
"crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Biblical Hebrew around the 8th to 6th centuries BCE,
corresponding to the late Monarchic period and the Babylonian Exile.
It is represented by the bulk of the
Hebrew Bible that attains much of
its present form around this time. Also called Biblical Hebrew, Early
Biblical Hebrew, Classical
Biblical Hebrew (or Classical Hebrew in the
Biblical Hebrew , from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BCE, that
corresponds to the Persian Period and is represented by certain texts
Hebrew Bible , notably the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.
Basically similar to Classical Biblical Hebrew, apart from a few
foreign words adopted for mainly governmental terms, and some
syntactical innovations such as the use of the particle she-
(alternative of 'ʾasher' "that, which, who"). It adopted the Imperial
Aramaic script (from which the modern Hebrew script descends).
Israelian Hebrew is a proposed northern dialect of biblical
Hebrew, attested in all eras of the language, in some cases competing
with late biblical Hebrew as an explanation for non-standard
linguistic features of biblical texts.
Early Post-Biblical Hebrew
* Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century
CE, corresponding to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods before the
destruction of the Temple in
Jerusalem and represented by the Qumran
Scrolls that form most (but not all) of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Commonly
abbreviated as DSS Hebrew, also called
Qumran Hebrew. The Imperial
Aramaic script of the earlier scrolls in the 3rd century BCE evolved
Hebrew square script of the later scrolls in the 1st century
CE, also known as ketav Ashuri (Assyrian script), still in use today.
Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE,
corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple
Jerusalem and represented by the bulk of the
Mishnah and Tosefta
Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba
letters and the
Copper Scroll . Also called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early
Sometimes the above phases of spoken Classical Hebrew are simplified
into "Biblical Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 10th
century BCE to 2nd century BCE and extant in certain Dead Sea Scrolls)
and "Mishnaic Hebrew" (including several dialects from the 3rd century
BCE to the 3rd century CE and extant in certain other Dead Sea
Scrolls). However, today, most Hebrew linguists classify Dead Sea
Scroll Hebrew as a set of dialects evolving out of Late Biblical
Hebrew and into Mishnaic Hebrew, thus including elements from both but
remaining distinct from either. By the start of the Byzantine Period
in the 4th century CE, Classical Hebrew ceases as a regularly spoken
language, roughly a century after the publication of the Mishnah,
apparently declining since the aftermath of the catastrophic Bar
Kokhba War around 135 CE.
DISPLACEMENT BY ARAMAIC
Rashi script A silver matchbox holder with inscription
in Hebrew See also:
Around the 6th century BCE, the
Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered the
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah , destroying much of
Jerusalem and exiling
its population far to the East in
Babylon . During the Babylonian
captivity , many
Israelites learned Aramaic, the closely related
Semitic language of their captors. Thus for a significant period, the
Jewish elite became influenced by Aramaic.
Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon, he allowed the
to return from captivity. As a result, a local version of Aramaic came
to be spoken in
Israel alongside Hebrew. By the beginning of the
Common Era , Aramaic was the primary colloquial language of Samarian ,
Babylonian and Galileean Jews, and western and intellectual
Greek , but a form of so-called
Rabbinic Hebrew continued to be used
as a vernacular in Judea until it was displaced by Aramaic, probably
in the 3rd century CE. Certain Sadducee , Pharisee , Scribe , Hermit,
Zealot and Priest classes maintained an insistence on Hebrew, and all
Jews maintained their identity with Hebrew songs and simple quotations
from Hebrew texts.
While there is no doubt that at a certain point, Hebrew was displaced
as the everyday spoken language of most Jews, and that its chief
successor in the
Middle East was the closely related Aramaic language,
then Greek , scholarly opinions on the exact dating of that shift
have changed very much. In the first half of the 20th century, most
scholars followed Geiger and Dalman in thinking that Aramaic became a
spoken language in the land of
Israel as early as the beginning of
Israel's Hellenistic Period in the 4th century BCE, and that as a
corollary Hebrew ceased to function as a spoken language around the
same time. Segal, Klausner, and Ben Yehuda are notable exceptions to
this view. During the latter half of the 20th century, accumulating
archaeological evidence and especially linguistic analysis of the Dead
Sea Scrolls has disproven that view. The Dead Sea Scrolls, uncovered
in 1946–1948 near
Qumran revealed ancient
overwhelmingly in Hebrew, not Aramaic.
Qumran scrolls indicate that Hebrew texts were readily
understandable to the average Israelite, and that the language had
evolved since Biblical times as spoken languages do. Recent
scholarship recognizes that reports of
Jews speaking in Aramaic
indicates a multilingual society, not necessarily the primary language
spoken. Alongside Aramaic, Hebrew co-existed within
Israel as a spoken
language. Most scholars now date the demise of Hebrew as a spoken
language to the end of the Roman Period , or about 200 CE. It
continued on as a literary language down through the Byzantine Period
from the 4th century CE.
The exact roles of Aramaic and Hebrew remain hotly debated. A
trilingual scenario has been proposed for the land of Israel. Hebrew
functioned as the local mother tongue with powerful ties to Israel's
history, origins, and golden age and as the language of Israel's
religion; Aramaic functioned as the international language with the
rest of the Middle East; and eventually Greek functioned as another
international language with the eastern areas of the Roman Empire.
According to another summary, Greek was the language of government,
Hebrew the language of prayer, study and religious texts, and Aramaic
was the language of legal contracts and trade. There was also a
geographic pattern: according to Spolsky, by the beginning of the
Common Era, "
Judeo-Aramaic was mainly used in
Galilee in the north,
Greek was concentrated in the former colonies and around governmental
centers, and Hebrew monolingualism continued mainly in the southern
villages of Judea." In other words, "in terms of dialect geography,
at the time of the tannaim Palestine could be divided into the
Aramaic-speaking regions of
Samaria and a smaller area,
Judaea, in which
Rabbinic Hebrew was used among the descendants of
returning exiles." In addition, it has been surmised that Koine
Greek was the primary vehicle of communication in coastal cities and
among the upper class of
Jerusalem , while Aramaic was prevalent in
the lower class of Jerusalem, but not in the surrounding countryside.
After the suppression of the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century CE,
Judaeans were forced to disperse. Many relocated to Galilee, so most
remaining native speakers of Hebrew at that last stage would have been
found in the north.
New Testament contains some Semitic place names and
quotes. The language of such Semitic glosses (and in general the
language spoken by
Jews in scenes from the New Testament) is often
referred to as "Hebrew" in the text, although this term is often
re-interpreted as referring to Aramaic instead and is rendered
accordingly in recent translations. Nonetheless, these glosses can be
interpreted as Hebrew as well. It has been argued that Hebrew, rather
than Aramaic or Koine Greek, lay behind the composition of the Gospel
of Matthew . (See the
Hebrew Gospel hypothesis or
Language of Jesus
for more details on Hebrew and Aramaic in the gospels.)
MISHNAH AND TALMUD
The term "Mishnaic Hebrew" generally refers to the Hebrew dialects
found in the
Talmud , excepting quotations from the Hebrew Bible. The
dialects organize into
Mishnaic Hebrew (also called Tannaitic Hebrew,
Early Rabbinic Hebrew, or
Mishnaic Hebrew I), which was a spoken
language , and Amoraic Hebrew (also called Late
Rabbinic Hebrew or
Mishnaic Hebrew II), which was a literary language . The earlier
section of the
Talmud is the
Mishnah that was published around 200 CE,
although many of the stories take place much earlier, and was written
in the earlier Mishnaic dialect. The dialect is also found in certain
Dead Sea Scrolls.
Mishnaic Hebrew is considered to be one of the
dialects of Classical Hebrew that functioned as a living language in
the land of Israel. A transitional form of the language occurs in the
other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning
with the completion of the Mishnah. These include the halachic
Sifre , Mechilta etc.) and the expanded collection
of Mishnah-related material known as the
Tosefta . The
excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not
attested elsewhere; the generic term for these passages is Baraitot .
The dialect of all these works is very similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.
About a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew
fell into disuse as a spoken language. The later section of the
Gemara , generally comments on the
Mishnah and Baraitot in
two forms of Aramaic. Nevertheless, Hebrew survived as a liturgical
and literary language in the form of later Amoraic Hebrew, which
sometimes occurs in the text of the Gemara.
Because as early as the Torah's transcription the Scribe has been the
highest position in Judaism, Hebrew was always regarded as the
language of Israel's religion, history and national pride, and after
it faded as a spoken language, it continued to be used as a lingua
franca among scholars and
Jews traveling in foreign countries. After
the 2nd century CE when the
Roman Empire exiled most of the Jewish
Jerusalem following the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt , they adapted
to the societies in which they found themselves, yet letters,
contracts, commerce, science, philosophy, medicine, poetry, and laws
continued to be written mostly in Hebrew, which adapted by borrowing
and inventing terms.
Aleppo Codex : 10th century
Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1). Kochangadi
Kochi , India dated to 1344.
After the Talmud, various regional literary dialects of Medieval
Hebrew evolved. The most important is
Tiberian Hebrew or Masoretic
Hebrew, a local dialect of
Galilee that became the
standard for vocalizing the
Hebrew Bible and thus still influences all
other regional dialects of Hebrew. This
Tiberian Hebrew from the 7th
to 10th century CE is sometimes called "Biblical Hebrew" because it is
used to pronounce the Hebrew Bible; however, properly it should be
distinguished from the historical
Biblical Hebrew of the 6th century
BCE, whose original pronunciation must be reconstructed. Tiberian
Hebrew incorporates the remarkable scholarship of the
masoret meaning "tradition"), who added vowel points and grammar
points to the Hebrew letters to preserve much earlier features of
Hebrew, for use in chanting the Hebrew Bible. The
a biblical text whose letters were considered too sacred to be
altered, so their markings were in the form of pointing in and around
the letters. The
Syriac alphabet , precursor to the
Arabic alphabet ,
also developed vowel pointing systems around this time. The Aleppo
Codex , a
Hebrew Bible with the Masoretic pointing, was written in the
10th century, likely in
Tiberias , and survives to this day. It is
perhaps the most important Hebrew manuscript in existence.
During the Golden age of
Jewish culture in Spain , important work was
done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of
Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians
Classical Arabic . Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben
David Hayyuj ,
Jonah ibn Janah ,
Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra and later (in
David Kimhi . A great deal of poetry was written, by poets
Dunash ben Labrat ,
Solomon ibn Gabirol ,
Judah ha-Levi ,
Moses ibn Ezra and
Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra , in a "purified" Hebrew based on
the work of these grammarians, and in
Arabic quantitative or strophic
meters. This literary Hebrew was later used by Italian
The need to express scientific and philosophical concepts from
Classical Greek and Medieval
Medieval Hebrew to
borrow terminology and grammar from these other languages, or to coin
equivalent terms from existing Hebrew roots, giving rise to a distinct
style of philosophical Hebrew. This is used in the translations made
Ibn Tibbon family. (Original
Jewish philosophical works were
usually written in Arabic.) Another important influence was Maimonides
, who developed a simple style based on
Mishnaic Hebrew for use in his
law code, the Mishneh
Torah . Subsequent rabbinic literature is
written in a blend between this style and the Aramaized Rabbinic
Hebrew of the Talmud.
Hebrew persevered through the ages as the main language for written
purposes by all
Jewish communities around the world for a large range
of uses—not only liturgy, but also poetry, philosophy, science and
medicine, commerce, daily correspondence and contracts. There have
been many deviations from this generalization such as Bar Kokhba 's
letters to his lieutenants, which were mostly in Aramaic, and
Maimonides ' writings, which were mostly in
Arabic ; but overall,
Hebrew did not cease to be used for such purposes. This meant not only
Jews in all parts of the world could correspond in
a mutually intelligible language, and that books and legal documents
published or written in any part of the world could be read by
all other parts, but that an educated Jew could travel and converse
Jews in distant places, just as priests and other educated
Christians could converse in Latin. For example, Rabbi Avraham Danzig
Chayei Adam in Hebrew, as opposed to
Yiddish , as a guide to
Halacha for the "average 17-year-old" (Ibid. Introduction 1).
Chofetz Chaim , Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan 's purpose in
Mishna Berurah was to "produce a work that could be
studied daily so that
Jews might know the proper procedures to follow
minute by minute". The work was nevertheless written in Talmudic
Hebrew and Aramaic, since, "the ordinary Jew of a century ago, was
fluent enough in this idiom to be able to follow the Mishna Berurah
without any trouble."
Revival of the Hebrew language
Hebrew has been revived several times as a literary language, most
significantly by the
Haskalah (Enlightenment) movement of early and
mid-19th-century Germany. Near the end of that century the Jewish
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda , owing to the ideology of the national
revival (שיבת ציון, Shivat Tziyon, later
Zionism ), began
reviving Hebrew as a modern spoken language. Eventually, as a result
of the local movement he created, but more significantly as a result
of the new groups of immigrants known under the name of the Second
Aliyah , it replaced a score of languages spoken by
Jews at that time.
Those languages were
Jewish dialects of local languages, including
Judaeo-Spanish (also called "Judezmo" and "Ladino"),
Arabic , and Bukhori (Tajiki), or local languages spoken in the
Jewish diaspora such as Russian , Persian , and
The major result of the literary work of the Hebrew intellectuals
along the 19th century was a lexical modernization of Hebrew. New
words and expressions were adapted as neologisms from the large corpus
of Hebrew writings since the Hebrew Bible, or borrowed from Arabic
(mainly by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda) and older Aramaic and Latin. Many new
words were either borrowed from or coined after European languages,
especially English, Russian, German, and French.
Modern Hebrew became
an official language in British-ruled Palestine in 1921 (along with
English and Arabic), and then in 1948 became an official language of
the newly declared State of
Israel . Hebrew is the most widely spoken
In the Modern Period, from the 19th century onward, the literary
Hebrew tradition revived as the spoken language of modern Israel,
called variously Israeli Hebrew, Modern Israeli Hebrew, Modern Hebrew,
New Hebrew, Israeli Standard Hebrew, Standard Hebrew, and so on.
Israeli Hebrew exhibits some features of
Sephardic Hebrew from its
local Jerusalemite tradition but adapts it with numerous neologisms,
borrowed terms (often technical) from European languages and adopted
terms (often colloquial) from Arabic.
The literary and narrative use of Hebrew was revived beginning with
Haskalah movement. The first secular periodical in Hebrew,
HaMe\'assef (The Gatherer), was published by maskilim in Königsberg
Kaliningrad ) from 1783 onwards. In the mid-19th century,
publications of several Eastern European Hebrew-language newspapers
Hamagid , founded in
Ełk in 1856) multiplied. Prominent poets
Hayim Nahman Bialik and
Shaul Tchernichovsky ; there were also
novels written in the language.
The revival of the
Hebrew language as a mother tongue was initiated
in the late 19th century by the efforts of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. He
Jewish national movement and in 1881 immigrated to
Palestine , then a part of the
Ottoman Empire . Motivated by the
surrounding ideals of renovation and rejection of the diaspora "shtetl
" lifestyle, Ben-Yehuda set out to develop tools for making the
literary and liturgical language into everyday spoken language .
However, his brand of Hebrew followed norms that had been replaced in
Eastern Europe by different grammar and style, in the writings of
people like Ahad Ha\'am and others. His organizational efforts and
involvement with the establishment of schools and the writing of
textbooks pushed the vernacularization activity into a gradually
accepted movement. It was not, however, until the 1904–1914 Second
Aliyah that Hebrew had caught real momentum in Ottoman Palestine with
the more highly organized enterprises set forth by the new group of
immigrants. When the
British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine recognized Hebrew as
one of the country's three official languages (English, Arabic, and
Hebrew, in 1922), its new formal status contributed to its diffusion.
A constructed modern language with a truly Semitic vocabulary and
written appearance, although often European in phonology , was to take
its place among the current languages of the nations.
While many saw his work as fanciful or even blasphemous (because
Hebrew was the holy language of the
Torah and therefore some thought
that it should not be used to discuss everyday matters), many soon
understood the need for a common language amongst
Jews of the British
Mandate who at the turn of the 20th century were arriving in large
numbers from diverse countries and speaking different languages. A
Committee of the Hebrew
Language was established. After the
establishment of Israel, it became the Academy of the Hebrew Language
. The results of Ben-Yehuda's lexicographical work were published in a
dictionary (The Complete Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew). The
seeds of Ben-Yehuda's work fell on fertile ground, and by the
beginning of the 20th century, Hebrew was well on its way to becoming
the main language of the
Jewish population of both Ottoman and British
Palestine. At the time, members of the Old
Yishuv and a very few
Hasidic sects, most notably those under the auspices of Satmar ,
refused to speak Hebrew and spoke only Yiddish.
Soviet Union , the use of Hebrew, along with other Jewish
cultural and religious activities, was suppressed. Soviet authorities
considered the use of Hebrew "reactionary" since it was associated
Zionism , and the teaching of Hebrew at primary and secondary
schools was officially banned by the People\'s Commissariat for
Education as early as 1919, as part of an overall agenda aiming to
secularize education (the language itself did not cease to be studied
at universities for historical and linguistic purposes ). The official
ordinance stated that Yiddish, being the spoken language of the
Russian Jews, should be treated as their only national language, while
Hebrew was to be treated as a foreign language. Hebrew books and
periodicals ceased to be published and were seized from the libraries,
although liturgical texts were still published until the 1930s.
Despite numerous protests, a policy of suppression of the teaching of
Hebrew operated from the 1930s on. Later in the 1980s in the USSR ,
Hebrew studies reappeared due to people struggling for permission to
Israel (refuseniks ). Several of the teachers were imprisoned,
e.g. Yosef Begun ,
Ephraim Kholmyansky , Yevgeny Korostyshevsky and
others responsible for a Hebrew learning network connecting many
cities of the USSR.
Modern Hebrew Hebrew,
Arabic and English
multilingual signs on an Israeli highway Dual language Hebrew
and English keyboard
Standard Hebrew, as developed by
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda , was based on
Mishnaic spelling and
Sephardi Hebrew pronunciation. However, the
earliest speakers of
Modern Hebrew had
Yiddish as their native
language and often brought into Hebrew idioms and calques from
The pronunciation of modern Israeli Hebrew is based mostly on the
Sephardic Hebrew pronunciation. However, the language has adapted to
Ashkenazi Hebrew phonology in some respects, mainly the following:
* the elimination of pharyngeal articulation in the letters chet (ח
) and ayin (
ע ) by many speakers.
* the conversion of (ר ) /r/ from an alveolar flap to a voiced
uvular fricative or uvular trill , by most of the speakers, like in
most varieties of standard German or Yiddish. see
* the pronunciation (by many speakers) of tzere ֵ as in some
contexts (sifréj and téjša instead of Sephardic sifré and tésha)
* the partial elimination of vocal
Shva ְ (zmán instead of
* in popular speech, penultimate stress in proper names (Dvóra
instead of Dĕvorá; Yehúda instead of Yĕhudá) and some other words
* similarly in popular speech, penultimate stress in verb forms with
a second person plural suffix (katávtem "you wrote" instead of
The vocabulary used within the
Hebrew language has been altered from
its original form due to its reintroduction to various cultures
throughout the ages. The mouth-to-ear pedagogical method used in
transmitting Hebrew to generations of children has undergone
Europeanization in each attempt, resulting in the radically unique and
unpredictable course that maintains its current form under the
classification of Modern Hebrew. This "course that
Modern Hebrew has
embarked upon is the sure sign that Hebrew has been reborn."
Modern Hebrew is currently taught in institutions called
Ulpanim (singular: Ulpan). There are government-owned, as well as
private, Ulpanim offering online courses and face-to-face programs.
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Modern Hebrew is the primary official language of the State of
Israel. As of 2013, there are about 9 million Hebrew speakers
worldwide, of whom 7 million speak it fluently.
Currently, 90% of Israeli
Jews are proficient in Hebrew, and 70% are
highly proficient. Some 60% of Israeli Arabs are also proficient in
Hebrew, and 30% prefer speaking Hebrew over Arabic. However, in 2013
Hebrew was the native language of only 49% of Israelis over the age of
20, with Russian ,
Arabic , French , English ,
Yiddish and Ladino
being the native tongues of most of the rest. Some 26% of immigrants
from Russia and 12% of Arabs reported speaking Hebrew poorly or not at
Due to the current climate of globalization and
steps have been taken to keep Hebrew the primary language of use, and
to prevent large-scale incorporation of English words into Hebrew
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language of the Hebrew
Jerusalem currently invents about 2,000 new Hebrew words
each year for modern words by finding an original Hebrew word that
captures the meaning, as an alternative to incorporating more English
words into Hebrew vocabulary. The
Haifa municipality has banned
officials from using English words in official documents, and is
fighting to stop businesses from using only English signs to market
their services. In 2012, a
Knesset bill for the preservation of the
Hebrew language was proposed, which includes the stipulation that all
Israel must first and foremost be in Hebrew, as with all
speeches by Israeli officials abroad. The bill's author, MK Akram
Hasson , stated that the bill was proposed as a response to Hebrew
"losing its prestige", and children incorporating more English words
into their vocabulary. Hebrew is also an official national minority
Poland , since 6 January 2005.
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper
rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other
symbols instead of
Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on
IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .
Biblical Hebrew §
Phonology , and Modern Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew had a typical Semitic consonant inventory, with
pharyngeal /ʕ ħ/, a series of "emphatic" consonants (possibly
ejective , but this is debated), lateral fricative /ɬ/, and in its
older stages also uvular /χ ʁ/. /χ ʁ/ merged into /ħ ʕ/ in later
Biblical Hebrew, and /b ɡ d k p t/ underwent allophonic
spirantization to (known as begadkefat ). The earliest Biblical
Hebrew vowel system contained the Proto-Semitic vowels /a aː i iː u
uː/ as well as /oː/, but this system changed dramatically over time.
By the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls, /ɬ/ had shifted to /s/ in the
Jewish traditions, though for the
Samaritans it merged with /ʃ/
instead. (Elisha Qimron 1986. Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 29). The
Tiberian reading tradition of the Middle Ages had the vowel system /a
ɛ e i ɔ o u ă ɔ̆ ɛ̆/, though other Medieval reading traditions
had fewer vowels.
A number of reading traditions have been preserved in liturgical use.
In Oriental (Sephardi and Mizrahi )
Jewish reading traditions, the
emphatic consonants are realized as pharyngealized, while the
Ashkenazi (northern and eastern European) traditions have lost
emphatics and pharyngeals (although according to Ashkenazi law,
pharyngeal articulation is preferred over uvular or glottal
articulation when representing the community in religious service such
as prayer and
Torah reading ), and show the shift of /w/ to /v/. The
Samaritan tradition has a complex vowel system which does not
correspond closely to the Tiberian systems.
Modern Hebrew pronunciation developed from a mixture of the different
Jewish reading traditions, generally tending towards simplification.
Emphatic consonants have shifted to their ordinary counterparts, /w/
to /v/, and are not present. Many Israelis merge /ʕ ħ/ with /ʔ
χ/, do not have contrastive gemination, and pronounce /r/ as a uvular
trill or fricative rather than an alveolar trill, as in many
varieties of Ashkenazi Hebrew. The consonants /tʃ dʒ/ have become
phonemic due to loan words, and /w/ has similarly been re-introduced.
* Proto-Semitic *ś was still pronounced as in Biblical Hebrew, but
no letter was available in the Phoenician alphabet, so the letter
ש did double duty, representing both /ʃ/ and /ɬ/. Later on,
however, /ɬ/ merged with /s/, but the old spelling was largely
retained, and the two pronunciations of ש were distinguished
Tiberian Hebrew as שׁ /ʃ/ vs. שׂ /s/ < /ɬ/.
Biblical Hebrew as of the 3rd century BCE apparently still
distinguished the phonemes ġ /ʁ/, ḫ /χ/, ḏ /ð/ and ṯ /θ/,
based on transcriptions in the
Septuagint . As in the case of /ɬ/, no
letters were available to represent these sounds, and existing letters
did double duty: ח /χ/ /ħ/, ע /ʁ/ /ʕ/, שׁ /θ/ /ʃ/
and ז /ð/ /z/. In all of these cases, however, the sounds
represented by the same letter eventually merged, leaving no evidence
(other than early transcriptions) of the former distinctions.
* Hebrew and Aramaic underwent begadkefat spirantization at a
certain point, whereby the stop sounds /b ɡ d k p t/ were softened to
the corresponding fricatives (written ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ) when
occurring after a vowel and not geminated. This change probably
happened after the original
Old Aramaic phonemes /θ, ð/ disappeared
in the 7th century BCE, and most likely occurred after the loss of
Hebrew /χ, ʁ/ c. 200 BCE. It is known to have occurred in Hebrew by
the 2nd century. After a certain point this alternation became
contrastive in word-medial and final position (though bearing low
functional load ), but in word-initial position they remained
Modern Hebrew , the distinction has a higher
functional load due to the loss of gemination, although only the three
fricatives /v χ f/ are still preserved (the fricative /x/ is
pronounced /χ/ in modern Hebrew). (The others are pronounced like the
corresponding stops, apparently under the influence of later
non-native speakers whose native European tongues lacked the sounds
/ɣ ð θ/ as phonemes.)
Modern Hebrew grammar Further information: History of
Hebrew grammar is partly analytic , expressing such forms as dative ,
ablative , and accusative using prepositional particles rather than
grammatical cases . However, inflection plays a decisive role in the
formation of the verbs and nouns. For example, nouns have a construct
state , called "smikhut", to denote the relationship of "belonging
to": this is the converse of the genitive case of more inflected
languages. Words in smikhut are often combined with hyphens . In
modern speech, the use of the construct is sometimes interchangeable
with the preposition "shel", meaning "of". There are many cases,
however, where older declined forms are retained (especially in
idiomatic expressions and the like), and "person"-enclitics are widely
used to "decline" prepositions.
Like all Semitic languages, the
Hebrew language exhibits a pattern of
stems consisting typically of "triliteral ", or 3-consonant
consonantal roots (4-consonant roots also exist), from which nouns,
adjectives, and verbs are formed in various ways: e.g. by inserting
vowels, doubling consonants, lengthening vowels, and/or adding
prefixes, suffixes, or infixes .
Hebrew uses a number of one-letter prefixes that are added to words
for various purposes. These are called inseparable prepositions or
"Letters of Use" (Hebrew: אותיות השימוש, translit.
Otiyot HaShimush). Such items include: the definite article ha- (/ha/)
(="the"); prepositions be- (/bə/) (="in"), le- (/lə/) (="to"; a
shortened version of the preposition el), mi- (/mi/) (="from"; a
shortened version of the preposition min); conjunctions ve- (/və/)
(="and"), she- (/ʃe/) (="that"; a shortened version of the Biblical
conjunction asher), ke- (/kə/) (="as", "like"; a shortened version of
the conjunction kmo).
The vowel accompanying each of these letters may differ from those
listed above, depending on the first letter or vowel following it. The
rules governing these changes, hardly observed in colloquial speech as
most speakers tend to employ the regular form, may be heard in more
formal circumstances. For example, if a preposition is put before a
word which begins with a moving
Shva , then the preposition takes the
vowel /i/ (and the initial consonant may be weakened): colloquial
be-kfar (="in a village") corresponds to the more formal bi-khfar.
The definite article may be inserted between a preposition or a
conjunction and the word it refers to, creating composite words like
mé-ha-kfar (="from the village"). The latter also demonstrates the
change in the vowel of mi-. With be and le, the definite article is
assimilated into the prefix, which then becomes ba or la. Thus
*be-ha-matos becomes ba-matos (="in the plane"). Note that this does
not happen to mé (the form of "min" or "mi-" used before the letter
"he"), therefore mé-ha-matos is a valid form, which means "from the
airplane". * indicates that the given example is grammatically
Like most other languages, the vocabulary of the
Hebrew language is
divided into verbs, nouns, adjectives, and so on, and its sentence
structure can be analyzed by terms like object, subject, and so on.
* Many Hebrew sentences have several correct orders of words. One
can change the order of the words in the sentence and keep the same
meaning. For example, the sentence "Dad went to work", in Hebrew,
includes a word for Dad (אבא aba), for went (הלך halaḵ), and
for to work (to the working place = לעבודה la-ʿavoda). However,
unlike in English, those three words can be put in almost any
combination (אבא הלך לעבודה/ לעבודה אבא הלך/
לעבודה הלך אבא/ הלך אבא לעבודה and so on).
* In Hebrew, there is no word that is supposed to come before every
singular noun (i.e. an article ).
* Hebrew sentences do not have to include verbs; the copula in the
present tense is omitted. For example, the sentence "I am here"
(אני פה ani po) has only two words; one for I (אני) and one
for here (פה). In the sentence "I am that person" (אני הוא
האדם הזה ani hu ha'adam ha'ze), the word for "am" corresponds
to the word for "he" (הוא). However, this may also be omitted.
Thus, the sentence (אני האדם הזה) is identical in meaning.
* Unlike the verb "to have" in English, none of the possession terms
in Hebrew are verbs.
* Though early
Biblical Hebrew had a verb-subject-object ordering,
this gradually transitioned to a subject-verb-object ordering.
* In Hebrew there is a specific preposition (את et) for direct
objects that would not have a preposition marker in English. The
English phrase "he ate the cake" would in Hebrew be הוא אכל את
העוגה hu akhal et ha'ugah (literally, "He ate את the cake").
The word את, however, can be omitted, making הוא אכל
העוגה hu akhal ha'ugah ("He ate the cake"). Former Israeli Prime
David Ben-Gurion was convinced that את should never be used
as it elongates the sentence without adding meaning.
Hebrew alphabet and
Hebrew braille Hebrew
Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet
, which is an abjad , or consonant-only script of 22 letters. The
Hebrew alphabet is similar to those used for Canaanite
and Phoenician . Modern scripts are based on the "square" letter form,
known as Ashurit (Assyrian), which was developed from the Aramaic
script. A cursive Hebrew script is used in handwriting: the letters
tend to be more circular in form when written in cursive, and
sometimes vary markedly from their printed equivalents. The medieval
version of the cursive script forms the basis of another style, known
Rashi script . When necessary, vowels are indicated by diacritic
marks above or below the letter representing the syllabic onset, or by
use of matres lectionis , which are consonantal letters used as
vowels. Further diacritics are used to indicate variations in the
pronunciation of the consonants (e.g. bet/vet, shin/sin); and, in some
contexts, to indicate the punctuation, accentuation, and musical
rendition of Biblical texts (see
LITURGICAL USE IN JUDAISM
Audio example of liturgical Hebrew This is a portion of the
blessing that is traditionally chanted before the Aliyah La-Torah
(reading of the Torah).
Problems playing this file? See media help .
Hebrew has always been used as the language of prayer and study, and
the following pronunciation systems are found.
Ashkenazi Hebrew , originating in Central and Eastern Europe, is
still widely used in Ashkenazi
Jewish religious services and studies
Israel and abroad, particularly in the
Haredi and other Orthodox
communities. It was influenced by the
Sephardi Hebrew is the traditional pronunciation of the Spanish and
Jews and Sephardi
Jews in the countries of the former
Ottoman Empire , with the exception of
Yemenite Hebrew . This
pronunciation, in the form used by the
Jerusalem Sephardic community,
is the basis of the Hebrew phonology of Israeli native speakers. It
was influenced by the
Mizrahi (Oriental) Hebrew is actually a collection of dialects spoken
Jews in various parts of the
Arab and Islamic world.
It was possibly influenced by the Aramaic and
Arabic languages , and
in some cases by
Sephardi Hebrew , although some linguists maintain
that it is the direct heir of
Biblical Hebrew and thus represents the
true dialect of Hebrew. The same claim is sometimes made for Yemenite
Hebrew or Temanit, which differs from other Mizrahi dialects by having
a radically different vowel system, and distinguishing between
different diacritically marked consonants that are pronounced
identically in other dialects (for example gimel and "ghimel".)
These pronunciations are still used in synagogue ritual and religious
Israel and elsewhere, mostly by people who are not native
speakers of Hebrew, though some traditionalist Israelis are
Many synagogues in the diaspora, even though Ashkenazi by rite and by
ethnic composition, have adopted the "Sephardic" pronunciation in
deference to Israeli Hebrew. However, in many British and American
schools and synagogues, this pronunciation retains several elements of
its Ashkenazi substrate, especially the distinction between tsere and
Hebraization of English
List of English words of Hebrew origin
Romanization of Hebrew
Study of the Hebrew language
* ^ Sephardi ; Iraqi ; Yemenite ; Ashkenazi realization or strict
* ^ In the
Jewish Bible), the language was referred to as
Yehudit "the language of Judah" or səpaṯ Kəna'an "the language of
Canaan". Later Hellenistic writers such as
Josephus and the Gospel of
John used the term Hebraisti to refer to both Hebrew and Aramaic.
* ^ A B Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde: "There is general
agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be
distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the
Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken
language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the
Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed.
The second stage begins with the
Amoraim and sees RH being replaced by
Aramaic as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary
language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings
until the tenth century in, for example, the Hebrew portions of the
two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature."
* ^ Fernández -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
* ^ A B C D Sáenz-Badillos, Angel (1993) . A History of the Hebrew
Language. Translated by Elwolde, John. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9780521556347 .
* ^ H. S. Nyberg 1952. Hebreisk Grammatik. s. 2. Reprinted in
Sweden by Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala 2006.
* ^ A B
Modern Hebrew at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Classical Hebrew (liturgical) at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Samaritan Hebrew (liturgical) at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Moabite (extinct) at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Edomite (extinct) at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ A B Thompson,
Irene (June 15, 2016). "Hebrew". About World Languages.
* ^ Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy (2013). A
Language in Space: The
Story of Israeli Sign Language.
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ A B Gur, Nachman; Haredim, Behadrey. "\'Kometz
Aleph – Au\':
How many Hebrew speakers are there in the world?". Retrieved 2
* ^ "Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered".
Physorg.com. January 7, 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
* ^ Grenoble, Leonore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J. (2005). Saving
Languages: An Introduction to
Language Revitalization. United Kingdom:
Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0521016520 . Retrieved 28
March 2017. Hebrew is cited by Paulston et al. (1993:276) as 'the only
true example of language revival.'
* ^ Fesperman, Dan (26 April 1998). "Once \'dead\' language brings
Israel to life Hebrew: After 1,700 years, a revived language becomes a
common thread knitting together a nation of immigrants with little in
common except religion". The Baltimore Sun. Sun Foreign Staff.
Retrieved 28 March 2017.
* ^ A B "Hebrew" in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church,
edit. F.L. Cross, first edition (Oxford, 1958), 3rd edition (Oxford
1997). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church which once said,
in 1958 in its first edition, that Hebrew "ceased to be a spoken
language around the fourth century BCE", now says, in its 1997 (third)
edition, that Hebrew "continued to be used as a spoken and written
language in the
New Testament period".
* ^ A B C Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history
of the Hebrew language. P.170-171
* ^ "If you couldn't speak Greek by say the time of early
Christianity you couldn't get a job. You wouldn't get a good job. a
professional job. You had to know Greek in addition to your own
language. And so you were getting to a point where Jews...the Jewish
community in say Egypt and large cities like Alexandria didn't know
Hebrew anymore they only knew Greek. And so you need a Greek version
in the synagogue." – Josheph Blankinsopp, Professor of Biblical
Studies University of Notre Dame in A&E's Who Wrote the Bible
* ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2009", The
2012 Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau, archived from the
original on 2007-12-25, retrieved 2011-12-27
* ^ "הספריה של מט"ח". Lib.cet.ac.il. Retrieved
* ^ Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew, Baker Academic,
* ^ אברהם בן יוסף ,מבוא לתולדות הלשון
העברית (Avraham ben-Yosef, Introduction to the History of the
Hebrew Language), page 38, אור-עם, Tel-Aviv, 1981.
* ^ Share,
David L. (2017). "Learning to Read Hebrew". In
Verhoeven, Ludo; Perfetti, Charles . Learning to Read Across Languages
and Writing Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 156.
ISBN 9781107095885 . Retrieved 1 November 2017.
* ^ Fellman, Jack (1973). The Revival of a Classical Tongue:
Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the
Modern Hebrew Language. The Hague: Mouton.
p. 12. ISBN 9789027924957 . Retrieved 1 November 2017.
* ^ "\'Oldest Hebrew script\' is found". BBC News. 30 October 2008.
Retrieved 3 March 2010.
* ^ "Have Israeli Archaeologists Found World\'s Oldest Hebrew
Inscription?". Haaretz. AP. 30 October 2008. Archived from the
original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
* ^ William M. Schniedewind, "Prolegomena for the Sociolinguistics
of Classical Hebrew", The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures vol. 5 article
6 Archived 4 February 2012 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ M. Segal, A Grammar of
Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford: Clarendon
* ^ Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Harvard
Semitic Studies 29 (Atlanta: Scholars Press 1986).
* ^ Nicholas Ostler, Empires of the Word: A
Language History of the
World, Harper Perennial, London, New York, Toronto, Sydney 2006 p80
* ^ A B C Spolsky, Bernard and Elana Goldberg Shohamy. The
languages of Israel: policy, ideology and practice. P.9
* ^ A B Miguel Perez Fernandez, An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic
Hebrew (Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill 1997).
* ^ An Introductory Grammar of
Rabbinic Hebrew (Fernández 22:2;
26:14: têi hebraḯdi dialéktôi, lit. 'in the Hebrew
* ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A. 1979. A Wandering Armenian: Collected
Aramaic Essays. P.43
* ^ Geoffrey W. Bromley (ed.) The International Standard Bible
Encyclopedia, W.B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1979, 4 vols.
vol.1 sub.'Aramaic' p.233: 'in the Aramaic vernacular of Palestine'
* ^ Randall Buth and Chad Pierce "EBRAISTI in Ancient Texts, Does
ἑβραιστί ever Mean 'Aramaic'?" in Buth and Notley eds.,
Language Environment of First Century Judaea, Brill,2014:66–109.
p109 "no, Ἑβραιστί does not ever appear to mean Aramaic in
attested texts during the Second Temple and Graeco-Roman periods."; p.
107 "John did not mention what either βεθεσδα or γαββαθα
meant. They may both have been loanwords from Greek and Latin
respectively." p103 "βεθεσδα ... (בית-אסטא(ן ... house
of portico ... 3Q15 אסטאן הדרומית southern portico," and
Latin gabata (p. 106) "means platter, dish... perhaps a mosaic design
in the pavement ... " The Latin loanword is attested as "bowl" in
later Christian Palestinian Aramaic and גבתא is (p106) "unattested
in other Aramaic dialects" .
* ^ J. M. Griatz, "Hebrew in the Days of the Second Temple" QBI, 79
(1960) pp. 32–47
* ^ Languages of the World (Hebrew) Archived 17 January 2009 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Abraham ibn Ezra, Hebrew Grammar, Venice 1546 (Hebrew)
* ^ T. Carmi, Penguin Book of Hebrew Verse.
* ^ Safrai, Shmuel, Shemuel Safrai, M. Stern. 1976. The Jewish
people in the first century. P.1036
* ^ Fox, Marvin. 1995. Interpreting Maimonides. P.326
Mishnah B\'rurah –
Israel Meir (ha-Kohen), Aharon Feldman,
Aviel Orenstein – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1980. ISBN
9780873061988 . Retrieved 2013-05-03.
Shalom Spiegel ,Hebrew Reborn,(1930) Meridian Books reprint
1962, New York p.56
* ^ Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the Resurgence of the Hebrew
* ^ "The Transformation of
Jewish Culture in the USSR from 1930 to
the Present (in Russian)". Jewish-heritage.org. Archived from the
original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
* ^ Michael Nosonovsky (25 August 1997). "Nosonovski, Michael (in
Russian)". Berkovich-zametki.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
* ^ Protest against the suppression of Hebrew in the Soviet Union
1930–1931 signed by
Albert Einstein , among others.
* ^ Rosen, Rosén (1966). A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. Chicago &
London: The University of Chicago Press. p. 0.161. ISBN 0-226-72603-7
* ^ Shisha Halevy, Ariel (1989). The Proper Name: Structural
Prolegomena to its Syntax – a Case Study in Coptic. Vienna: VWGÖ.
p. 33. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
* ^ Greenberg, Moshe (1965). Introduction to Hebrew. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, INC. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0134844696 .
* ^ Klein, Zeev (March 18, 2013). "A million and a half Israelis
struggle with Hebrew".
Israel Hayom . Retrieved 2 November 2013.
* ^ "The differences between English and Hebrew". Frankfurt
International School . Retrieved 2 November 2013.
* ^ "Hebrew – UCL".
University College London
University College London . Retrieved 2
* ^ "Why Learn a Language?". Retrieved 2 November 2013.
* ^ A B C "CBS: 27% of Israelis struggle with Hebrew – Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November
* ^ "Some Arabs Prefer Hebrew – Education – News". Israel
National News. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
* ^ "Keeping Hebrew Israel\'s living language –
Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
* ^ Danan, Deborah (28 December 2012). "Druse MK wins prize for
helping preserve Hebrew JPost
Israel News". JPost. Retrieved
* ^ Pisarek, Walery. "The relationship between official and
minority languages in Poland" (PDF). European Federation of National
Institutions for Language. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
* ^ Dolgopolsky (1999 :72)
* ^ Dolgopolsky (1999 :73)
* ^ Blau (2010 :78–81)
* ^ "Basic Word Order in the
Biblical Hebrew Verbal Clause, Part 6
Ancient Hebrew Grammar". Ancienthebrewgrammar.wordpress.com.
* Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew
Language. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-3654-8 .
* Izre'el, Shlomo (2001). Benjamin Hary , ed. "The Corpus of Spoken
Israeli Hebrew". (CoSIH): Working Papers I.
* Klein, Reuven Chaim (2014). Lashon HaKodesh: History, Holiness, &
Hebrew. Mosaica Press. ASIN 1937887367 . ISBN 978-1937887360 . CS1
maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link )
* Kuzar, Ron (2001). Hebrew and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic
Cultural Study. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN
* Laufer, Asher (1999). Hebrew Handbook of the International
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-65236-7
* Sáenz-Badillos, Angel (1993). A History of the Hebrew Language.
Translated by John Elwolde. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-55634-1 .
Find more aboutHEBREW LANGUAGEat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary
* Media from Wikimedia Commons
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Texts from Wikisource
* Textbooks from Wikibooks
* Travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Learning resources from Wikiversity
For a list of words relating to Hebrew language, see the HEBREW
LANGUAGE category of words in
Wiktionary , the free dictionary.
HEBREW EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
HEBREW EDITION of
Wikisource , the free library
* Official website of the
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
* Ma\'agarim – The Historical Dictionary Project by the Academy of
the Hebrew Language
* Hebrew Phrases by the Israeli Ministry