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Baoding
Baoding
(1928-58, 1966) Tianjin
Tianjin
(1958-65) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(1967-present)

Largest city Baoding

Divisions 12 prefectures, 172 counties, 2207 townships

Government

 • Secretary Wang Dongfeng

 • Governor Xu Qin

Area

 • Total 188,800 km2 (72,900 sq mi)

Area rank 12th

Population (2016)[1]

 • Total 74,700,500

 • Rank 6th

 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)

 • Density rank 11th

Demographics

 • Ethnic composition Han: 96% Manchu: 3% Hui: 0.8% Mongol: 0.3%

 • Languages and dialects Jilu Mandarin, Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin, Jin

ISO 3166 code CN-13

GDP (2016) CNY 3.18 trillion USD 479 billion[2] (6th)

 • per capita CNY 42,886 USD 6,458 (14th)

HDI (2010) 0.691[3] (medium) (16th)

Website www.hebei.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese) english.hebei.gov.cn (English)

Hebei

"Hebei" in Chinese characters

Chinese 河北

Postal Hopeh

Literal meaning "North of the (Yellow) River"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Héběi

Bopomofo ㄏㄜˊ   ㄅㄟˇ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Herbeei

Wade–Giles Ho2-pei3

IPA [xɤ̌.pèi]

Wu

Romanization Ghu平poh入

Hakka

Romanization Hò-pet

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Hòh-bāk

IPA [hɔ̏ː.pɐ́k̚]

Jyutping Ho4-bak1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Hô-pak

Abbreviation

Chinese 冀

Literal meaning [an ancient province in modern southern Hebei]

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Jì

Bopomofo ㄐㄧˋ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jih

Wade–Giles Chi4

IPA [tɕî]

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping Kei3

Southern Min

Tâi-lô Kī

Hebei
Hebei
(Chinese: 河北; pinyin:  Héběi; postal: Hopeh) is a province of China
China
in the North China
North China
region. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei
Hebei
literally means "north of the river",[4] referring to its location entirely to the north of the Huang He 黄河 (Yellow River).[5] Hebei
Hebei
was formed in 1928 after the central government dissolved the province of Chihli (直隸), which means "Directly Ruled[6] (by the Imperial Court)". Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning
Liaoning
to the northeast, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
to the north, Shanxi
Shanxi
to the west, Henan
Henan
to the south, and Shandong
Shandong
to the southeast. Bohai Bay
Bohai Bay
of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin. A common alternate name for Hebei
Hebei
is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Politics 5 Economy

5.1 Economic and technological development zones

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion

7 Culture 8 Notable individuals 9 Media 10 Transportation 11 Tourism 12 Sports 13 Education 14 See also 15 Notes 16 Notes 17 External links

History[edit] Plains in Hebei
Hebei
were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC.[7] During the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(722 BC – 476 BC), Hebei
Hebei
was under the rule of the states of Yan (燕) in the north and Jin (晉) in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as Dí (狄) invaded the plains of northern China
China
and established Zhongshan (中山) in central Hebei. During the Warring States period
Warring States period
(403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei
Hebei
went to Zhao (趙). The Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
unified China
China
in 221 BC. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220) ruled the area under two provinces (zhou), Youzhou Province (幽州) in the north and Jizhou Province (冀州 Jì Zhōu) in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei
Hebei
came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan
Gongsun Zan
in the north and Yuan Shao
Yuan Shao
further south; Yuan Shao
Yuan Shao
emerged victorious of the two, but he was soon defeated by rival Cao Cao
Cao Cao
(based further south, in modern-day Henan) in the Battle of Guandu
Battle of Guandu
in 200. Hebei
Hebei
then came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei (one of the Three Kingdoms), established by the descendants of Cao Cao.

1500-year-old Iron
Iron
Lion of Cangzhou

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
and the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan. The Northern Wei
Northern Wei
reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei
Hebei
coming under the eastern half (first the Eastern Wei; then the Northern Qi), which had its capital at Ye (邺), near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China
China
in 589.

Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County

During the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907), the area was formally designated "Hebei" (north of the Yellow River) for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei
Hebei
was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang
Later Tang
(923–936). The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei
Hebei
to the Khitan Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in the north; this territory, called the Sixteen Prefectures
Sixteen Prefectures
of Yanyun, became a major weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century, since it lay within the Great Wall. During the Northern Song dynasty
Northern Song dynasty
(960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China
China
and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty
Southern Song dynasty
that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars.

The Putuo Zongcheng Temple
Putuo Zongcheng Temple
of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Saihanba National Park in Inner Mongolian plateau grassland border, north Chengde, Hebei

The Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
divided China
China
into provinces but did not establish Hebei
Hebei
as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat (中書省) at capital Dadu. The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei
Hebei
as "Beizhili" (北直隸, pinyin: Běizhílì), meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing; the "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Anhui. When the Manchu
Manchu
Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as "Zhili", or simply "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia. The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China
China
descended into civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking (Beijing), the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing). As a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei
Hebei
to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, and that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. The founding of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previously part of Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around Zhangjiakou, previously part of Chahar Province
Chahar Province
(historically part of Inner Mongolia), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. The capital was also moved from Baoding
Baoding
to the upstart city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin. On July 28, 1976, Tangshan
Tangshan
was struck by a powerful earthquake, the Tangshan
Tangshan
earthquake, the deadliest of the 20th century with over 240,000 killed. A series of smaller earthquakes struck the city in the following decade. In 2005, Chinese archaeologists unearthed what is being called the Chinese equivalent of Italy's Pompeii. The find in question, located near Liumengchun Village (柳孟春村) in Cang County
Cang County
in east-central Hebei, is a buried settlement destroyed nearly 700 years ago by a major earthquake. Another possible explanation may be the four successive floods which hit the area around the time when the settlement met its sudden end. The settlement appears to have been a booming commercial center during the Song dynasty.[citation needed] Geography[edit]

Langyashan
Langyashan
(Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County, Hebei.

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Most of central and southern Hebei
Hebei
lies within the North China
North China
Plain. The western part of Hebei
Hebei
rises into the Taihang Mountains
Taihang Mountains
(Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) run through northern Hebei, beyond which lie the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. The Great Wall
Great Wall
of China
China
cuts through northern Hebei
Hebei
from east to west as well, briefly entering the border of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality, and terminates at the seacoast of Shanhaiguan in northeastern Hebei. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai in northwestern Hebei, with an altitude of 2882 m. Hebei
Hebei
borders Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
on the east. The Hai He
Hai He
watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts, and the Luan He watershed covers the northeast. Not counting the numerous reservoirs to be found in Hebei's hills and mountains, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located mostly in Anxin County. Major cities:

Shijiazhuang Baoding Tangshan Qinhuangdao Handan Zhangjiakou

Climate[edit] Hebei
Hebei
has a continental monsoon climate, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Temperatures average −16 to −3 °C (3 to 27 °F) in January and 20 to 27 °C (68 to 81 °F) in July; the annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 800 mm (16 to 31 in), concentrated heavily in summer.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Hebei
Hebei
Province, China[8][9][10][11]

City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

Baoding 31.7/22.6 89.1/72.7 2.5/–7.7 36.5/18.14

Qinhuangdao 28.1/21.7 82.6/71.1 0.1/–8.8 32.2/16.2

Tangshan 30.2/21.7 86.4/71.1 0.9/–10.2 33.6/13.64

Zhangjiakou 29.4/18.7 85/65.7 2.2/–12.9 36/8.8

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hebei and List of township-level divisions of Hebei Hebei
Hebei
is made up of eleven prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Hebei

№ Division code[12] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[13] Population 2010[14] Seat Divisions[15]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  130000 Hebei 河北省 Héběi Shěng 187700.00 71,854,202 Shijiazhuang 47 95 6 20

1 130100 Shijiazhuang 石家庄市 Shíjiāzhuāng Shì 14052.56 9,547,869 Chang'an District 8 11

3

9 130200 Tangshan 唐山市 Tángshān Shì 14334.59 7,577,284 Lunan District 7 5

2

8 130300 Qinhuangdao 秦皇岛市 Qínhuángdǎo Shì 7791.57 2,987,605 Haigang District 4 2 1

5 130400 Handan 邯郸市 Hándān Shì 12066.00 9,174,679 Congtai District 6 11

1

10 130500 Xingtai 邢台市 Xíngtái Shì 12433.00 7,104,114 Qiaodong District 2 15

2

2 130600 Baoding 保定市 Bǎodìng Shì 22185.00 10,029,197 Jingxiu District 5 15

4

11 130700 Zhangjiakou 张家口市 Zhāngjiākǒu Shì 36861.55 4,345,491 Qiaoxi District 6 10

4 130800 Chengde 承德市 Chéngdé Shì 39512.98 3,473,197 Shuangqiao District 3 4 3 1

3 130900 Cangzhou 沧州市 Cāngzhōu Shì 14305.28 7,134,053 Yunhe District 2 9 1 4

7 131000 Langfang 廊坊市 Lángfáng Shì 6417.29 4,358,839 Anci District 2 5 1 2

6 131100 Hengshui 衡水市 Héngshuǐ Shì 8836.90 4,340,773 Taocheng District 2 8

1

12   North China
North China
Oilfield single jurisdiction 华北油田地区 Huáběi Yóutián Dìqū 367.00 133,000

These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 170 county-level divisions (47 districts, 20 county-level cities, 95 counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 towns, 979 townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 subdistricts). Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Hebei and List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China The politics of Hebei
Hebei
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hebei
Hebei
Communist Party of China
China
Provincial Committee Secretary (CPC Party Chief). Economy[edit]

Downtown Shijiazhuang.

In 2014, Hebei's GDP was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion),[16] ranked 6th in the PRC. GDP per capita
GDP per capita
reached 40,124 Renminbi. As of 2011, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%.[citation needed]

A corner in downtown Zhangjiakou.

40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin[17] Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like cotton, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced. Kailuan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines, and remains a major mine with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the North China
North China
Oilfield is found in Hebei, and there are also major iron mines at Handan
Handan
and Qian'an. Iron, as well as steel, manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei, and are likely to remain so as these industries consolidate and Hebei
Hebei
continues to grow as a manufacturing and transportation center for the region.[17] Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics and food. Economic and technological development zones[edit]

Baoding
Baoding
Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone Langfang
Langfang
Export Processing Zone Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Economic & Technological Development Zone Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Export Processing Zone Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics[edit]

The Lingxiao Pagoda
Lingxiao Pagoda
of Zhengding, Hebei
Hebei
Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1912[18] 26,658,000 —    

1928[19] 31,232,000 +0.99%

1936-37[20] 28,644,000 −1.08%

1947[21] 28,719,000 +0.02%

1954[22] 35,984,644 +3.27%

1964[23] 45,687,781 +2.42%

1982[24] 53,005,876 +0.83%

1990[25] 61,082,439 +1.79%

2000[26] 66,684,419 +0.88%

2010[27] 71,854,202 +0.75%

Hebei
Hebei
Province was known as Zhili Province
Zhili Province
until 1928. Beijing
Beijing
was part of Hebei
Hebei
Province[6] until 1928. Tainjin was part of Hebei
Hebei
Province until 1928 and 1954 to 1967. Rehe Province
Rehe Province
dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Hebei Province. Qahar Province dissolved in 1952 and parts were incorporated into Hebei
Hebei
Province.

The population is mostly Han Chinese. 55 ethnic minorities are present in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The most important are Manchu
Manchu
(2.1 million people), Hui people
Hui people
(600000 people) and Mongol
Mongol
(180000 people).[28]

Ethnic groups in Hebei, 2000 census

Nationality Population Percentage

Han Chinese 63,781,603 95.65%

Manchu 2,118,711 3.18%

Hui 542,639 0.78%

Mongol 169,887 0.26%

Zhuang 20,832 0.031%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in active service. Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China
National Bureau of Statistics of China
and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China, eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China. 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5) In 2004, the birth rate was 11.98 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.19 deaths per 1,000 people. In 2000 the sex ratio at birth was 118.46 males to 100 females.[29] Religion[edit]

Religion in Hebei[30][note 1]   Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)    Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(5.52%)    Christianity
Christianity
(3.05%)    Islam
Islam
(0.82%)

The predominant religions in Hebei
Hebei
are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identifies as Christian,[30] mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
and folk religious sects. Zailiism
Zailiism
is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province. Hebei
Hebei
has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government.[32] and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church.[33] The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu, where an apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in China".[34] A large number of Catholics in Hebei
Hebei
remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding
Zhengding
since late 1999.[33][35] In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics.[36][37] According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.[31]

View of the Puning Temple
Puning Temple
complex (Tibetan Buddhism).

Great Temple of Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe (Zhangs' ancestral home).

Culture[edit]

The giant Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
statue of Puning Temple, Chengde, Hebei province, built in 1755 under the Qianlong Emperor.

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See also: Zhongyuan culture Dialects of Mandarin are spoken over most of the province, and most Mandarin dialects in Hebei
Hebei
are in turn classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision. Regions along the western border with Shanxi, however, have dialects that are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, rather than Mandarin. In general, the dialects of Hebei
Hebei
are quite similar to and readily intelligible with the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese, the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as differences in the pronunciation of certain words that derive from entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive) in Middle Chinese. Traditional forms of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
in Hebei
Hebei
include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (also known as Hebei
Hebei
Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou
Cangzhou
Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju
Pingju
is especially popular: it tends to be colloquial in language and hence easy to understand for audiences. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju
Pingju
has been influenced by other forms of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
like Beijing
Beijing
opera. Traditionally Pingju
Pingju
makes use of just a xiaosheng (young male lead), a xiaodan (young female lead), and a xiaohualian (young comic character), though it has since diversified with the use of other roles as well.

The Liaodi Pagoda, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty

Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for its Dingzhou
Dingzhou
porcelain, which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Dingzhou
Dingzhou
porcelain is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colours. Hebei
Hebei
cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton and beans. Notable individuals[edit] Well-known people born in Hebei
Hebei
Province include:

Feng Dao (881-954), Confucian minister Yan Yuan (1635–1704), Confucian philosopher Chi Jushan (1876–1962), playwright and scholar

Media[edit] Hebei
Hebei
is served by Hebei
Hebei
Television. Transportation[edit] Because Hebei
Hebei
surrounds Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin, all the numerous important railway lines radiating out of these two cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway
Beijing–Guangzhou Railway
is one of the most important: it passes through many major cities such as Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai
Xingtai
and Handan
Handan
on its way south to Henan. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
Railway, Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing– Chengde
Chengde
Railway, Beijing–Tongliao Railway, Beijing-Baotou Railway
Beijing-Baotou Railway
and Fengtai–Shacheng Railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing- Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway. Future high-speed rail lines from Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin
Tianjin
to Northeast China
Northeast China
and Northwest China
Northwest China
will traverse northern Hebei. During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing
Beijing
and Hebei
Hebei
were collaborating on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometers to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei
Hebei
trains are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometers per hour. As of the early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province.[38] The recent expressway boom in China
China
has not left Hebei
Hebei
behind. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city of Hebei, totalling to approximately 2,000 kilometers. The total length of highways within Hebei
Hebei
is around 40,000 kilometers. There are a number of ports along the Bohai Sea, including Qinhuangdao (the second busiest in China
China
with a capacity of over 100 million tons), Huanghua, and Jingtang. Shijiazhuang's Zhengding
Zhengding
Airport is the province's center of air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei
Hebei
will also be served by the new Beijing
Beijing
Daxing International Airport in Beijing, which is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2017.[39] Tourism[edit]

The Xumi Pagoda
Xumi Pagoda
of Zhengding, Hebei
Hebei
province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty

The east end of the Ming Great Wall
Great Wall
is located on the coast at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the "First Pass of The World" (天下第一關), Shanhaiguan was the place where Ming general Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui
opened the gates to Manchu
Manchu
forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu
Manchu
rule; Shanhai Pass
Shanhai Pass
also marks the psychological entrance / exit of Manchuria, so that for centuries Manchuria
Manchuria
was known as "outside the Pass" or "east of the Pass". Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort well known as a former meeting place for top governmental officials. The Ming Great Wall
Great Wall
crosses the northern part of Hebei. The Chengde
Chengde
Mountain Resort and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu
Manchu
Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
emperors. The Chengde
Chengde
Resort was built between 1703 and 1792, and consists of a palace complex, a large park area composed of lakes, pavilions, causeways, bridges, etc., and a number of Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese
Han Chinese
temples in the surrounding area. There are Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs
Eastern Qing Tombs
are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs
West Qing Tombs
have 76. These are also part of a World Heritage Site. The Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, built by Li Chun during the Sui dynasty, is the oldest stone arch bridge in China, and one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering. Baoding, the old provincial capital, contains the historical Zhili Governor's Residence. Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to Beijing. Today, the area houses a memorial site.[40] Sports[edit] The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship
2018 Women's Bandy World Championship
was held in Hebei. Sports teams based in Hebei
Hebei
include: National Basketball League (China) Hebei
Hebei
Springs Benma Chinese Football Association

Hebei
Hebei
Elite F.C. Hebei
Hebei
Zhongji F.C. Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Ever Bright F.C.

Education[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Hebei Under the national Ministry of Education:

North China
North China
Electric Power University (华北电力大学/華北電力大學)

Under other national agencies:

Central Institute for Correctional Police (中央司法警官学校/中央司法警官學院) Chinese People's Armed Police Force Academy (中国人民武装警察部队学院/中國人民武裝警察部隊學院) North China
North China
Institute of Science and Technology (华北科技学院/華北科技學院)

Under the provincial government:

Chengde
Chengde
Medical College (承德医学院/承德醫學院) Handan
Handan
College (邯郸学院/邯鄲學院) Hebei Agricultural University (河北农业大学/河北農業大學) Hebei Engineering University
Hebei Engineering University
(河北工程大学/河北工程大學) Hebei
Hebei
Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering (河北建筑工程学院/河北建築工程學院) Hebei Medical University
Hebei Medical University
(河北医科大学/河北醫科大學) Hebei Normal University (河北师范大学/河北師範大學) Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology (河北科技技师学院/河北科技師範學院) Hebei North University (河北北方学院/河北北方學院) Hebei
Hebei
Physical Educational Institute (河北体育学院/河北體育學院) North China
North China
University of Science and Technology (华北理工大学/華北理工大學) Hebei University
Hebei University
(河北大学/河北大學) Hebei University
Hebei University
of Economics and Business (河北经贸大学/河北經貿大學) Hebei University
Hebei University
of Technology (河北工业大学/河北工業大學) Hebei University
Hebei University
of Science and Technology (河北科技大学/河北科技大學) Hengshui
Hengshui
University (衡水学院/衡水學院) Langfang
Langfang
Teacher's College (廊坊师范学院/廊坊師範學院) North China
North China
Coal
Coal
Medical College (华北煤炭医学院/華北煤炭醫學院) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
College (石家庄学院/石家莊學院) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Railway Institute (石家庄铁道学院/石家莊鐵道學院) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
University of Economics (石家庄经济学院/石家莊經濟學院) Tangshan
Tangshan
College (唐山学院/唐山學院) Tangshan
Tangshan
Teacher's College (唐山师范学院/唐山師範學院) Xingtai
Xingtai
University (邢台学院/邢台學院) Yanshan University
Yanshan University
(燕山大学/燕山大學)

See also[edit]

Hebei
Hebei
People List of prisons in Hebei Major national historical and cultural sites in Hebei

Notes[edit]

^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[30] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.[31]

Notes[edit]

^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
Republic of China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.  ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/hebei/2011-01/28/content_11935618.htm ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-05.  ^ "Yellow bridge Chinese Dictionary". Yellow Bridge. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online. ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chih-Li". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 133.  ^ "New Archaeological Discoveries and Researches in 2004 -- The Fourth Archaeology Forum of CASS". Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Retrieved 2007-09-18.  ^ "Climate for Baoding". Weather China. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "Climate for Qinhuangdao". Weather China. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "Climate for Tangshan". Weather China. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "Climate for Zhangjiakou". Weather China. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2012/01/27/chinas-provincial-gdp-figures-in-2011.html ^ a b http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/hebei-province/ ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
Republic of China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.  ^ 河北省少数民族及宗教概况 ^ "Gender Gaps in China: Facts and Figures" (PDF). World Bank. p. 4. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ a b c China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam
Islam
in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam
Islam
by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010. ^ 天主教 河北省民族宗教事务厅 ^ a b 河北地下教会主教成为爱国会成员 ^ Country Advice China, Australian Government 13 February 2012 ^ Hebei, Pray for China ^ Hebei
Hebei
Government Statistics #1 ^ Hebei
Hebei
Government Statistics #2 ^ List of train stations in Hebei
Hebei
(in Chinese) ^ Moore, Malcolm (September 9, 2011). " China
China
to build world's biggest airport". The Daily Telegraph.  ^ Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(July 22, 2010), Musings on a Museum: A Trip to Xibaipo 

Economic profile for Hebei
Hebei
at HKTDC Ponds, Paddies and Frontier Defence: Environmental and Economic Changes in Northern Hebei
Hebei
in Northern Song China
China
(960-1127)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hebei.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hebei.

Hebei
Hebei
Government website

Places adjacent to Hebei

Inner Mongolia Liaoning

Shanxi

Hebei
Hebei
(surrounds Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin)

Bohai Sea

Henan Shandong

v t e

Hebei
Hebei
topics

Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities North China
North China
Plain Taihang Mountains Yan Mountains Shanhai Pass Bohai Sea Hai River
Hai River
watershed Luan He
Luan He
watershed Baiyangdian
Baiyangdian
Lake

Education

Hebei
Hebei
University Hebei
Hebei
Agricultural University Hebei University
Hebei University
of Technology Hebei University
Hebei University
of Economics and Business Hebei University
Hebei University
of Science and Technology

Culture

Zhongyuan culture Music Pingju
Pingju
opera Er ren tai

Visitor attractions

Beidaihe
Beidaihe
beach resort Chengde
Chengde
Mountain Resort Eastern Qing Tombs Western Qing Tombs Anji Bridge

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Hebei
Hebei
Province

Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(capital)

Prefecture-level cities

Shijiazhuang

Chang'an District Qiaoxi District Xinhua District Yuhua District Luquan District Gaocheng District Luancheng District Jingxing Mining District Xinji City Jinzhou City Xinle
Xinle
City Shenze County Wuji County Zhao County Lingshou County Gaoyi County Yuanshi County Zanhuang County Pingshan County Jingxing County Zhengding
Zhengding
County Xingtang County

Tangshan

Lubei District Lunan District Guye District Kaiping District Fengrun District Fengnan District Caofeidian District Zunhua City Qian'an City Luan County Luannan County Laoting County Qianxi County Yutian County

Qinhuangdao

Haigang District Shanhaiguan District Beidaihe
Beidaihe
District Funing District Changli County Lulong County Qinglong Autonomous County

Handan

Congtai District Hanshan District Fuxing District Fengfeng Mining District Feixiang District Yongnian District Wu'an City Linzhang County Cheng'an County Daming County She County Ci County Qiu County Jize County Guangping County Guantao County Wei County Quzhou County

Xingtai

Qiaodong District Qiaoxi District Nangong City Shahe City Xingtai
Xingtai
County Lincheng County Neiqiu County Baixiang County Longyao County Ren County Nanhe County Ningjin County Julu County Xinhe County Guangzong County Pingxiang County Wei County Qinghe County Linxi County

Baoding

Jingxiu District Lianchi District Mancheng District Qingyuan District Xushui District Dingzhou
Dingzhou
City Zhuozhou City Anguo
Anguo
City Gaobeidian
Gaobeidian
City Yi County Laiyuan County Dingxing County Shunping County Tang County Wangdu County Laishui County Gaoyang County Anxin County Xiong County Rongcheng County Quyang County Fuping County Boye County Li County

Zhangjiakou

Qiaoxi District Qiaodong District Xuanhua District Xiahuayuan District Wanquan District Chongli District Zhangbei County Kangbao County Shangyi County Guyuan County Yu County Yangyuan County Huai'an County Huailai County Zhuolu County Chicheng County

Chengde

Shuangqiao District Shuangluan District Yingshouyingzi Mining District Pingquan
Pingquan
City Chengde
Chengde
County Xinglong County Luanping County Longhua County Fengning Autonomous County Kuancheng Autonomous County Weichang Autonomous County

Cangzhou

Yunhe District Xinhua District Botou
Botou
City Renqiu
Renqiu
City Huanghua
Huanghua
City Hejian
Hejian
City Cang County Qing County Dongguang County Haixing County Yanshan County Suning County Nanpi County Wuqiao County Xian County Mengcun Autonomous County

Langfang

Anci District Guangyang District Bazhou City Sanhe City Gu'an County Yongqing County Xianghe County Dacheng County Wen'an County Dachang Autonomous County

Hengshui

Taocheng District Jizhou District Shenzhou City Zaoqiang County Wuyi County Wuqiang County Raoyang County Anping County Gucheng County Jing County Fucheng County

Special
Special
jurisdictions

North China
North China
Oilfield single jurisdiction

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Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

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Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
Republic of China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

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