HEALTH CARE or HEALTHCARE is the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease , illness , injury , and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health professions , chiropractic , physicians , physician associates, dentistry , midwifery , nursing , medicine , optometry , pharmacy , psychology , and other health professions . It includes the work done in providing primary care , secondary care , and tertiary care , as well as in public health .
Access to health care may vary across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Healthcare systems are organisations established to meet the health needs of target populations. Their exact configuration varies between national and subnational entities. In some countries and jurisdictions, health care planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others, planning occurs more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. In all cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning healthcare system requires a robust financing mechanism; a well-trained and adequately paid workforce ; reliable information on which to base decisions and policies ; and well maintained health facilities and logistics to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
Healthcare can contribute to a significant part of a country's
economy . In 2011, the healthcare industry consumed an average of 9.3
percent of the GDP or US$ 3,322 (PPP-adjusted ) per capita across the
34 members of OECD countries. The US (17.7%, or US$ PPP 8,508), the
* 1 Delivery
* 1.3 Tertiary care
* 1.3.1 Quaternary care
* 1.4 Home and community care * 1.5 Ratings
* 2 Related sectors
* 3 Countries
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams . This includes professionals in medicine , psychology , physiotherapy , nursing , dentistry , midwifery and allied health , plus many others such as public health practitioners , community health workers and assistive personnel , who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive, curative and rehabilitative care services.
While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political, organizational and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process, that may also include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care. Healthcare can be defined as either public or private. The emergency room is often a frontline venue for the delivery of primary medical care.
PRIMARY CARE refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system. Such a professional would usually be a primary care physician , such as a general practitioner or family physician , a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist , or a non-physician primary care provider (mid-level provider) such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner . Depending on the locality, health system organization, and sometimes at the patient's discretion, they may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist , a nurse (such as in the United Kingdom), a clinical officer (such as in parts of Africa), or an Ayurvedic or other traditional medicine professional (such as in parts of Asia). Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may then be referred for secondary or tertiary care.
Common chronic illnesses usually treated in primary care may include,
for example: hypertension , diabetes , asthma , COPD , depression and
anxiety , back pain , arthritis or thyroid dysfunction . Primary care
also includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such
as family planning services and vaccinations . In the United States,
the 2013 National
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver
primary care outside of the managed care (insurance-billing) system
through direct primary care which is a subset of the more familiar
concierge medicine .
In context of global population aging , with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases , rapidly increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy.
SECONDARY CARE includes acute care : necessary treatment for a short period of time for a brief but serious illness, injury or other health condition, such as in a hospital emergency department . It also includes skilled attendance during childbirth , intensive care , and medical imaging services.
The term "secondary care" is sometimes used synonymously with "hospital care". However, many secondary care providers do not necessarily work in hospitals, such as psychiatrists , clinical psychologists , occupational therapists , most dental specialties or physiotherapists (physiotherapists are also primary care providers, and a referral is not required to see a physiotherapist), and some primary care services are delivered within hospitals. Depending on the organization and policies of the national health system, patients may be required to see a primary care provider for a referral before they can access secondary care.
For example, in the United States, which operates under a mixed market health care system, some physicians might voluntarily limit their practice to secondary care by requiring patients to see a primary care provider first, or this restriction may be imposed under the terms of the payment agreements in private or group health insurance plans. In other cases, medical specialists may see patients without a referral, and patients may decide whether self-referral is preferred.
Allied health professionals , such as physical therapists , respiratory therapists , occupational therapists , speech therapists , and dietitians , also generally work in secondary care, accessed through either patient self-referral or through physician referral.
TERTIARY CARE is specialized consultative health care, usually for inpatients and on referral from a primary or secondary health professional, in a facility that has personnel and facilities for advanced medical investigation and treatment, such as a tertiary referral hospital .
Examples of tertiary care services are cancer management, neurosurgery , cardiac surgery , plastic surgery , treatment for severe burns , advanced neonatology services, palliative, and other complex medical and surgical interventions.
The term QUATERNARY CARE is sometimes used as an extension of tertiary care in reference to advanced levels of medicine which are highly specialised and not widely accessed. Experimental medicine and some types of uncommon diagnostic or surgical procedures are considered quaternary care. These services are usually only offered in a limited number of regional or national health care centres. This term is more prevalent in the United Kingdom, but just as applicable in the United States. A quaternary care hospital may have virtually any procedure available, whereas a tertiary care facility may not offer a sub-specialist with that training.
HOME AND COMMUNITY CARE
See also: Public health
Many types of health care interventions are delivered outside of health facilities. They include many interventions of public health interest, such as food safety surveillance, distribution of condoms and needle-exchange programmes for the prevention of transmissible diseases.
They also include the services of professionals in residential and community settings in support of self care , home care , long-term care , assisted living , treatment for substance use disorders and other types of health and social care services.
Community rehabilitation services can assist with mobility and independence after loss of limbs or loss of function. This can include prosthesis , orthotics or wheelchairs .
Many countries, especially in the west are dealing with aging populations, and one of the priorities of the health care system is to help seniors live full, independent lives in the comfort of their own homes. There is an entire section of health care geared to providing seniors with help in day-to-day activities at home, transporting them to doctor's appointments, and many other activities that are so essential for their health and well-being. Although they provide home care for older adults in cooperation, family members and care workers may harbour diverging attitudes and values towards their joint efforts. This state of affairs presents a challenge for the design of ICT for home care.
With obesity in children rapidly becoming a major concern, health services often set up programs in schools aimed at educating children in good eating habits; making physical education compulsory in school; and teaching young adolescents to have positive self-image.
* Measures of
A HEALTH SYSTEM, also sometimes referred to as HEALTH CARE SYSTEM or HEALTHCARE SYSTEM is the organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY
The health care industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing health care services and products. As a basic framework for defining the sector, the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification categorises health care as generally consisting of hospital activities, medical and dental practice activities, and "other human health activities". The last class involves activities of, or under the supervision of, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic laboratories, pathology clinics, residential health facilities, patient advocates, or other allied health professions , e.g. in the field of optometry, hydrotherapy, medical massage, yoga therapy, music therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, chiropody, homeopathy, chiropractics, acupuncture, etc.
In addition, according to industry and market classifications, such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark , health care includes many categories of medical equipment, instruments and services as well as biotechnology , diagnostic laboratories and substances, and drug manufacturing and delivery.
For example, pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the
leading high technology exports of
HEALTH CARE RESEARCH
The quantity and quality of many health care interventions are improved through the results of science, such as advanced through the medical model of health which focuses on the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment. Many important advances have been made through health research, including biomedical research and pharmaceutical research , which form the basis for evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice in health care delivery.
For example, in terms of pharmaceutical research and development
In addition, the results of health services research can lead to
greater efficiency and equitable delivery of health care
interventions, as advanced through the social model of health and
disability , which emphasizes the societal changes that can be made to
make population healthier. Results from health services research
often form the basis of evidence-based policy in health care systems.
HEALTH CARE FINANCING
There are generally five primary methods of funding health care systems :
* general taxation to the state, county or municipality * social health insurance * voluntary or private health insurance * out-of-pocket payments * donations to health charities
In most countries, the financing of health care services features a mix of all five models, but the exact distribution varies across countries and over time within countries. In all countries and jurisdictions, there are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other group to adopt a specific health policy regarding the financing structure.
For example, social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is eligible for health care coverage, and this coverage and the services provided are regulated. In almost every jurisdiction with a government-funded health care system, a parallel private, and usually for-profit, system is allowed to operate. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care or universal health care .
For example, in
HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION AND REGULATION
The management and administration of health care is another sector vital to the delivery of health care services. In particular, the practice of health professionals and operation of health care institutions is typically regulated by national or state/provincial authorities through appropriate regulatory bodies for purposes of quality assurance . Most countries have credentialing staff in regulatory boards or health departments who document the certification or licensing of health workers and their work history.
HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Main article: Healthcare in Taiwan
Main article: Healthcare in
Main article: Healthcare in the
Each of the four countries of the UK has a publicly funded health
care system referred to as the National
The NHS was born out of a long-held British ideal that good
healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. At its
launch by the UK minister of health,
Main article: Healthcare in the United States
Healthcare in India
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Acronyms in healthcare
Catholic Church and health care
Clinical documentation improvement
Electronic health record
Healthcare system /
Healthy city /
Alliance for Healthy Cities
* ATC codes (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system) * Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) * Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) / List of DSM-IV codes * ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) * International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) / ICPC-2 PLUS
Community health service / Community health centers in the United
Direct primary care (United States)
Family medicine /
* ^ "