Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral
processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It is concerned with
understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors
contribute to physical health and illness.
Psychological factors can
affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring
environmental stressors affecting the
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm
health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For
example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm (smoking or consuming
excessive amounts of alcohol) or enhance health (engaging in
exercise). Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach. In
other words, health psychologists understand health to be the product
not only of biological processes (e.g., a virus, tumor, etc.) but also
of psychological (e.g., thoughts and beliefs), behavioral (e.g.,
habits), and social processes (e.g., socioeconomic status and
By understanding psychological factors that influence health, and
constructively applying that knowledge, health psychologists can
improve health by working directly with individual patients or
indirectly in large-scale public health programs. In addition, health
psychologists can help train other healthcare professionals (e.g.,
physicians and nurses) to take advantage of the knowledge the
discipline has generated, when treating patients. Health psychologists
work in a variety of settings: alongside other medical professionals
in hospitals and clinics, in public health departments working on
large-scale behavior change and health promotion programs, and in
universities and medical schools where they teach and conduct
Although its early beginnings can be traced to the field of clinical
psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and
one related field, occupational health psychology (OHP), have
developed over time. The four divisions include clinical health
psychology, public health psychology, community health psychology, and
critical health psychology. Professional organizations for the
field of health psychology include Division 38 of the American
Psychological Association (APA), the Division of Health Psychology
of the British
Psychological Society (BPS), and the European Health
Psychology Society. Advanced credentialing in the US as a clinical
health psychologist is provided through the American Board of
2 Origins and development
3.1 Understanding behavioral and contextual factors
3.2 Preventing illness
3.3 The effects of disease
3.4 Critical analysis of health policy
3.5 Conducting research
3.6 Teaching and communication
4.1 Improving doctor–patient communication
4.2 Improving adherence to medical advice
4.2.1 Ways of measuring adherence
4.3 Managing pain
4.4 Health psychologist roles
6 See also
7 Further reading
9 External links
9.1 North America
Recent advances in psychological, medical, and physiological research
have led to a new way of thinking about health and illness. This
conceptualization, which has been labeled the biopsychosocial model,
views health and illness as the product of a combination of factors
including biological characteristics (e.g., genetic predisposition),
behavioral factors (e.g., lifestyle, stress, health beliefs), and
social conditions (e.g., cultural influences, family relationships,
Psychologists who strive to understand how biological, behavioral, and
social factors influence health and illness are called health
psychologists. Health psychologists use their knowledge of psychology
and health to promote general well-being and understand physical
illness. They are specially trained to help people deal with the
psychological and emotional aspects of health and illness. Health
psychologists work with many different health care professionals
(e.g., physicians, dentists, nurses, physician's assistants,
dietitians, social workers, pharmacists, physical and occupational
therapists, and chaplains) to conduct research and provide clinical
assessments and treatment services. Many health psychologists focus on
prevention research and interventions designed to promote healthier
lifestyles and try to find ways to encourage people to improve their
health. For example, they may help people to lose weight or stop
smoking. Health psychologists also use their skills to try to
improve the healthcare system. For example, they may advise doctors
about better ways to communicate with their patients. Health
psychologists work in many different settings including the UK's
National Health Service
National Health Service (NHS), private practice, universities,
communities, schools and organizations. While many health
psychologists provide clinical services as part of their duties,
others function in non-clinical roles, primarily involving teaching
and research. Leading journals include Health Psychology, the Journal
of Health Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology,
and Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. Health
psychologists can work with people on a one-to-one basis, in groups,
as a family, or at a larger population level.
Clinical health psychology (ClHP)
ClHP is the application of scientific knowledge, derived from the
field of health psychology, to clinical questions that may arise
across the spectrum of health care. ClHP is one of many specialty
practice areas for clinical psychologists. It is also a major
contributor to the prevention-focused field of behavioral health and
the treatment-oriented field of behavioral medicine. Clinical practice
includes education, the techniques of behavior change, and
psychotherapy. In some countries, a clinical health psychologist, with
additional training, can become a medical psychologist and, thereby,
obtain prescription privileges.
Public health psychology (PHP)
PHP is population oriented. A major aim of PHP is to investigate
potential causal links between psychosocial factors and health at the
Public health psychologists present research results
to educators, policy makers, and health care providers in order to
promote better public health. PHP is allied to other public health
disciplines including epidemiology, nutrition, genetics and
biostatistics. Some PHP interventions are targeted toward at-risk
population groups (e.g., undereducated, single pregnant women who
smoke) and not the population as a whole (e.g., all pregnant women).
Community health psychology (CoHP)
CoHP investigates community factors that contribute to the health and
well-being of individuals who live in communities. CoHP also develops
community-level interventions that are designed to combat disease and
promote physical and mental health. The community often serves as the
level of analysis, and is frequently sought as a partner in
Critical health psychology (CrHP)
CrHP is concerned with the distribution of power and the impact of
power differentials on health experience and behavior, health care
systems, and health policy. CrHP prioritizes social justice and the
universal right to health for people of all races, genders, ages, and
socioeconomic positions. A major concern is health inequalities. The
critical health psychologist is an agent of change, not simply an
analyst or cataloger. A leading organization in this area is the
International Society of Critical Health Psychology.
Health psychology, like other areas of applied psychology, is both a
theoretical and applied field. Health psychologists employ diverse
research methods. These methods include controlled randomized
experiments, quasi-experiments, longitudinal studies, time-series
designs, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, qualitative
research as well as action research. Health psychologists study a
broad range of variables including cardiovascular disease, (cardiac
psychology), smoking habits, the relation of religious beliefs to
health, alcohol use, social support, living conditions, emotional
state, social class, and more. Some health psychologists treat
individuals with sleep problems, headaches, alcohol problems, etc.
Other health psychologists work to empower community members by
helping community members gain control over their health and improve
quality of life of entire communities.
Origins and development
Psychological factors in health had been studied since the early 20th
century by disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine and later
behavioral medicine, but these were primarily branches of medicine,
Health psychology began to emerge as a distinct
discipline of psychology in the United States in the 1970s. In the
mid-20th century there was a growing understanding in medicine of the
effect of behavior on health. For example, the Alameda County Study,
which began in the 1960s, showed that people who ate regular meals
(e.g., breakfast), maintained a healthy weight, received adequate
sleep, did not smoke, drank little alcohol, and exercised regularly
were in better health and lived longer. In addition, psychologists
and other scientists were discovering relationships between
psychological processes and physiological ones. These discoveries
include a better understanding of the impact of psychosocial stress on
the cardiovascular and immune systems, and the early finding that
the functioning of the immune system could be altered by learning.
Psychologists have been working in medical settings for many years (in
the UK sometimes the field was termed medical psychology). Medical
psychology, however, was a relatively small field, primarily aimed at
helping patients adjust to illness. In 1969, William Schofield
prepared a report for the APA entitled The Role of
Psychology in the
Delivery of Health Services. While there were exceptions, he found
that the psychological research of the time frequently regarded mental
health and physical health as separate, and devoted very little
attention to psychology's impact upon physical health. One of the few
psychologists working in this area at the time, Schofield proposed new
forms of education and training for future psychologists. The APA,
responding to his proposal, in 1973 established a task force to
consider how psychologists could (a) help people to manage their
health-related behaviors, (b) help patients manage their physical
health problems, and (c) train healthcare staff to work more
effectively with patients.
Led by Joseph Matarazzo, in 1977, APA added a division devoted to
health psychology. At the first divisional conference, Matarazzo
delivered a speech that played an important role in defining health
psychology. He defined the new field in this way, "Health psychology
is the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and
professional contributions of the discipline of psychology to the
promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of
illness, the identification of diagnostic and etiologic correlates of
health, illness and related dysfunction, and the analysis and
improvement of the healthcare system and health policy formation."
In the 1980s, similar organizations were established elsewhere. In
1986, the BPS established a Division of Health Psychology. The
Psychology Society was also established in 1986.
Similar organizations were established in other countries, including
Australia and Japan. Universities began to develop doctoral level
training programs in health psychology. In the US, post-doctoral level
health psychology training programs were established for individuals
who completed a doctoral degree in clinical psychology.
A number of relevant trends coincided with the emergence of health
Epidemiological evidence linking behavior and health.
The addition of behavioral science to medical school curricula, with
courses often taught by psychologists.
The training of health professionals in communication skills, with the
aim of improving patient satisfaction and adherence to medical
Increasing numbers of interventions based on psychological theory
(e.g., behavior modification).
An increased understanding of the interaction between psychological
and physiological factors leading to the emergence of psychophysiology
and psychoneuroimmunology (PNI).
The health domain having become a target of research by social
psychologists interested in testing theoretical models linking
beliefs, attitudes, and behavior.
The emergence of AIDS/HIV, and the increase in funding for behavioral
research the epidemic provoked.
In the UK, the BPS’s reconsideration of the role of the Medical
Section prompted the emergence of health psychology as a distinct
field. Marie Johnston and John Weinman argued in a letter to the BPS
Bulletin that there was a great need for a Health
In December 1986 the section was established at the BPS London
Conference, with Marie Johnston as chair. At the Annual BPS
Conference in 1993 a review of "Current Trends in Health Psychology"
was organized, and a definition of health psychology as "the study of
psychological and behavioural processes in health, illness and
healthcare" was proposed. The Health
Psychology Section became a
Special Group in 1993 and was awarded divisional status within the UK
in 1997. The awarding of divisional status meant that the individual
training needs and professional practice of health psychologists were
recognized, and members were able to obtain chartered status with the
BPS. The BPS went on to regulate training and practice in health
psychology until the regulation of professional standards and
qualifications was taken over by statutory registration with the
Health Professions Council in 2010.
Understanding behavioral and contextual factors
Health psychologists conduct research to identify behaviors and
experiences that promote health, give rise to illness, and influence
the effectiveness of health care. They also recommend ways to improve
health care policy. Health psychologists have worked on developing
ways to reduce smoking and improve daily nutrition in order to
promote health and prevent illness. They have also studied the
association between illness and individual characteristics. For
example, health psychology has found a relation between the
personality characteristics of thrill seeking, impulsiveness,
hostility/anger, emotional instability, and depression, on one hand,
and high-risk driving, on the other.
Health psychology is also concerned with contextual factors, including
economic, cultural, community, social, and lifestyle factors that
influence health. The biopsychosocial model can help in understanding
the relation between contextual factors and biology in affecting
health. Physical addiction impedes smoking cessation. Some research
suggests that seductive advertising also contributes to psychological
dependency on tobacco, although other research has found no
relationship between media exposure and smoking in youth. OHP
research indicates that people in jobs that combine little decision
latitude with a high psychological workload are at increased risk for
cardiovascular disease. Other OHP research reveals a relation
between unemployment and elevations in blood pressure.
Epidemiologic research documents a relation between social class and
Health psychologists also aim to change health behaviors for the dual
purpose of helping people stay healthy and helping patients adhere to
disease treatment regimens (also see health action process approach).
Health psychologists employ cognitive behavior therapy and applied
behavior analysis (also see behavior modification) for that purpose.
Health psychologists promote health through behavioral change, as
mentioned above; however, they attempt to prevent illness in other
ways as well. Health psychologists try to help people to lead a
healthy life by developing and running programmes which can help
people to make changes in their lives such as stopping smoking,
reducing the amount of alcohol they consume, eating more healthily,
and exercising regularly. Campaigns informed by health psychology
have targeted tobacco use. Those least able to afford tobacco products
consume them most. Tobacco provides individuals with a way of
controlling aversive emotional states accompanying daily experiences
of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable
individuals. Practitioners emphasize education and effective
communication as a part of illness prevention because many people do
not recognize, or minimize, the risk of illness present in their
lives. Moreover, many individuals are often unable to apply their
knowledge of health practices owing to everyday pressures and
stresses. A common example of population-based attempts to motivate
the smoking public to reduce its dependence on cigarettes is
Health psychologists help to promote health and well-being by
preventing illness. Some illnesses can be more effectively treated
if caught early. Health psychologists have worked to understand why
some people do not seek early screenings or immunizations, and have
used that knowledge to develop ways to encourage people to have early
health checks for illnesses such as cancer and heart disease.
Health psychologists are also finding ways to help people to avoid
risky behaviors (e.g., engaging in unprotected sex) and encourage
health-enhancing behaviors (e.g., regular tooth brushing or hand
Health psychologists also aim at educating health professionals,
including physicians and nurses, in communicating effectively with
patients in ways that overcome barriers to understanding, remembering,
and implementing effective strategies for reducing exposures to risk
factors and making health-enhancing behavior changes.
There is also evidence from OHP that stress-reduction interventions at
the workplace can be effective. For example, Kompier and his
colleagues have shown that a number of interventions aimed at
reducing stress in bus drivers has had beneficial effects for
employees and bus companies.
The effects of disease
Health psychologists investigate how disease affects individuals'
psychological well-being. An individual who becomes seriously ill or
injured faces many different practical stressors. These stressors
include problems meeting medical and other bills, problems obtaining
proper care when home from the hospital, obstacles to caring for
dependents, the experience of having one's sense of self-reliance
compromised, gaining a new, unwanted identity as that of a sick
person, and so on. These stressors can lead to depression, reduced
Health psychology also concerns itself with bettering the lives of
individuals with terminal illness. When there is little hope of
recovery, health psychologist therapists can improve the quality of
life of the patient by helping the patient recover at least some of
his or her psychological well-being. Health psychologists are also
concerned with providing therapeutic services for the bereaved.
Critical analysis of health policy
Critical health psychologists explore how health policy can influence
inequities, inequalities and social injustice. These avenues of
research expand the scope of health psychology beyond the level of
individual health to an examination of the social and economic
determinants of health both within and between regions and nations.
The individualism of mainstream health psychology has been critiqued
and deconstructed by critical health psychologists using qualitative
methods that zero in on the health experience.
Like psychologists in the other main psychology disciplines, health
psychologists have advanced knowledge of research methods. Health
psychologists apply this knowledge to conduct research on a variety of
questions. For example, health psychologists carry out research to
answer questions such as:
What influences healthy eating?
How is stress linked to heart disease?
What are the emotional effects of genetic testing?
How can we change people’s health behavior to improve their
Teaching and communication
Main article: Health communication
Health psychologists can also be responsible for training other health
professionals on how to deliver interventions to help promote healthy
eating, stopping smoking, weight loss, etc. Health psychologists also
train other health professionals in communication skills such as how
to break bad news or support behavior change for the purpose of
improving adherence to treatment.
Improving doctor–patient communication
Health psychologists aid the process of communication between
physicians and patients during medical consultations. There are many
problems in this process, with patients showing a considerable lack of
understanding of many medical terms, particularly anatomical terms
(e.g., intestines). One area of research on this topic involves
"doctor-centered" or "patient-centered" consultations. Doctor-centered
consultations are generally directive, with the patient answering
questions and playing less of a role in decision-making. Although this
style is preferred by elderly people and others, many people dislike
the sense of hierarchy or ignorance that it inspires. They prefer
patient-centered consultations, which focus on the patient's needs,
involve the doctor listening to the patient completely before making a
decision, and involving the patient in the process of choosing
treatment and finding a diagnosis.
Improving adherence to medical advice
Health psychologists engage in research and practice aimed at getting
people to follow medical advice and adhere to their treatment
regimens. Patients often forget to take their pills or consciously opt
not to take their prescribed medications because of side effects.
Failing to take prescribed medication is costly and wastes millions of
usable medicines that could otherwise help other people. Estimated
adherence rates are difficult to measure (see below); there is,
however, evidence that adherence could be improved by tailoring
treatment programs to individuals' daily lives. Additionally,
traditional cognitive-behavioural therapies have been adapted for
people suffering from chronic illnesses and comorbid psychological
distress to include modules that encourage, support and reinforce
adherence to medical advice as part of the larger treatment
Ways of measuring adherence
Health psychologists have identified a number of ways of measuring
patients' adherence to medical regimens:
Counting the number of pills in the medicine bottle
Using "Trackcap" bottles, which track the number of times the bottle
Health psychology attempts to find treatments to reduce or eliminate
pain, as well as understand pain anomalies such as episodic analgesia,
causalgia, neuralgia, and phantom limb pain. Although the task of
measuring and describing pain has been problematic, the development of
the McGill Pain Questionnaire has helped make progress in this
area. Treatments for pain involve patient-administered analgesia,
acupuncture (found to be effective in reducing pain for osteoarthritis
of the knee), biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy.
Health psychologist roles
Below are some examples of the types of positions held by health
psychologists within applied settings such as the UK's NHS and private
Consultant health psychologist: A consultant health psychologist will
take a lead for health psychology within public health, including
managing tobacco control and smoking cessation services and providing
professional leadership in the management of health trainers.
Principal health psychologist: A principal health psychologist could,
for example lead the health psychology service within one of the
UK’s leading heart and lung hospitals, providing a clinical service
to patients and advising all members of the multidisciplinary
Health psychologist: An example of a health psychologist's role would
be to provide health psychology input to a center for weight
Psychological assessment of treatment, development and
delivery of a tailored weight management program, and advising on
approaches to improve adherence to health advice and medical
Research health psychologists carry out health
psychology research, for example, exploring the psychological impact
of receiving a diagnosis of dementia, or evaluating ways of providing
psychological support for people with burn injuries.
Research can also
be in the area of health promotion, for example investigating the
determinants of healthy eating or physical activity or understanding
why people misuse substances.
Health psychologist in training/assistant health psychologist: As an
assistant/in training, a health psychologist will gain experience
assessing patients, delivering psychological interventions to change
health behaviors, and conducting research, whilst being supervised by
a qualified health psychologist.
See also: List of universities with health psychology programs
In the UK, health psychologists are registered by the Health
Professions Council (HPC) and have trained to a level to be eligible
for full membership of the Division of Health
Psychology within the
BPS. Registered health psychologists who are chartered with the
BPS will have undertaken a minimum of six years of training and will
have specialized in health psychology for a minimum of three
years. Health psychologists in training must have completed BPS
stage 1 training and be registered with the BPS Stage 2 training route
or with a BPS-accredited university doctoral health psychology
program. Once qualified, health psychologists can work in a range of
settings, for example the NHS, universities, schools, private
healthcare, and research and charitable organizations. A health
psychologist in training might be working within applied settings
while working towards registration and chartered status. A health
psychologist will have demonstrated competencies in all of the
professional skills (including implementing ethical and legal
standards, communication, and teamwork),
research skills (including designing, conducting, and analyzing
psychological research in numerous areas),
consultancy skills (including planning and evaluation),
teaching and training skills (including knowledge of designing,
delivering, and evaluating large and small scale training program),
intervention skills (including delivery and evaluation of behavior
All qualified health psychologists must also engage in and record
their continuing professional development (CPD) for psychology each
year throughout their career.
European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology
Impact of health on intelligence
Occupational health psychology
Occupational Health Science
Occupational safety and health
Outline of psychology
Society for Occupational Health Psychology
Cohen, L.M.; McChargue, D.E.; & Collins, Jr. F.L. (Eds.). (2003).
Psychology Handbook: Practical issues for the Behavioral
Medicine Specialist. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
David F. Marks, Michael Murray, Brian Evans & Emee Vida Estacio
(2011) Health Psychology. Theory-Research-Practice (3rd Ed.) Sage
Publications. ISBN 1-84860-622-2 (hbk) 978-1848606227 (pbk).
Michie, S.; & Abraham, C. (Eds.). (2004).
Health psychology in
practice. London. BPS Blackwells.
Ogden, J. (2007). Health Psychology: A Textbook (4th ed.). Berkshire,
England: Open University Press.
Quick, J.C.; & Tetrick, L.E. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of
Psychology (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American
Schonfeld, I.S., & Chang, C.-H. (2017). Occupational health
psychology: Work, stress, and health. New York, NY: Springer
Taylor, S.E. (1990). Health psychology. American Psychologist, 45,
^ Johnston, M. (1994). Current trends in Health Psychology. The
Psychologist, 7, 114-118.
^ a b Ogden, J. (2012). Health Psychology: A Textbook (5th ed.).
Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
^ Rogers, R. W. (1983). Preventive health psychology: An interface of
social and clinical psychology. Journal of Social and Clinical
Psychology, 1(2), 120-127. doi:10.1521/jscp.19220.127.116.11
^ Everly, G. S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health
psychology. In P. A. Keller & L. G. Ritt (Eds.), Innovations in
clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 5 (pp. 331-338). Sarasota, FL:
Professional Resource Exchange.
^ a b Marks, D.F., Murray, M., Evans, B., & Estacio, E.V. (2011).
Health psychology. Theory-research-practice Archived 2011-10-06 at the
Wayback Machine. (3rd Ed.) Thousand Oaks: Sage.
^ Division 38
^ Division of Health Psychology
^ European Health
^ American Board of Professional Psychology
^ a b c d e f g h i The British
Psychological Society. (2011). What is
health psychology? A guide for the public.
^ The British Journal of Health Psychology
^ Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
^ Belloc, N., & Breslow, L. (1972). Relationship of physical
health status and health practices. Preventive Medicine, 1(3),
^ a b Sterling, P., & Eyer, J. (1981). Biological basis of
stress-related mortality. Social Science & Medicine. Part E,
Medical Psychology, 15(1), 3-42.
^ Ader, R. & Cohen, N. (1975). Behaviorally conditioned
immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37(4), 333–340.
^ Schofield, W. (1969). The role of psychology in the delivery of
health services. American Psychologist, 24(6), 565-584.
^ Johnston, M., Weinman, J. & Chater, A. (2011). A healthy
contribution. The Psychologist, 24(12), 890-892.
^ Matarazzo, J. D. (1980).
Behavioral health and behavioral medicine:
Frontiers for a new health psychology. American Psychologist, 35,
^ Belar, C. D., Mendonca McIntyre, T. & Matarazzo, J. D. (2003).
Health psychology. In D. K. Freedheim & I. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook
of Psychology. Vol.1: History of Psychology. New York: Wiley
^ a b c d e f g h Johnson, M., Weinman, J., & Chater, A. (2011) A
healthy Contribution. Health Psychology, 24 (12) 890-902
^ Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention,
and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA:
^ Johnston, M. (1994). Health psychology:Current trends. The
^ Sharman, S.J.; Garry, M.; Jacobsen, J.A.; Loftus, E.F.; & Ditto,
P.H. (2008). False memories for end-of-life decisions. Health
Psychology, 27, 291–96.
^ Dusseldorp, E.; van Elderen, T.; & Maes, S.; Meulman, J. &
Kraaij, V. (1999). A meta-analysis of psychoeducational programs for
coronary heart disease patients. Health Psychology, 18, 506–19.
^ Resnicow, K.; Jackson, A.; Blissett, D.; Wang, T.; McCarty, F.;
Rahotep, S.; & Periasamy, S. (2005). Results of the Healthy Body
Healthy Spirit Trial. Health Psychology, 24, 339–48.
^ Beirness, D.J. (1993). Do we really drive as we live? The role of
personality factors in road crashes. Alcohol, Drugs & Driving, 9,
^ Pierce, J.P.; & Gilpin, E.A. (1995). A historical analysis of
tobacco marketing and the uptake of smoking by youth in the United
States: 1890–1977. Health Psychology, 14, 500–508.
^ Ferguson C.J. & Meehan, D.C. (2011). With friends like these...:
Peer delinquency influences across age cohorts on smoking, alcohol and
illegal substance use. European Psychiatry, 26(1), 6–12.
^ Rosenström, T., Hintsanen, M., Jokela, M., Keltikangas-Järvinen,
L., Kivimäki, M., Juonala, M., & ... Viikari, J. S. (2011).
Change in job strain and progression of atherosclerosis: The
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Journal of Occupational
Health Psychology, 16(1), 139-150. doi:10.1037/a0021752
^ Johnson, J.V., Stewart, W., Hall, E.M., Fredlund, P., &
Theorell, T. (1996). Long-term psychosocial work environment and
cardiovascular mortality among Swedish men. American Journal of Public
Health, 86(3), 324–31. doi:10.2105/AJPH.86.3.324
^ Ilies, R., Dimotakis, N., & Watson, D. (2010). Mood, blood
pressure, and heart rate at work: An experience-sampling study.
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(2), 120-130.
^ Kasl, S.V. & Cobb, S. (1970). Blood pressure changes in men
undergoing job loss: A preliminary report. Psychosomatic Medicine,
^ Marmot, M.G. & Theorell, T. (1988). Social class and
cardiovascular disease: The contribution of work. International
Journal of Health Services, 18, 659–74.
^ Whalen, C.K.; Jamner, L.D.; Henker, B. & Delfino, R.J. (2001).
Smoking and moods in adolescents with depressive and aggressive
dispositions: Evidence from surveys and electronic diaries. Health
Psychology, 20, 99–111.
^ Hershey, J.C.; Niederdeppe, J. & Evans, W.D. (2005). The theory
of 'truth': How counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior
among teens. Health Psychology, 24, 22–31.
^ Ogden, J.; Bavalia, K.; Bull, M.; Frankum, S.; Goldie, C.; Gosslau,
M.; et al. (2004) 'I want more time with my doctor': A quantitative
study of time and the consultation. Family Practice, 21, 479–83.
^ Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; van den Berg, A.-M. & Siegrist, J.
(2000). Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural
experiments. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 32–47.
^ Cassileth, B.R.; Lusk, E.J.; Strouse, T.B.; Miller, D.S.; Brown,
L.L.; Cross, P.A. & Tenaglia, A.N. (1984). Psychosocial status in
chronic illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 506–11.
^ Lander, D.A. & Graham-Pole, J.R. (2008). Love medicine for the
dying and their caregivers: The body of evidence. Journal of Health
Psychology, 13, 201–12.
^ O'Brien, J.M.; Forrest, L.M. & Austin, A.E. (2002). Death of a
partner: Perspectives of heterosexual and gay men. Journal of Health
Psychology, 7, 317–28.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k The British
Psychological Society. (2011).
Health psychology: A guide for employees.
^ Boyle, C.M. (1970). Difference between patients' and doctors'
interpretation of some common medical terms. British Medical Journal,
^ Dowsett, S.M., Saul, J.L., Butow, P.N., Dunn, S.M., Boyer, M.J.,
Findlow, R., & Dunsmore, J. (2000). Communication styles in the
cancer consultation: Preferences for a patient-centred approach.
Psycho-Oncology, 9, 147–56.
^ Clark, M.; Hampson, S.E.; Avery, L. & Simpson, R. (2004).
Effects of a tailored lifestyle self-management intervention in
patients with type 2 diabetes. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9
(Pt 3), 365–79.
^ Safren, S., Gonzalez, J., Wexler, D., Psaros, C., Delahanty, L.,
Blashill, A., . . . Cagliero, E. (2014). A Randomized Controlled Trial
of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD)
in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 37 (3):
^ Banyard, P. (2002).
Psychology in practice: Health. London, England:
Hodder & Stoughton Educational.
^ Melzack, R. (1975). The McGill Pain Questionnaire: Major properties
and scoring methods. Pain, 1(3), 277–299.
^ Berman, B.; Singh B.B.; Lao, L.; Langenberg, P.; Li, H.; Hadhazy,
V.; Bareta, J. & Hochberg, M. (1999). A randomized trial of
acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee.
Rheumatology, 38(4), 346–54.
^ a b The British
Psychological Society. (2011). Health
applied settings: A guide for employers.
Psychological Association, Division 38: Health Psychology.
Accessed: 15:52, 29 July 2014 (UTC).
Division 38: Health
Psychology at APA.org. Accessed: 15:52, 29 July
Society for Occupational Health Psychology. Accessed: 15:52, 29 July
Society of Behavioral Medicine. Accessed: 15:52, 29 July 2014 (UTC).
Psychology Society. Accessed: 15:06, 25 July 2017
Division of Health
Psychology of the British
Accessed: 15:52, 29 July 2014 (UTC).
European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology. Accessed: 15:52,
29 July 2014 (UTC).
Applied behavior analysis
Industrial and organizational
Sport and exercise
Human subject research
William James (1842–1910)
Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
Edward Thorndike (1874–1949)
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
John B. Watson (1878–1958)
Clark L. Hull (1884–1952)
Kurt Lewin (1890–1947)
Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Gordon Allport (1897–1967)
J. P. Guilford (1897–1987)
Carl Rogers (1902–1987)
Erik Erikson (1902–1994)
B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985)
Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001)
Harry Harlow (1905–1981)
Raymond Cattell (1905–1998)
Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
Neal E. Miller (1909–2002)
Jerome Bruner (1915–2016)
Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996)
Hans Eysenck (1916–1997)
Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001)
David McClelland (1917–1998)
Leon Festinger (1919–1989)
George Armitage Miller (1920–2012)
Richard Lazarus (1922–2002)
Stanley Schachter (1922–1997)
Robert Zajonc (1923–2008)
Albert Bandura (b. 1925)
Roger Brown (1925–1997)
Endel Tulving (b. 1927)
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987)
Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)
Ulric Neisser (1928–2012)
Jerome Kagan (b. 1929)
Walter Mischel (b. 1930)
Elliot Aronson (b. 1932)
Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934)
Paul Ekman (b. 1934)
Michael Posner (b. 1936)
Amos Tversky (1937–1996)
Bruce McEwen (b. 1938)
Larry Squire (b. 1941)
Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941)
Martin Seligman (b. 1942)
Ed Diener (b. 1946)
Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946)
John Anderson (b. 1947)
Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947)
Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949)
Richard Davidson (b. 1951)
Susan Fiske (b. 1952)
Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)
Schools of thought
Chief Medical Officer
Globalization and disease
Health care reform
Public health law
Public health laboratory
Sociology of health and illness
Occupational safety and health
Human factors and ergonomics
Health impact assessment
Open-source healthcare software
Public health informatics
Social determinants of health
Race and health
Randomized controlled trial
Statistical hypothesis testing
Analysis of variance
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Infectious and epidemic
Public health surveillance
Sexually transmitted infection
Food hygiene and
Genetically modified food
Good agricultural practice
Good manufacturing practice
Diffusion of innovations
Health belief model
Social cognitive theory
Social norms approach
Theory of planned behavior
Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
City and county health departments
Council on Education for Public Health
Public Health Service
World Health Organization
World Toilet Organization
Bachelor of Science in Public Health
Doctor of Public Health
Professional degrees of public health
Schools of public health
Sara Josephine Baker
Samuel Jay Crumbine
Carl Rogers Darnall
Germ theory of disease
Social hygiene movement