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Health impact assessment (HIA) is defined as "a combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population."

Overview

HIA is intended to produce a set of evidence-based recommendations to inform decision-making . HIA seeks to maximise the positive health impacts and minimise the negative health impacts of proposed policies, programs or projects. The procedures of HIA are similar to those used in other forms of impact assessment, such as environmental impact assessment or social impact assessment. HIA is usually described as following the steps listed, though many practitioners break these into sub-steps or label them differently: # ''Screening'' - determining if an HIA is warranted/required # ''Scoping'' - determining which impacts will be considered and the plan for the HIA # ''Identification and assessment of impacts'' - determining the magnitude, nature, extent and likelihood of potential health impacts, using a variety of different methods and types of information # ''Decision-making and recommendations'' - making explicit the trade-offs to be made in decision-making and formulating evidence-informed recommendations # ''Evaluation, monitoring and follow-up'' - process and impact evaluation of the HIA and the monitoring and management of health impacts The main objective of HIA is to apply existing knowledge and evidence about health impacts, to specific social and community contexts, to develop evidence-based recommendations that inform decision-making in order to protect and improve community health and wellbeing. Because of financial and time constraints, HIAs do not generally involve new research or the generation of original scientific knowledge. However, the findings of HIAs, especially where these have been monitored and evaluated over time, can be used to inform other HIAs in contexts that are similar. An HIA's recommendations may focus on both design and operational aspects of a proposal. HIA has also been identified as a mechanism by which potential health inequalities can be identified and redressed prior to the implementation of proposed policy, program or project . A number of manuals and guidelines for HIA's use have been developed (see further reading).

Determinants of health

The proposition that policies, programs and projects have the potential to change the determinants of health underpins HIA's use. Changes to health determinants then leads to changes in health outcomes or the health status of individuals and communities. The determinants of health are largely environmental and social, so that there are many overlaps with environmental impact assessment and social impact assessment.

Levels of HIA

Three forms of HIA exist: * Desk-based HIA, which takes 2–6 weeks for one assessor to complete and provides a broad overview of potential health impacts; * Rapid HIA, which takes approximately 12 weeks for one assessor to complete and provides more detailed information on potential health impacts; and * Comprehensive HIA, which takes approximately 6 months for one assessor and provides a in-depth assessment of potential health impacts. It has been suggested that HIAs can be prospective (done before a proposal is implemented), concurrent (done while the proposal is being implemented) or retrospective (done after a proposal has been implemented) . This remains controversial, however, with a number of HIA practitioners suggesting that concurrent HIA is better regarded as a monitoring activity and that retrospective HIA is more akin to evaluation with a health focus, rather than being assessment per se . Prospective HIA is preferred as it allows the maximum practical opportunity to influence decision-making and subsequent health impacts.

HIA practitioners

HIA practitioners can be found in the private and public sectors, but are relatively few in number. There are no universally accepted competency frameworks or certification processes. It is suggested that a lead practitioner should have extensive education and training in a health related field, experience of participating in HIAs, and have attended an HIA training course. It has been suggested and widely accepted that merely having a medical or health degree should not be regarded as an indication of competency. Th
International Association for Impact Assessment
has an activ
health section

HIA People Directory
can be found on th
HIA GATEWAY


HIA worldwide

HIA used around the world, most notably in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and Thailand . The safeguard policies and standards of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, were established in 2006. These contain a requirement for health impact assessment in large projects. The standards have been accepted by most of the leading lending banks who are parties to the Equator Principles. Health impact assessments are becoming routine in many large development projects in both public and private sectors of developing countries. There is also a long history of health impact assessment in the water resource development sector - large dams and irrigation systems.

See also

*Impact Assessment **Environmental impact assessment **Equality Impact Assessment **Four-Step Impact Assessment **Healthy development measurement tool **Risk assessment **Social impact assessment *Health promotion **Jakarta Declaration **Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion *Health protection **Environmental health **List of environmental health hazards **Precautionary principle **Risk assessment *Population health **Public health **Social determinants of health

References

* . * . * . * . * . * . * . ''This page uses Harvard referencing. References are sorted alphabetically by author surname.''

Further reading



Books and edited book chapters

* . * . * . * . * . * . Includes several chapters on HIA.

Journal articles

* . * * . * . * . * . * * . * .

Journal special issues

* . * . * . * . * . * .

Manuals and guidelines

* . * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * * . * . ''This page uses Harvard referencing. Further reading categories are sorted alphabetically; citations are sorted by year (newest to oldest), then alphabetically by author surname within years. If citations are included in the references section they are not listed in the further reading section.''

HIA resource websites


Health Impact Project
- Funding for HIA and resources
HIA Connect

HIA Gateway

''IMPACT'' - International Health Impact Assessment Consortium

RIVM HIA Database

World Health Organization HIA Site


Government HIA websites



* ttps://web.archive.org/web/20061007033621/http://www.who.dk/echp European Centre for Health Policy (Belgium)
HPP-HIA Program (Thailand)

Institute for Public Health in Ireland (Ireland)

Planning for Healthy Places with Health Impact Assessments (United States)



US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)


University HIA websites




University of Birmingham, ''HIA Research Unit'' (Birmingham, UK)

University of California, Berkeley, ''Health Impact Group'', School of Public Health (Berkeley, USA)

University of California, Los Angeles, ''HIA Project'' (Los Angeles, USA)


* ttp://www.ihia.org.uk University of Liverpool, ''IMPACT - International Health Impact Assessment Consortium'' Department of Public Health and Policy.(Liverpool, UK)
University of New South Wales, ''HIA Connect'', Health Inequalities, Health Impact Assessment and Healthy Public Policy Program (CHETRE), Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, Faculty of Medicine (Sydney, Australia)




Professional associations

* ttp://www.iaia.org IAIA
Society for Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA)


Other HIA websites


Health Impact Assessment - International (Email Discussion Group)

HIA Blog

HIA Blog on Twitter
''This page uses Harvard referencing. External links are sorted alphabetically.'' {{Public health Category:Public health Category:Human geography Category:Impact assessment Category:Health care quality Category:Health economics