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A hazzan (/ˈhɑːzən/;[1] Hebrew: [χaˈzan]) or chazzan (Hebrew: חַזָּן‎ ḥazzān, plural ḥazzānim; Yiddish
Yiddish
khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish
Jewish
musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.[2] In English, this prayer leader is often referred to as cantor, a term also used in Christianity.

Contents

1 The shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan 2 Qualifications 3 Professional status

3.1 Training

4 Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism 5 Golden age 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

The shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan[edit] The person leading the congregation in public prayers is called the shaliaḥ tzibbur (Hebrew for "emissary of the congregation"). Jewish law restricts this role to adult Jews.[3] In theory, any lay person can be a shaliaḥ tzibbur; most synagogue-attending Jews
Jews
will serve in this role every now and again. Someone with good Hebrew pronunciation is preferred. In practice, those with the best voice and the most knowledge of the prayers serve most often. As public worship was developed in the Geonic period and as the knowledge of the Hebrew language declined, singing gradually superseded the didactic and hortatory element in the worship in the synagogue. Thus, while the idea of a cantor as a paid professional does not exist in classical rabbinic sources, the office of the hazzan increased in importance with the centuries, evolving a specialized skill set and becoming a career in itself. Qualifications[edit] Even in the earliest times the chief qualifications demanded of the hazzan, in addition to knowledge of Biblical and liturgical literature as well as the prayer motifs (known as steiger), were a pleasant voice and an artistic delivery; for the sake of these, many faults were willingly overlooked. The hazzan was required to possess a pleasing appearance, to be married, and to have a flowing beard. Sometimes, according to Isaac of Vienna (13th century), a young hazzan having only a slight growth of beard was tolerated. Maimonides
Maimonides
decided that the hazzan who recited the prayers on an ordinary Sabbath and on weekdays need not possess an appearance pleasing to everybody; he might even have a reputation not wholly spotless, provided he was living a life morally free from reproach at the time of his appointment. But all these moderations of the rule disappeared on holidays; then an especially worthy hazzan was demanded, one whose life was absolutely irreproachable, who was generally popular, and who was endowed with an expressive delivery. Even a person who had ever litigated in a non- Jewish
Jewish
court, instead of a Jewish
Jewish
court, could not act as hazzan on those days, unless he had previously done penance.[4] However many authorities were lenient in this regard, and as long as a cantor was "merutzeh l'kehal," desired by the congregation, he was permitted to lead the prayers even on the holiest of days. Today, a hazzan, particularly in more formal (usually not Orthodox) synagogues, is likely to have academic credentials—most often a degree in music or in sacred music, sometimes a degree in music education or in Jewish
Jewish
religious education or a related discipline. The doctor of music degree is sometimes awarded to honour a hazzan. Professional status[edit] The role of hazzanim as a respected full-time profession has become a reality in recent centuries. In the last two centuries Jews
Jews
in a number of European communities, notably Germany and Britain, came to view professionally trained hazzanim as clergy and the hazzan as the deputy rabbi. After the enlightenment, when European nations gave full citizenship and civil rights to Jews, professionally trained hazzanim were accepted by the secular governments as clergy in the same way as rabbis. In a paradoxical turn of events, the United States government recognized cantors as the first Jewish
Jewish
clergy, even before rabbis were recognized: as a congregation could be organized and led by a committee of Jewish
Jewish
laypersons, who would not have the expertise in liturgy a hazzan would have, newly forming congregations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries sometimes hired a hazzan for a synagogue (and made sure that a kosher butcher was established in the neighborhood) for some time before setting about hiring a rabbi, seeing the hazzan (and the butcher) as a more immediate need. The hazzan therefore solemnized marriages and otherwise represented the congregation in the eyes of civil authorities. In the United States, many hazzanim supplement their ministry by also earning certification as and working as mohels, for bris ceremonies. In the United States there are three main organizations for professionally trained hazzanim, one from each of the major Jewish denominations:

American Conference of Cantors—Reform Judaism[5] Cantors Assembly—Conservative Judaism[6] Cantorial Council of America—Orthodox Judaism[7]

Training[edit] Many members of the Cantors Assembly are trained at the H. L. Miller Cantorial School and College of Jewish
Jewish
Music at the Jewish
Jewish
Theological Seminary of America. Many members of the American Conference of Cantors are trained at the Debbie Friedman School of Sacred Music at Hebrew Union College— Jewish
Jewish
Institute of Religion, School of Sacred Music (New York) Reform. Both of these programs offer a five-year training program. Members of the Cantorial Council can train at the Philip and Sarah Belz School of Jewish
Jewish
Music at Yeshiva University
Yeshiva University
in New York City. ALEPH, the movement for Jewish
Jewish
Renewal, includes a cantorial training program as part of its ordination program. Full cantorial training is also offered by the Cantorial School of the Academy for Jewish
Jewish
Religion (California) in Los Angeles, the Cantorial Program at the similarly named Academy for Jewish
Jewish
Religion in New York, and the School of Jewish
Jewish
Music at Hebrew College. These institutions are unaffiliated with any particular Jewish
Jewish
denomination. The curricula for students in these programs generally include, but are not limited to:

Hebrew: modern, Biblical (Torah), and liturgical (siddur) Nusach (liturgical tradition) Laws and traditions pertaining to Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
service History and content of the siddur Music theory, sight-reading Playing an instrument, usually a piano or guitar Singing technique Cantillation—tropes for the liturgical chanting of biblical books Choral conducting Jewish
Jewish
history Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew Bible) Jewish music history Pastoral care and counseling Theology

Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism[edit] Although traditionally a hazzan was always a man, today a woman can be a hazzan (also called a cantor) in most streams of non-Orthodox Judaism.[3] Julie Rosewald, called “ Cantor Soprano” by her congregation, was America’s first female cantor (though she was born in Germany), serving San Francisco’s Temple Emanu-El from 1884 until 1893, although she was not ordained.[8][8][9] Barbara Ostfeld became the first female cantor to be ordained in Reform Judaism
Judaism
in 1975,[10] and Erica Lippitz and Marla Rosenfeld Barugel became the first female cantors in Conservative Judaism
Judaism
in 1987.[10] The Cantors Assembly, a professional organization of cantors associated with Conservative Judaism, did not allow women to join until 1990.[11] Sharon Hordes became the first cantor (female or otherwise) in Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
in 2002.[12] Avitall Gerstetter, who lived in Germany, became the first female cantor in Jewish Renewal
Jewish Renewal
(and the first female cantor in Germany) in 2002. Susan Wehle became the first American female cantor in Jewish Renewal
Jewish Renewal
in 2006,[13] serving until her death in 2009.[14] The first American women to be ordained as cantors in Jewish Renewal after Susan Wehle's ordination were Michal Rubin and Abbe Lyons, both ordained on January 10, 2010.[15] In 2001 Deborah Davis became the first cantor (female or otherwise) in Humanistic Judaism; however, Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
has since stopped graduating cantors.[16] In 2009 Tannoz Bahremand Foruzanfar, who was born in Iran, became the first Persian woman to be ordained as a cantor in the United States.[17] As of 2011, the Hebrew Union College- Jewish
Jewish
Institute of Religion, the main seminary for Reform Judaism, has ordained 208 women cantors.[18] Golden age[edit] The period between the two world wars is often referred to as the "golden age" of hazzanut (cantorial performance). The greats include Zavel Kwartin (1874–1953), Moritz Henle
Moritz Henle
(1850–1925), Joseph "Yossele" Rosenblatt (1882–1933), Gershon Sirota
Gershon Sirota
(1874–1943), and Leib Glantz. In the post–World War II period, prominent cantors were Moshe Koussevitzky, David Werdyger, Frank Birnbaum, Richard Tucker
Richard Tucker
and Abraham Lopes Cardozo (1914–2006). Operatic tenor Jan Peerce, whose cantorial recordings were highly regarded, was never a cantor by profession but often served as one during the high holidays. Popular contemporary cantors include Shmuel Barzilai, Naftali Hershtik, Yitzchak Meir Helfgot, Chazzan Avraham Aharon Weingarten, Ari Klein, Yaakov Lemmer, Joseph Malovany, Benzion Miller, Jacob (Jack) Mendelson, Aaron Bensoussan, Aaron Aderet, Alberto Mizrahi, Yaakov Yoseph Stark, Jochen (Yaacov) Fahlenkamp, and Eli Weinberg. See also[edit]

History of religious Jewish
Jewish
music Cantor in Reform Judaism. Chazante Rabbi Judaism Jewish
Jewish
services Syrian Cantors Academy for Jewish
Jewish
Religion (California) Academy for Jewish
Jewish
Religion (New York) The Reform Jewish
Jewish
Cantorate during the 19th Century Cantors Assembly Precentor Succentor

Look up hazzan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

References[edit]

^ "hazzan". Collins English Dictionary. ^ Geoffrey Wigoder; Fred Skolnik; Shmuel Himelstein, eds. (2002). " Cantor and cantorial music". The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9388-6.  ^ a b "The Cantor". My Jewish
Jewish
Learning. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ Shulkhan Arukh, Orah Hayyim, 581 ^ American Conference of Cantors ^ Cantors Assembly ^ Belz School of Jewish
Jewish
Music ^ a b Julie Rosewald: America's first woman cantor Jewish
Jewish
Women's Archive ^ The Forgotten Woman Cantor: Julie Rosewald Now Getting Her Due Jewish
Jewish
Week ^ a b "Cantors: American Jewish
Jewish
Women Jewish
Jewish
Women's Archive". Jwa.org. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ Goldman, Ari L. (September 19, 1990). "A Bar to Women as Cantors Is Lifted". The New York Times.  ^ " Cantor Sharon Hordes". Kenesethisrael.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ "Cantorial/Hazzanut/Liturgical - CD Cantor Susan Wehle OB"M Songs of Healing & Hope J. Levine Books & Judaica ". Levinejudaica.com. 2005-07-26. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ Haughney, Christine (February 15, 2009). "'It's Not Even Six Degrees of Separation. It's One.'". The New York Times.  ^ "Tikkun v'Or, Ithaca, NY - Celebration in honor of Cantor Abbe Lyons". Tikkunvor.org. 2010-02-07. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ "Contributions of Jewish
Jewish
Women to Music and Women to Jewish
Jewish
Music". JMWC. Archived from the original on 2016-05-12. Retrieved 2012-07-09.  ^ " Cantor Tannoz Bahremand Forunzanfar; Academy for Jewish
Jewish
Religion, California". Ajrca.org. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ "HUC-JIR: Statistics". Hebrew Union College
Hebrew Union College
-- Jewish
Jewish
Institute of Religion. Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 

External links[edit]

Jewish
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Encyclopedia: Hazzan

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