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The Hazarajat
Hazarajat
(Persian: هزاره‌جات‎) correctly Hazaristan (Persian: هزارستان‎) [3] is a regional name for the territory inhabited by the Hazara people, which lies in the central and southern highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba
Koh-i-Baba
mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. Its physical boundaries are roughly marked by Bamyan
Bamyan
to the north, the headwaters of the Helmand River
Helmand River
to the south, Firuzkuh in Ghor
Ghor
to the west, and the Unai Pass in Maidan Wardak
Maidan Wardak
to the east. "Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one—that of Afghanistan's Turko-Mongol
Turko-Mongol
Shiʿites."[4] Hazarajat
Hazarajat
is primarily made up of Bamyan, Maidan Wardak, Ghazni, Daykundi, Ghor, Urozgan, Parwan, Samangan, Baghlan, Balkh, Badghis, logar, Sar-e Pol and Herat, provinces. The region has also been known as Paropamizan. The name Hazarajat
Hazarajat
first appears in the 16th century Baburnama, written by Mughal Emperor Babur. When the famous geographer Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1333, he travelled across the country but did not record any place by the name of Hazarajat
Hazarajat
or Hazara people.[5] It was also not mentioned by previous geographers, historians, adventurers or invaders.

Contents

1 Etymology and usage 2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate

3 History

3.1 19th century 3.2 20th and 21st century

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion

5 Health 6 See also 7 References

Etymology and usage[edit] The name Hazarajat
Hazarajat
is used by the Hazara people,[6] and surrounding peoples to identify the historic Hazara lands. The term might be linguistically compounded Hazara and the suffix jat; jat is a suffix that otherwise is used to make root words associated with land like Shumali Alaqa(JAT) Northern Areas in Pakistan, Dera (JAT) Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan and other areas in South, central and west Asia.[7] Maqdesi, an Arab geographer, named Hazarajat
Hazarajat
as Gharj Al-Shar-Gharj meaning "mountain" area ruled by chiefs. The region was known as Gharjistan in the late Middle Ages, though the exact locations of main cities still remain unidentified.[8][9] The name Hazarajat
Hazarajat
first appears in the 16th century Baburnama, written by Mughal Emperor Babur. Geography[edit]

A popular route through the mountains of Bamyan

Topography[edit]

Bamyan Province
Bamyan Province
of Afghanistan

The Hazarajat
Hazarajat
lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i Baba
Koh-i Baba
mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. "Its boundaries have historically been inexact and shifting, and in some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites. Its physical boundaries, however, are roughly marked by the Bā-miān Basin (see BĀMIĀN ii.) to the north, the headwaters of the Helmand River
Helmand River
(q.v.) to the south, Firuzkuh to the west, and the Salang Pass to the east. The regional terrain is very mountainous and extends to the Safid Kuh and the Siāh Kuh mountains, where the highest peaks are between 15,000 to 17,000 feet. Both sides of the Kuh-e Bābā range contain a succession of valleys. The north face of the range descends steeply, merging into low foothills and short semi-arid plains, while the south face stretches towards the Helmand Valley and the mountainous district of Besud."[4][10] Northwestern Hazarajat
Hazarajat
encompasses the district of Ghor, long known for its mountain fortresses. The 10th century geographer Estakhri wrote that mountainous Ghor
Ghor
was "the only region surrounded on all sides by Islamic territories and yet inhabited by infidels."[11] The long resistance of the inhabitants of Ghor
Ghor
to the adoption of Islam provides an indication of the region's inaccessibility; according to some travelers, the entire region is comparable to a fortress raised in the upper Central Asian highlands: from every approach, tall and steep mountains have to be traversed to reach there. The language of the inhabitants of Ghor
Ghor
differed so much from that of the people of the plains, that communication between the two required interpreters.[12] The northeastern part of the Hazarajat, is the site of ancient Bamyan, a center of Buddhism and a key caravanserai on the Silk Road. The town is situated at a height of 7,500 feet and surrounded by the Hindu Kush to the north and Koh-i Baba
Koh-i Baba
to the south.[4] The Hazarajat
Hazarajat
was considered part of the larger geographic region of Khurasan (Kushan), the porous boundaries of which encompassed the vast region between the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and the Oxus
Oxus
River, thus including much of what is today Northern Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan.[4] Climate[edit] Hazarajat
Hazarajat
is mountainous,[13] and a series of mountain passes extend along its eastern edge. One of them, Salang Pass, is blocked by snow six months out of the year. Another, Shibar Pass, at a lower elevation, is blocked by snow only two months out of the year.[14] Bamyan
Bamyan
is the colder part of the region; winters there are severe.[15] Hazarajat
Hazarajat
is the source of the rivers that run through Helmand, Harirud, Kabul, Morghab, and Panjab, and during the spring and summer months, it has some of the greenest pastures in Afghanistan.[16] Natural lakes, green valleys and caves are found in Bamyan.[17] History[edit]

Statue of a bearded man with cap, probably Scythian, 3–4th century AD.

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus
Oxus
civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo- Scythian
Scythian
Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan
Kushan
Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul
Kabul
Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522

Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

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Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

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Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

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The area was ruled successively by the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryas, Kushans, and Hephthalites before the Saffarids Islamized it and made it part of their empire. It was taken over by the Samanids, followed by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
and Ghurids before falling to the Delhi Sultanate. In the 13th century, it was invaded by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his Mongol army. In the following decades the Qarlughids
Qarlughids
emerged to create a short-lived local dynasty that offered a few decades of self-rule. Later, the area became part of the Timurid dynasty, the Mughal Empire and the Durrani Empire, successively. When Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
travelled north into what is now Afghanistan, "his historians write that Alexander came across a strange people in the region who were more belligerent than the others. The description provided by Kent Corse about the mud houses of the people can be observed by any traveler today (Iranian Civilization, p. 422)." In the 7th century, Hsuen Tsang wrote "that a swift spring gushes from Ho-sa-la and its water divides into several branches. The weather of this place is cold and it snows and hails there. Its people are happy and free, they are skilled in magic craft and their language is different from the other lands."[18] It was reported that the Hephthalites ruled the area until they were conquered by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in the 11th century. Some contend that one of Genghis Khan's grandsons was killed by local fighters during the 1221 siege of Bamiyan. The story goes that Genghis Khan, enraged, then ordered his forces to annihilate the town and surrounding region, and that the Mongols formally laid a curse on the site. Later, the region remained a colony of the Ilkhanates, Chughtais, and others. Until 1333, there was no mention of Hazarajat or Hazara people
Hazara people
in the region. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
described the area as being inhabited mostly by Persian-speaking people.[5] The subjugation of the Hazarajat, particularly the mountain fortresses of Ghor, proved difficult for the Mongols after their conquest of the region, and ultimately Mongol military detachments left behind in the region "adopted the language of the vanquished".[19] In the late 14th century, Timur's armies made expeditions into Hazarajat, but Hazarajat was once again free after his death.[20] During Mongolian era, majority of Hazara were pastoralists dwelling in yurts and spoke Moghol. They started inhabiting the fortified villages, adopted a Persian dialect, and farming in the high steppes in the early 16th century. However, they kept flocks and some, on the norther slopes of Koh-i-Baba, remained nomadic and continued migrating between highland summer pastures and lowland winter pastures.[21] 19th century[edit] In the 18th and 19th centuries, as a sense of "Afghan-ness" developed among the larger Sunni Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Afghanistan, the Shia Hazara tribes began to coalesce.[22] It has been suggested that in the 19th century there was an emerging awareness of ethnic and religious differences among the population of Kabul. This brought about divisions along "confessional lines" that became reflected in new "spatial boundaries".[23] During the reign of Dost Mohammad Khan, Mir Yazdanbakhsh, a diligent chief of the Behsud Hazaras, consolidated many of the districts they controlled. Mir Yazdanbakhsh
Mir Yazdanbakhsh
collected revenues and safeguarded caravans traveling on the Hajigak route through Bamyan
Bamyan
to Kabul
Kabul
through Shaikh Ali and Besud areas. The consolidation of the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
thus increasingly made the region and its inhabitants a threat to the Durrani state.[24]

Besudi Hazara chieftains in 1879.

Until the late 19th century, the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
remained somewhat independent and only the authority of local chieftains was obeyed.[25] Joseph Pierre Ferrier, a French author who supposedly traveled through the region in the mid-19th century, described the inhabitants settled in the mountains near the rivers Balkh
Balkh
and Kholm "The Hazara population is ungovernable, and has no occupation but pillage; they will pillage and pillage only, and plunder from camp to camp".[26] Subsequent British travelers doubted whether Ferrier had ever actually left Herat
Herat
to venture into Afghanistan’s central mountains and have suggested that his accounts of the region were based on hearsay, especially since very few people dared then to enter the Hazarajat; even Pashtun nomads would not take their flocks to graze there, and few caravans would pass through.[27] Later in the early 1890s, the tribes of the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
were taxed and conscripted, while thousands were massacred[citation needed]. Afghanistan's Kuchi people, who are unsettled nomads who migrate between the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
and the Indus River, temporarily stayed in Hazarajat
Hazarajat
during some seasons, where they overran Hazara farmlands and pastures.[28] Increasingly during summers, these nomads would camp in large numbers in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
highlands. The travels of Captains P. J. Maitland and M. G. Talbot from Herat, through Obeh and Bamyan, to Balkh, during the autumn and winter of 1885, explored the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
proper. Maitland and Talbot found the entire length of the road between Herat
Herat
and Bamyan
Bamyan
difficult to traverse.[29] As a result of the expedition, parts of the Hazarajat were surveyed on one-eighth inch scale and thus made to fit into the mapped order of modern nation-states.[30] More thought and attention was put into demarcating the definite borders of modern nations than ever before, which entailed great difficulties in frontier regions such as the Hazarajat. During the Second Anglo-Afghan War, Colonel T. H. Holdich of the Indian Survey Department referred to the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
as "great unknown highlands".[31] And for the next few years, neither the Survey nor the Indian Intelligence Department succeeded in obtaining any trustworthy information on the routes between Herat
Herat
and Kabul
Kabul
through the Hazarajat.[32] Various members of the Afghan Boundary Commission were able to gather information that brought the geography of remote regions such as the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
further under state surveillance. In November 1884, the Commission crossed over the Koh-i Baba
Koh-i Baba
mountains by the Chashma Sabz Pass. General Peter Lumsden
Peter Lumsden
and Major C. E. Yate, who surveyed the tracts between Herat
Herat
and the Oxus, visited the Qala-e Naw Hazaras
Hazaras
in the Paropamisus
Paropamisus
mountain range, to the east of the Jamshidis of Kushk. Noting surviving evidence of terraced cultivation in times past, both described the northern Hazaras
Hazaras
as semi-nomadic with large flocks of sheep and black cattle. They possessed an "inexhaustible supply of grass, the hills around being covered knee-deep with a luxuriant crop of pure rye".[33] Yate noted clusters of kebetkas, or the summer dwellings of the Qala-e Naw Hazaras
Hazaras
on the hillsides, and described "flocks and herds grazing in all directions".[34][35] The geographical reach of the authority of the Afghan state was extended into the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
during the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan. Caught between the strategic interests of foreign powers and disappointed by the demarcation of the Durand Line
Durand Line
in southern Afghanistan, which cut into Pashtun territory, he set out to bring the northern peripheries of the country more firmly under his control. This policy had disastrous consequences for the Hazarajat, whose inhabitants were singled out by Abdur Rahman Khan’s regime as particularly troublesome: "The Hazara people had been for centuries past the terror of the rulers of Kabul".[36] 20th and 21st century[edit]

Two farmers tend to a potato field near the town of Bamyan

In the 1920s the ancient Shibar Pass
Shibar Pass
road which leads through Bamyan and east to the Panjshir Valley
Panjshir Valley
was paved for lorries, and it remained the busiest road across the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
until the building of the Salang tunnel
Salang tunnel
in 1964 and the opening of a winter route. The Hazarajat became increasingly depopulated as Hazaras
Hazaras
migrated to cities and to surrounding countries, where they became laborers and undertook the hardest and lowest-paid work.[4] In 1979, there were reportedly one and a half million Hazaras
Hazaras
in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
and Kabul.[37] As the Afghan state weakened, uprisings broke out in the Hazarajat, freeing the region from state rule by the summer of 1979 for the first time since the death of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan. Under the inspiration of the Iranian Revolution, various Hazara-Shiʿi resistance groups were formed in Iran, including Nasr and Sipah-i Pasdaran, with some being "committed to the idea of a separate Hazara national identity".[38] During the war with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, most of the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
was unoccupied and free of Soviet or state presence. The region became ruled once again by local leaders, or mirs, and a new stratum of young radical Shiʿi commanders. Economic conditions are reported to have improved in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
during the war, when Pashtun Kuchis stopped grazing their flocks in Hazara pastures and fields.[39] The group ruling Hazarajat
Hazarajat
was the Revolutionary Council of Islamic Unity of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or Shura-i Ettefaq, led by Sayyid Ali Beheshti, who created a de facto proto-state. The region's geographic nature and un-strategic location meant that the government and Soviets ignored it as they fought rebels elsewhere. This effectively allowed the Shura-i Ettefaq administration to rule over the region and give autonomy to the Hazaras. Their politically opposing groups were the pro- Iran
Iran
Nasr and the Khans, who were mostly educated, secular and left-wing.[40] [41] The Shura wanted a return to the 19th century status quo whiereas the Nasr wanted an Iranian-style government of clerics. Between 1982 and 1984, an internal civil war caused the Shura to be overthrown by the Sazman-i Nasr and Sepah-i Pasdaran groups, which were backed by Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
of Iran
Iran
in his efforts for (Shia) Iranian influence in Afghanistan. However inter-factional rivalry continued thereafter. Most of the Hazara groups united in 1987 and in 1989 formed the Hizb-i-Wahdat.[42] During the rule of Taliban, once again, ethnic and sectarian violence struck Hazarajat. In 1997, a revolt broke out among Hazara people
Hazara people
in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
when refused to be disarmed by Taliban; 600 Taliban were killed in subsequent fighting.[43] In retaliation, the genocidal policies of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan's era was adopted by Taliban. In 1998, six thousand Hazaras
Hazaras
were killed in the north; the intention was ethnic cleansing of Hazara.[44] At that stage, Hazarajat
Hazarajat
did not exist as an official region; the area was divided between the administrative provinces of Bamyan, Ghor, Wardak, Ghazni, Oruzgan, Juzjan, and Samangan, with the Hazaras
Hazaras
being a minority in each.[39] Demographics[edit] Ethnic groups[edit] Further information: Ethnic groups in Afghanistan Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is a multiethnic society with a variety of ethnolinguistic groups. Because of poor census exact figures about the size and composition of ethnic groups are not available. According to the 2015 estimation, Pashtun is the largest ethnic group at 33% of the total population of the country followed by Hazara 28%, Tajik at 24%, Uzbek 9% and others (Aimaq, Turkmen, Qizilbash, Baloch, Pashayi, Nuristani, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Gujjar, etc.) at 6%.[45] The Afghan National Anthem mentions 14 different ethnic groups. A research poll was conducted in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2009, where 72% of the population labeled their identity as Afghan despite of being from different ethnic groups.[46] Within Hazarajat
Hazarajat
the majority is Hazaras, with minority Tajiks, Pashtuns, Qizilbashs
Qizilbashs
and a minority of Balochs.[47]

Ethnic Groups

Hazaras

85.5%

Tajik

10.0%

Pashtun

5.0%

Others

0.5%

Group of Hazaras
Hazaras
in 1878-1880

Language[edit] Further information: Languages of Afghanistan The history of the language in Hazarajat
Hazarajat
has been an issue of debate. In the 16th century, when Babur
Babur
came to Afghanistan, some Hazara spoke Mongolian language, writers like Bacon[48] and Schumann[49] believed the original language of Hazara people
Hazara people
was Persian. According to Dulling, on the other hand, the Hazaras' language was a mixture of Persian and Hindi, in which Persian took over Hindi in Middle Ages.[50] In the late 19th century, Hazaragi, a distinct Persian dialect, began to emerge among the people of Hazarajat. It remains uncertain when Mongolian died out as a living language. Dulling writes, "they ceased to be Mongol speakers by the end of the 18th century at the latest, and were then speaking Tajik of a sort".[51] Dari is the official language in Hazarajat. Religion[edit] Further information: Islam
Islam
in Afghanistan Islam
Islam
was established in Bamyan, Ghor
Ghor
and other parts of Hazarajat, during the rule of Ghaznavid dynasty in the 11th century.[4] W. Barthold states that "the only region surrounded on all sides by Islamic territories and yet inhabited by infidels"[52] was Hazarajat. Probably, most of Hazarajat
Hazarajat
was Sunni and converted to Shi'ism during the Safavid era. Some[who?] believe that traces of Shi'ism can be dated back to Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
period.[citation needed] Most are Twelver Shias, but there are also Sunni Aimaks.[53] Health[edit] Further information: Health in Afghanistan

Clinic in Bamyan

Leprosy
Leprosy
has been reported in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
region of Afghanistan. The vast majority (80%) of the leprosy victims are Hazara.[54] In 1999, Leprosy
Leprosy
Control stated that they were the only NGO providing anti-leprosy aid in the Hazarajat, and had been doing so since 1984. A 1989 report noted that common diseases in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
included gastrointestinal infections, typhoid, whooping cough, measles, leprosy, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis and malaria.[55] See also[edit]

Hazara people
Hazara people
portal

Bamyan
Bamyan
Province Ghor
Ghor
Province Ghazni Province Daykundi Province Hazara people Hazara tribes

References[edit]

^ Hucal, Sarah (27 June 2016). "Afghanistan: Who are the Hazaras?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 November 2016.  ^ " Bamyan
Bamyan
Province". Naval Postgraduate School. 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2012-12-05.  ^ – Some Hazara prefer to call the area Hazaristan, using the more modern "istan" ending. ^ a b c d e f Arash Khazeni. "HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved September 15, 2011.  ^ a b Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. 2004. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-415-34473-9. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help) ^ Bellew, H.W. (1880). The Races of Afghanistan: Being a Brief Account of the Principal Nations Inhabiting that Country. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. p. 114.  ^ Mousavi, S.A. (1998). The Hazaras
Hazaras
of Afghanistan: An Historical, Cultural, Economic and Political Study. Richmond, Surrey UK: Curzon Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-7007-0630-5.  ^ Ḥamd-Allah Mostawfi, Nozhat al-qolub, tr. Guy Le Strange, London 1919. pp 415–16 ^ S. A. Mousavi, The Hazaras
Hazaras
of Afghanistan, London, 1998, p. 39 ^ Wilfred Thesiger
Wilfred Thesiger
"The Hazaras
Hazaras
of Central Afghanistan," The Geographical Journal 71/3, 1955, pp. 313 ^ W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton, 1984, p. 51 ^ W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton, 1984, p. 52 ^ Anonymous, Ḥodud al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, London, 1937; reprinted, 1982, p. 105 ^ Johannes Humlum, La geographie de l’Afghanistan, Copenhagen, 1959, p. 64 ^ Ebn Ḥawqal, Ke-tāb ṣurat al-arż, trs. J. H. Kramers and G. Wiet as Configuration de la terre, II, Paris, 1964, p. 227 ^ Ḥamd-Allah Mostawfi, Nozhat al-qolub, tr. Guy Le Strange, London 1919, p. 212 ^ S. A. Mousavi, The Hazaras
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of Afghanistan, London, 1998, p. 71 ^ "Is Hazara An Ancient Word?". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2012-12-05.  ^ W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton, 1984, p. 82 ^ J. P. Ferrier, Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Beloochistan, London, 1856, p. 221 ^ Johannes Humlum, La geographie de l’Afghanistan, Copenhagen, 1959, p. 87 ^ Robert L. Canfield, Hazara Integration into the Afghan Nation, New York, 1973, p. 3 ^ Christine Noelle, State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan, Richmond, 1997, p. 22 ^ C. Masson, Narrative of Various Journeys in Baloochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab. London, 1842, II, p. 296 ^ W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton, 1984, pp. 82–83 ^ J. P. Ferrier, Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Beloochistan, London, 1856, pp. 219–20 ^ Klaus Ferdinand, Preliminary Notes on Hazāra Culture, Copenhagen, 1959,p. 18 ^ S. A. Mousavi, The Hazaras
Hazaras
of Afghanistan, London, 1998, p. 95 ^ Anonymous, "Captain Maitland’s and Captain Talbot’s Journeys in Afghanistan," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 9, 1887 p. 103 ^ Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, London, 1991 [1983], pp. 170–78 ^ T. H. Holdich, The Indian Borderland, 1880–1900, London, 1901, p. 41 ^ A. C. Yate, Travels with the Afghan Boundary Commission, Edinburgh, 1887 pp. 147–48 ^ C. E. Yate, Northern Afghanistan, Edinburgh, 1888, p. 9 ^ C. E. Yate, Northern Afghanistan, Edinburgh, 1888, pp. 7–8 ^ Peter Lumsden, "Countries and Tribes bordering on the Koh-e Baba Range," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 7, 1885, pp. 562–63 ^ Mir Munshi, ed., The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, II, London, 1900, p. 276 ^ Barnett Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, New Haven, 2002, p. 26 ^ Barnett Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, New Haven, 2002. pp. 186, 191, 223 ^ a b Barnett Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, New Haven, 2002, p. 246 ^ citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.604.3516&rep=rep1&type=pdf ^ Nation, Ethnicity and the Conflict in Afghanistan: Political Islam and the rise of ethno-politics 1992–1996 by Raghav Sharma, 2016. ^ Nation, Ethnicity and the Conflict in Afghanistan: Political Islam and the rise of ethno-politics 1992–1996 by Raghav Sharma, 2016. ^ Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, London and New Haven, 2000, p. 58 ^ Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, London and New Haven, 2000, pp. 67–74 ^ "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-12-05.  ^ ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD POLL – AFGHANISTAN: WHERE THINGS STAND, February 9th, 2009, p. 38–40 ^ Kahmard District profile – Aims[permanent dead link] ^ Bacon E: The Hazara Mongols of Afghanistan: A study in social organization, PhD Dissertation, University of California, 1951, page 6. ^ H.F. Schurmann: The Mongols of Afghanistan: an ethnography of the Mongols and related people of Afghanistan, University of California 1962, page 25-26 ^ Dulling G. K.: The Hazaragi Dialect of Afghan Persian, Central Asian Research Center, London 1973, page 47 ^ Dulling G.K. The Hazaragi Dialect of Afghan Persian. London, Central Asian Research Center 1973:13 ^ W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton, 1984, p. 51 ^ S. A. Mousavi, The Hazaras
Hazaras
of Afghanistan, London, 1998, pp. 73–76 ^ Dr. Mohammad Salim Rasooli. Leprosy
Leprosy
Situation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2001–2006 Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine.. Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) National Leprosy
Leprosy
Control Program. 7–9 July 2008. ^ Hassan Poladi
Hassan Poladi
(February 1989). The Hazāras. Mughal Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-929824-00-0. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 

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Key figures

Faiz Muhammad Katib Abdul Ali Mazari Ismail Balkhi Muhammad Hussain Sadiqi Nili Sayyid Ali Beheshti Muhammad Ali Jawid Mir Yazdanbakhsh Hassan Poladi Karim Khalili Gen. Muhammad Musa Gen. Khodaidad Khan Hussain Ali Yousafi Akram Yari Sima Samar Habiba Sarabi Azra Jafari Fatema Akbari Abdul Khaliq Hazara (assassin) Abdul Khaliq Hazara (politician) Qazi Muhammad Essa Mohammad Mohaqiq Younus Changezi Haji Kazim Yazdani Sayed Askar Mousavi Ahmad Shah Ramazan Ramazan Bashardost Abdul Haq Shafaq Abdul Qayyum Sajjadi Abbas Noyan Azizullah Royesh

Political Parties

Hezbe Wahdat Hazara Democratic Party Progressive Youth Organization Revolutionary Council of Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Al-Nasr (Afghanistan)

Battles and Conflicts

Battle of Uruzgan Afshar Operation Battle of Kabul
Kabul
(1992–1996) Kuchi–Hazara conflict

Artists and Poets

Dawood Sarkhosh Safdar Tawakoli Shakeeb Hamdard Elaha Soroor

Category Commons P

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