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Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
(Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Latin: Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Pasha
(Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha
Pasha
and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza
in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Hayreddin (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din خيرالدين, which literally means "goodness" or "best of the religion" of Islam) was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as "Barbarossa" ("Redbeard" in Italian) in Europe, a name he inherited from his elder brother Oruç Reis
Oruç Reis
after he was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Oruç was also known as "Baba Oruç", which sounded like "Barbarossa" (Italian for "Redbeard") to the Europeans, and since Oruç did have a red beard, the nickname stuck. In a process of linguistic reborrowing, the nickname then stuck back to Hayreddin's native Turkish name, in the form Barbaros.

Contents

1 Background 2 Early career

2.1 Death of Ilyas, captivity and liberation of Oruç 2.2 Oruç the corsair 2.3 Khizr's career under Oruç 2.4 Rulers of Algiers 2.5 Algiers
Algiers
joins the Ottoman Empire 2.6 Final engagements and death of Oruç and Ishak

3 Later career

3.1 Pasha
Pasha
of Algiers

3.1.1 Diplomacy with France

3.2 Kapudan-i Derya of the Ottoman Navy

3.2.1 Franco-Ottoman alliance

3.3 Retirement and death 3.4 The Flag (Sanjak) of Hayreddin Barbarossa

4 Legacy 5 References to Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
in fiction 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] Khizr was born in 1466[1] or around 1478[2] in the village Palaiokipos on the Ottoman island of Midilli
Midilli
(Lesbos) (now Greece), the son of Yakup Ağa, a converted Turk sipahi[3] of Albanian origin[1][4] from Giannitsa
Giannitsa
(Greece), and an Orthodox Christian, Greek woman from Mytilene
Mytilene
(Lesbos).[5] His mother was a widow of a Greek Orthodox priest.[3][4][6] His parents were married[5] and had two daughters and four sons: Ishak, Oruç, Khizr and Ilyas. Yakup took part in the Ottoman conquest of Lesbos
Lesbos
in 1462 from the Genoese Gattilusio dynasty (who held the hereditary title of Lord of Lesbos
Lesbos
between 1355 and 1462) and as a reward, was granted the fief of the Bonova village in the island. He became an established potter and purchased a boat to trade his products. The four sons helped their father with his business, but not much is known about the daughters. At first Oruç helped with the boat, while Khizr helped with pottery. Early career[edit]

Admiral of the fleet Hayreddin Barbarossa

All four brothers became seamen, engaged in marine affairs and international sea trade. The first brother to become involved in seamanship was Oruç, who was joined by his brother Ilyas. Later, obtaining his own ship, Khizr also began his career at sea. The brothers initially worked as sailors, but then turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) who were based in the island of Rhodes
Rhodes
(until 1522). Oruç and Ilyas operated in the Levant, between Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt. Khizr operated in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and based his operations mostly in Thessaloniki. Ishak, the eldest, remained on Mytilene
Mytilene
and was involved with the financial affairs of the family business. Death of Ilyas, captivity and liberation of Oruç[edit] Oruç was a very successful seaman. He also learned to speak Italian, Spanish, French, Greek and Arabic
Arabic
in the early years of his career. While returning from a trading expedition in Tripoli, Lebanon, with his younger brother Ilyas, they were attacked by the Knights of St. John. Ilyas was killed in the fight, and Oruç was wounded. Their father's boat was captured, and Oruç was taken as a prisoner and detained in the Knights' castle at Bodrum
Bodrum
for nearly three years. Upon learning the location of his brother, Khizr went to Bodrum
Bodrum
and managed to help Oruç escape. Oruç the corsair[edit]

Castle of St. Peter of the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
in Bodrum, where Oruç was held captive for nearly three years until he was saved by his younger brother Khizr.

Oruç later went to Antalya, where he was given 18 galleys by the Şehzade Korkut, an Ottoman prince and governor of the city, and charged with fighting against the Knights of St. John, who were inflicting serious damage on Ottoman shipping and trade. In the following years, when Korkut became governor of Manisa, he gave Oruç a larger fleet of 24 galleys at the port of İzmir
İzmir
and ordered him to participate in the Ottoman naval expedition to Apulia
Apulia
in Italy, where Oruç bombarded several coastal castles and captured two ships. On his way back to Lesbos, he stopped at Euboea
Euboea
and captured three galleons and another ship. Reaching Mytilene
Mytilene
with these captured vessels, Oruç learned that Korkut, who was the brother of the new Ottoman sultan Selim I, had fled to Egypt in order to avoid being killed because of succession disputes – a common practice at that time. Fearing trouble due to his well-known association with the exiled Ottoman prince, Oruç sailed to Egypt, where he met Korkut in Cairo
Cairo
and managed to get an audience with the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan Qansuh al-Ghawri, who gave him another ship and appointed him with the task of raiding the coasts of Italy and the islands of the Mediterranean that were controlled by Christians. After passing the winter in Cairo, he set sail from Alexandria
Alexandria
and frequently operated along the coasts of Liguria
Liguria
and Sicily. Khizr's career under Oruç[edit] In 1503, Oruç managed to seize three more ships and made the island of Djerba
Djerba
his new base, thus moving his operations to the Western Mediterranean. Khizr joined Oruç at Djerba. In 1504, the brothers contacted Abu Abdullah Mohammed Hamis, Sultan of Tunisia
Tunisia
from the Beni Hafs dynasty, and asked permission to use the strategically located port of La Goulette
La Goulette
for their operations. They were granted this right with the condition of leaving one-third of their gains to the sultan. Oruç, in command of small galliots, captured two much larger Papal galleys near the island of Elba. Later, near Lipari, the two brothers captured a Sicilian warship, the Cavalleria, with 380 Spanish soldiers and 60 Spanish knights from Aragon
Aragon
on board, who were on their way from Spain
Spain
to Naples. In 1505, they raided the coasts of Calabria. These accomplishments increased their fame, and they were joined by several other well-known Muslim corsairs, including Kurtoğlu (known in the West as Curtogoli). In 1508, they raided the coasts of Liguria, particularly Diano Marina.

Western depiction of Hayreddin Barbarossa

In 1509, Ishak also left Mytilene
Mytilene
and joined his brothers at La Goulette. The fame of Oruç increased when, between 1504 and 1510, he transported Muslim Mudéjars from Christian Spain
Spain
to North Africa. His efforts of helping the Muslims of Spain
Spain
in need and transporting them to safer lands earned him the honorific name Baba Oruç (Father Oruç), which eventually – due the similarity in sound – evolved in Spain, France and Italy into Barbarossa (meaning "Redbeard" in Italian). In 1510, the three brothers raided Cape Passero in Sicily
Sicily
and repulsed a Spanish attack on Bougie, Oran
Oran
and Algiers. In August 1511, they raided the areas around Reggio Calabria
Calabria
in southern Italy. In August 1512, the exiled ruler of Bougie invited the brothers to drive out the Spaniards, and during the battle, Oruç lost his left arm. This incident earned him the nickname Gümüş Kol ("Silver Arm" in Turkish), in reference to the silver prosthetic device that he used in place of his missing limb. Later that year, the three brothers raided the coasts of Andalusia
Andalusia
in Spain, capturing a galliot of the Lomellini family of Genoa, who owned the Tabarca
Tabarca
island in that area. They subsequently landed on Menorca
Menorca
and captured a coastal castle and then headed towards Liguria, where they captured four Genoese galleys near Genoa. The Genoese sent a fleet to liberate their ships, but the brothers captured their flagship as well. After capturing a total of 23 ships in less than a month, the brothers sailed back to La Goulette. There, they built three more galliots and a gunpowder production facility. In 1513, they captured four English ships on their way to France, raided Valencia, where they captured four more ships, and then headed for Alicante
Alicante
and captured a Spanish galley near Málaga. In 1513 and 1514, the three brothers engaged the Spanish fleet on several other occasions and moved to their new base in Cherchell, east of Algiers. In 1514, with 12 galliots and 1,000 Turks, they destroyed two Spanish fortresses at Bougie, and when the Spanish fleet under the command of Miguel de Gurrea, viceroy of Majorca, arrived for assistance, they headed towards Ceuta
Ceuta
and raided that city before capturing Jijel
Jijel
in Algeria, which was under Genoese control. They later captured Mahdiya
Mahdiya
in Tunisia. Afterwards, they raided the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and the Spanish mainland, capturing three large ships there. In 1515, they captured several galleons, a galley and three barques at Majorca. Still in 1515, Oruç sent precious gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I, who, in return, sent him two galleys and two swords embellished with diamonds. In 1516, joined by Kurtoğlu (Curtogoli), the brothers besieged the Castle of Elba, before heading once more towards Liguria, where they captured 12 ships and damaged 28 others. Rulers of Algiers[edit] Main article: Capture of Algiers
Algiers
(1516) In 1516, the three brothers succeeded in capturing Jijel
Jijel
and Algiers from the Spaniards but eventually assumed control over the city and surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Beni Ziyad dynasty, to flee.[citation needed] The Spaniards in Algiers
Algiers
sought refuge on the island of Peñón off the Moroccan coast and asked Charles V, King of Spain
Spain
and Holy Roman Emperor, to intervene, but the Spanish fleet failed to force the brothers out of Algiers. Algiers
Algiers
joins the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: Regency of Algiers After consolidating his power and declaring himself Sultan of Algiers, Oruç sought to enhance his territory inland and took Miliana, Medea and Ténès. He became known for attaching sails to cannons for transport through the deserts of North Africa. In 1517, the brothers raided Capo Limiti and later, the Island of Capo Rizzuto in Calabria. For Oruç, the best protection against Spain
Spain
was to join the Ottoman Empire, his homeland and Spain's main rival. For this, he had to relinquish his title of Sultan of Algiers
Algiers
to the Ottomans. He did this in 1517 and offered Algiers
Algiers
to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I. The Sultan accepted Algiers
Algiers
as an Ottoman sanjak ("province"), appointed Oruç as the Governor of Algiers
Algiers
and Chief Sea Governor of the West Mediterranean, and promised to support him with janissaries, galleys and cannons. Final engagements and death of Oruç and Ishak[edit] Main article: Fall of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
(1517) The Spaniards ordered Abu Zayan, whom they had appointed as the new ruler of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Oran, to attack Oruç Reis
Oruç Reis
from land, but Oruç learned of the plan and pre-emptively struck against Tlemcen, capturing the city and executing Abu Zayan in the Fall of Tlemcen (1517). The only survivor of Abu Zayan's dynasty was Sheikh Buhammud, who escaped to Oran
Oran
and called for Spain's assistance. In May 1518, Emperor Charles V arrived at Oran
Oran
and was received at the port by Sheikh Buhammud and the Spanish governor of the city, Diego de Córdoba, marquess of Comares, who commanded a force of 10,000 Spanish soldiers. Joined by thousands of local Bedouins, the Spaniards marched overland towards Tlemcen. Oruç and Ishak awaited them in the city with 1,500 Turkish and 5,000 Moorish soldiers. They defended Tlemcen for 20 days, but were eventually killed in combat by the forces of Garcia de Tineo.[citation needed] Khizr Reis, now given the title of Beylerbey
Beylerbey
by Sultan Selim I, along with janissaries, galleys and cannons, inherited his brother's place, his name (Barbarossa) and his mission.[7] Later career[edit] Pasha
Pasha
of Algiers[edit] Further information: Regency of Algiers

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Another depiction of Hayreddin Barbarossa

With a fresh force of Turkish soldiers sent by the Ottoman sultan, Barbarossa recaptured Tlemcen
Tlemcen
in December 1518. He continued the policy of bringing Mudéjars from Spain
Spain
to North Africa, thereby assuring himself of a sizable following of grateful and loyal Muslims, who harbored an intense hatred for Spain. He captured Bone, and in 1519, he defeated a Spanish-Italian army that tried to recapture Algiers. In a separate incident, he sank a Spanish ship and captured eight others. Still in 1519, he raided Provence, Toulon
Toulon
and the Îles d'Hyères in southern France. In 1521, he raided the Balearic Islands and later captured several Spanish ships returning from the New World off Cadiz. In 1522, he sent his ships, under the command of Kurtoğlu, to participate in the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes, which resulted in the departure of the Knights of St. John from that island on 1 January 1523. In June 1525, he raided the coasts of Sardinia. In May 1526, he landed at Crotone
Crotone
in Calabria
Calabria
and sacked the city, sank a Spanish galley and a Spanish fusta in the harbor, assaulted Castignano
Castignano
in Marche on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and later landed at Cape Spartivento. In June 1526, he landed at Reggio Calabria
Calabria
and later destroyed the fort at the port of Messina. He then appeared on the coasts of Tuscany, but retreated after seeing the fleet of Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
and the Knights of St. John off the coast of Piombino. In July 1526, Barbarossa appeared once again in Messina
Messina
and raided the coasts of Campania. In 1527, he raided many ports and castles on the coasts of Italy and Spain. In May 1529, he captured the Spanish fort on the island of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera that controlled the north Algerian coast. In August 1529, he attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Spain
Spain
and later helped 70,000 Moriscos to escape from Andalusia
Andalusia
in seven consecutive journeys. In January 1530, he again raided the coasts of Sicily
Sicily
and, in March and June of that year, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and Marseilles. In July 1530, he appeared along the coasts of the Provence
Provence
and Liguria, capturing two Genoese ships. In August 1530, he raided the coasts of Sardinia
Sardinia
and, in October, appeared at Piombino, capturing a barque from Viareggio
Viareggio
and three French galleons before capturing two more ships off Calabria. In December 1530, he captured the Castle of Cabrera, in the Balearic Islands, and started to use the island as a logistic base for his operations in the area. In 1531, he encountered Andrea Doria, who had been appointed by Charles V to recapture Jijel
Jijel
and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and repulsed the Spanish-Genoese fleet of 40 galleys. Still in 1531, he raided the island of Favignana, where the flagship of the Maltese Knights under the command of Francesco Touchebeuf unsuccessfully attacked his fleet. Barbarossa then sailed eastwards and landed in Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia. On the way back to Algiers, he sank a ship of the Maltese Knights near Messina
Messina
before assaulting Tripoli, which had been given to the Knights of St. John by Charles V in 1530. In October 1531, he again raided the coasts of Spain. In 1532, during Suleiman I's expedition to Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria, Andrea Doria captured Coron, Patras
Patras
and Lepanto on the coasts of the Morea (Peloponnese). In response, Suleiman sent the forces of Yahya Pashazade Mehmed Bey, who recaptured these cities, but the event made Suleiman realize the importance of having a powerful commander at sea. He summoned Barbarossa to Istanbul, who set sail in August 1532. Having raided Sardinia, Bonifacio in Corsica, and the islands of Montecristo, Elba
Elba
and Lampedusa, he captured 18 galleys near Messina and learned from the captured prisoners that Doria was headed to Preveza. Barbarossa proceeded to raid the nearby coasts of Calabria and then sailed towards Preveza. Doria's forces fled after a short battle, but only after Barbarossa had captured seven of their galleys. He arrived at Preveza
Preveza
with a total of 44 galleys, but sent 25 of them back to Algiers
Algiers
and headed to Istanbul
Istanbul
with 19 ships. There, he was received by Sultan Suleiman at Topkapı Palace. Suleiman appointed Barbarossa Kapudan-i Derya ("Grand Admiral") of the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
and Beylerbey
Beylerbey
("Chief Governor") of North Africa. Barbarossa was also given the government of the Sanjak ("province") of Rhodes
Rhodes
and those of Euboea
Euboea
and Chios
Chios
in the Aegean Sea. Diplomacy with France[edit] In 1533, Barbarossa sent an embassy to the king of France, Francis I, the Ottoman embassy to France (1533). Francis I would in turn dispatch Antonio Rincon
Antonio Rincon
to Barbarossa in North Africa and then to Suleiman the Magnificent in Asia Minor.[8] Following a second embassy, the Ottoman embassy to France (1534), Francis I sent his ambassador Jehan de la Forest to Hayreddin Barbarossa, asking for his naval support against the Habsburg:

Military instructions to Jean de La Forêt, by Chancelor Antoine Duprat (copy), 11 February 1535

"Jean de la Forest, whom the King sends to meet with the Grand Signor [Suleiman the Magnificent], will first go from Marseilles
Marseilles
to Tunis, in Barbary, to meet sir Haradin, king of Algiers, who will direct him to the Grand Signor. To this objective, next summer, he [the King of France] will send the military force he is preparing to recover what it unjustly occupied by the Duke of Savoy, and from there, to attack the Genoese. This king Francis I strongly prays sir Haradin, who has a powerful naval force as well as a convenient location [Tunisia], to attack the island of Corsica
Corsica
and other lands, locations, cities, ships and subjects of Genoa, and not to stop until they have accepted and recognized the king of France. The King, besides the above land force, will additionally help with his naval force, which will comprise at least 50 vessels, of which 30 galleys, and the rest galeasses and other vessels, accompanied by one of the largest and most beautiful carracks that ever was on the sea. This fleet will accompany and escort the army of sir Haradin, which will also be refreshed and supplied with food and ammunition by the King, who, by these actions, will be able to achieve his aims, for which he will be highly grateful to sir Haradin". — Military instructions to Jean de La Forêt, by Chancelor Antoine Duprat, 11 February 1534.

Kapudan-i Derya of the Ottoman Navy[edit] See also: Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1534) and conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1535)

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Hayreddin Pasha
defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
at the Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza
in 1538.

Barbarossa's Castle
Barbarossa's Castle
on Capri
Capri
still carries the name of the Ottoman admiral who captured the island in 1535. The Turks eventually departed from Capri, but another famous Ottoman admiral, Turgut Reis, recaptured both the island and the castle in 1553.

Statue of Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
near the Istanbul
Istanbul
Naval Museum on the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
in Istanbul

In 1534, Barbarossa set sail from Istanbul
Istanbul
with 80 galleys, and in April, he recaptured Coron, Patras
Patras
and Lepanto from the Spaniards. In July 1534, he crossed the Strait of Messina
Messina
and raided the Calabrian coasts, capturing a substantial number of ships around Reggio Calabria as well as the Castle of San Lucido. He later destroyed the port of Cetraro
Cetraro
and the ships harbored there. Still in July 1534, he appeared in Campania
Campania
and sacked the islands of Capri
Capri
and Procida
Procida
before bombarding the ports in the Gulf of Naples. He then appeared in Lazio, shelled Gaeta
Gaeta
and in August landed at Villa Santa Lucia, Sant'Isidoro, Sperlonga, Fondi, Terracina
Terracina
and Ostia on the River Tiber, causing the church bells in Rome to ring the alarm. He then sailed south, appearing at Ponza, Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia, before capturing Tunis
Tunis
in August 1534 and sending the Hafsid
Hafsid
Sultan Mulay Hassan fleeing. He also captured Tunis' strategic port of La Goulette
La Goulette
in 1534. Charles then dispatched an agent to offer Barbarossa "the lordship of North Africa" for his changed loyalty, or if that failed, to assassinate him. However, upon rejecting the offer, Barbarossa decapitated him with his scimitar.[9] Mulei Hassan asked Emperor Charles V for assistance to recover his kingdom, and a Spanish-Italian force of 300 galleys and 24,000 soldiers recaptured Tunis
Tunis
as well as Bone and Mahdiya
Mahdiya
in 1535. Recognizing the futility of armed resistance, Barbarossa had abandoned Tunis
Tunis
well before the arrival of the invaders, sailing away into the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he bombarded ports, landed once again at Capri and reconstructed a fort (which still today carries his name) after largely destroying it during the siege of the island. He then sailed to Algiers, from where he raided the coastal towns of Spain, destroyed the ports of Majorca
Majorca
and Menorca, captured several Spanish and Genoese galleys and liberated their Muslim oar slaves. In September 1535, he repulsed another Spanish attack on Tlemcen. In 1536, Barbarossa was called back to Istanbul
Istanbul
to take command of 200 ships in a naval attack on the Habsburg
Habsburg
Kingdom of Naples. In July 1537, he landed at Otranto
Otranto
and captured the city, as well as the Fortress of Castro and the city of Ugento
Ugento
in Apulia. In August 1537, Lütfi Pasha
Pasha
and Barbarossa led a huge Ottoman force that captured the Aegean and Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos, Kythira, and Naxos. In the same year, Barbarossa raided Corfu and obliterated the agricultural cultivations of the island while enslaving nearly all the population of the countryside.[10] However, the Old Fortress of Corfu was well defended by a 4,000-strong Venetian garrison with 700 guns, and when several assaults failed to capture the fortifications, the Turks reluctantly re-embarked[11] and once again raided Calabria. These losses caused Venice to ask Pope Paul III to organize a "Holy League" against the Ottomans. In February 1538, Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
succeeded in assembling a Holy League (composed of the Papacy, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, but Barbarossa's forces led by Sinan Reis
Sinan Reis
defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at the Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza
in September 1538. This victory secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
in 1571. In the summer of 1539, Barbarossa captured the islands of Skiathos, Skyros, Andros
Andros
and Serifos
Serifos
and recaptured Castelnuovo from the Spanish, who had taken it from the Ottomans after the battle of Preveza. He also captured the nearby Castle of Risan, and with Sinan Reis, later assaulted the Venetian fortress of Cattaro
Cattaro
and the Spanish fortress of Santa Veneranda near Pesaro. Barbarossa later took the remaining Christian outposts in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Venice finally signed a peace treaty with Sultan Suleiman in October 1540, agreeing to recognize the Ottoman territorial gains and to pay 300,000 gold ducats.

Letter of praise from Barbarossa to Suleiman, 1541. Istanbul
Istanbul
Naval Museum.

In September 1540, Emperor Charles V contacted Barbarossa and offered him to become his Admiral-in-Chief as well as the ruler of Spain's territories in North Africa, but he refused. Unable to persuade Barbarossa to switch sides, in October 1541, Charles himself laid siege to Algiers, seeking to end the corsair threat to the Spanish domains and Christian shipping in the western Mediterranean. The season was not ideal for such a campaign, and both Andrea Doria, who commanded the fleet, and Hernán Cortés, who had been asked by Charles to participate in the campaign, attempted to change the Emperor's mind but failed. Eventually, a violent storm disrupted Charles's landing operations. Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
took his fleet away into open waters to avoid being wrecked on the shore, but much of the Spanish fleet went aground. After some indecisive fighting on land, Charles had to abandon the effort and withdraw his severely battered force. Franco-Ottoman alliance[edit] Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance, Siege of Nice, and Ottoman wintering in Toulon

In the Siege of Nice
Siege of Nice
in 1543, Barbarossa's fleet combined with a French force to capture the city.

Barbarossa's fleet wintering in Toulon, 1543, during the Ottoman occupation of Toulon

In 1543, Barbarossa headed towards Marseilles
Marseilles
to assist France, then an ally of the Ottoman Empire, and cruised the western Mediterranean with a fleet of 210 ships (70 galleys, 40 galliots and 100 other warships carrying 14,000 Turkish soldiers, thus an overall total of 30,000 Ottoman troops). On his way, while passing through the Strait of Messina, he asked Diego Gaetani, the governor of Reggio Calabria, to surrender his city. Gaetani responded with cannon fire, which killed three Turkish sailors. Barbarossa, angered by the response, besieged and captured the city. He then landed on the coasts of Campania
Campania
and Lazio
Lazio
and, from the mouth of the Tiber, threatened Rome, but France intervened in favor of the pope's city. Barbarossa then raided several Italian and Spanish islands and coastal settlements before laying the Siege of Nice
Siege of Nice
and capturing the city on 5 August 1543 on behalf of the French king, Francis I. The Ottoman captain later landed at Antibes
Antibes
and the Île Sainte-Marguerite
Île Sainte-Marguerite
near Cannes before sacking the city of San Remo, other ports of Liguria, Monaco and La Turbie. He spent the winter with his fleet and 30,000 Turkish soldiers in Toulon, but occasionally sent his ships from there to bombard the coasts of Spain. The Christian population had been evacuated, and the Cathedral of St. Mary in Toulon
Toulon
was transformed into a mosque for the Turkish soldiers, while Ottoman money was accepted for transactions by the French tradesmen in the city.

Barbarossa's galley during his campaign in France, 1543. Istanbul Naval Museum.

Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
receiving Barbarossa in Istanbul

In the spring of 1544, after assaulting San Remo for the second time and landing at Borghetto Santo Spirito
Borghetto Santo Spirito
and Ceriale, Barbarossa defeated another Spanish-Italian fleet and raided deeply into the Kingdom of Naples. He then sailed to Genoa
Genoa
with his 210 ships and threatened to attack the city unless it freed Turgut Reis, who had been serving as a galley slave on a Genoese ship and then was imprisoned in the city since his capture in Corsica
Corsica
by Giannettino Doria in 1540. Barbarossa was invited by Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
to discuss the issue at his palace in the Fassolo district of Genoa, and the two admirals negotiated the release of Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
in exchange for 3,500 gold ducats. Barbarossa then successfully repulsed further Spanish attacks on southern France, but was recalled to Istanbul
Istanbul
after Charles V and Suleiman had agreed to a truce in 1544. After leaving Provence
Provence
from the port of Île Sainte-Marguerite
Île Sainte-Marguerite
in May 1544, Barbarossa assaulted San Remo for the third time, and when he appeared before Vado Ligure, the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
sent him a substantial sum to save other Genoese cities from further attacks. In June 1544, Barbarossa appeared before Elba. Threatening to bombard Piombino
Piombino
unless the city's Lord released the son of Sinan Reis
Sinan Reis
who had been captured and baptized 10 years earlier by the Spaniards in Tunis, he obtained his release.[9] He then captured Castiglione della Pescaia, Talamone
Talamone
and Orbetello
Orbetello
in the province of Grosseto
Grosseto
in Tuscany. There, he destroyed the tomb and burned the remains of Bartolomeo Peretti, who had burned his father's house in Mytilene
Mytilene
the previous year, in 1543. He then captured Montiano
Montiano
and occupied Porto Ercole and the Isle of Giglio. He later assaulted Civitavecchia, but Leone Strozzi, the French envoy, convinced Barbarossa to lift the siege. The Ottoman fleet then assaulted the coasts of Sardinia
Sardinia
before appearing at Ischia
Ischia
and landing there in July 1544, capturing the city as well as Forio
Forio
and the Isle of Procida
Procida
before threatening Pozzuoli. Encountering 30 galleys under Giannettino Doria, Barbarossa forced them to sail away towards Sicily
Sicily
and seek refuge in Messina. Due to strong winds, the Ottomans were unable to attack Salerno
Salerno
but managed to land at Cape Palinuro
Cape Palinuro
nearby. Barbarossa then entered the Strait of Messina
Messina
and landed at Catona, Fiumara
Fiumara
and Calanna
Calanna
near Reggio Calabria and later at Cariati
Cariati
and at Lipari, which was his final landing on the Italian peninsula. There, he bombarded the citadel for 15 days after the city refused to surrender and eventually captured it. He finally returned to Istanbul
Istanbul
and, in 1545, left the city for his final naval expeditions, during which he bombarded the ports of the Spanish mainland and landed at Majorca
Majorca
and Menorca
Menorca
for the last time. He then sailed back to Istanbul
Istanbul
and built a palace on the Bosphorus, in the present-day quarter of Büyükdere in the Sarıyer
Sarıyer
district. Retirement and death[edit] Further information: Tomb of Hayreddin Barbarossa

Tomb of Hayreddin Barbarossa
Tomb of Hayreddin Barbarossa
in the Beşiktaş
Beşiktaş
district of Istanbul

Barbarossa retired in Istanbul
Istanbul
in 1545, leaving his son Hasan Pasha
Pasha
as his successor in Algiers. He then dictated his memoirs to Muradi Sinan Reis. They consist of five hand-written volumes known as Gazavat-ı Hayreddin Paşa (Conquests of Hayreddin Pasha). Today, they are exhibited at the Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
and Istanbul
Istanbul
University Library. They are prepared and published by Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı as Kaptan Paşa'nın Seyir Defteri (The Logbook of the Captain Pasha) by Prof. Dr. Ahmet Şimşirgil, a Turkish academic. They are also fictionalised as Akdeniz Bizimdi (The Mediterranean was Ours) by M. Ertuğrul Düzdağ. Barbarossa is also one of the main characters in Mika Waltari's book The Wanderer (1949). Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Hayreddin Pasha
died in 1546 in his seaside palace in the Büyükdere neighbourhood of Istanbul, on the northwestern shores of the Bosphorus. He is buried in the tall mausoleum (türbe) near the ferry port of the district of Beşiktaş
Beşiktaş
on the European side of Istanbul, which was built in 1541 by the famous architect Mimar Sinan, at the site where his fleet used to assemble. His memorial was built in 1944, next to his mausoleum. The Flag (Sanjak) of Hayreddin Barbarossa[edit]

Hayreddin Barbarossa's flag

The Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy at the top of the standard reads, "نَصرٌ مِنَ اللَّـهِ وَفَتحٌ قَريبٌ وَبَشِّرِ المُؤمِنينَ يَا مُحَمَّد (nasrun mina'llāhi wa fatḥhun qarībun wa bashshiri'l-mu’minīna yā muḥammad), translated as "Victory from Allah and an eminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers, O Muhammad." The text comes from verse 61:13 of the Quran, with the addition of "O Muhammad", since the last part of the verse addresses the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[12] Within the four crescents are the names, from right to left, beginning at the top right, of the first four caliphs — Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
Ali
— whose rule of the Islamic state after Muhammad
Muhammad
is referred to as the Rashidun Caliphate. The two-bladed sword represents Dhu'l-Fiqar, a famous sword in Islamic history, belonging first to Muhammad
Muhammad
and then Ali. To the left of the sword's hilt is a small hand.[13] Between the two blades of the sword is a six-pointed star. The star may be confused with the Star of David, a Jewish symbol. However, in medieval times, this star was a popular Islamic symbol known as the Seal of Solomon
Seal of Solomon
and was widely used by the Beyliks of Anatolia. The seal was later used by the Ottomans in their mosque decorations, coins and the personal flags of the pashas, including Hayreddin Barbarossa.[14] One of the Turkish beyliks known to use the seal on its flag was the Jandarids. According to the Catalan Atlas of 1375 by A. Cresques, the flag of the Karamanids, another Anatolian beylik, consisted of a blue six-edged star.[15] Legacy[edit] Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
established the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean, which lasted until the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
in 1571. However, even after their defeat in Lepanto, the Ottomans quickly rebuilt their fleet, regained Cyprus
Cyprus
and other lost territories in Morea
Morea
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
between 1571 and 1572, and reconquered Tunisia
Tunisia
from Spain
Spain
in 1574. Furthermore, the Ottomans ventured into the northern Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
between 1585 and 1660 and continued to be a major Mediterranean sea power for three more centuries, until the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
(r. 1861–1876) in the 19th century (in 1875 the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
had 21 battleships and 173 other types of warships, ranking as the third-largest naval force in the world, after the British and French navies.) However, during these centuries of great seamen such as Kemal Reis before him; his brother Oruç Reis
Oruç Reis
and other contemporaries Turgut Reis, Salih Reis, Piri Reis
Piri Reis
and Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis; or Piyale Pasha, Murat Reis, Seydi Ali
Ali
Reis, Uluç Ali
Ali
Reis and Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis after him, few other Ottoman admirals ever achieved the overwhelming naval power of Hayreddin Barbarossa. His mausoleum is in the Barbaros Park of Beşiktaş, Istanbul, where his statue also stands, right next to the Istanbul
Istanbul
Naval Museum. On the back of the statue are verses by the Turkish poet Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, which may be translated as follows:[16] Whence on the sea's horizon comes that roar? Can it be Barbarossa now returning From Tunis
Tunis
or Algiers
Algiers
or from the Isles? Two hundred vessels ride upon the waves, Coming from lands the rising Crescent lights: O blessed ships, from what seas are ye come? Barbaros Boulevard starts from his mausoleum on the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
and runs all the way up to the Levent
Levent
and Maslak
Maslak
business districts and beyond. He gave his name to Üsküdar
Üsküdar
and Eminönü
Eminönü
port (before 10 January 2009, Kadıköy) in Beşiktaş. In the centuries following his death, even today, Turkish seamen salute his mausoleum with a cannon shot before leaving for naval operations and battles. Several warships of the Turkish Navy
Turkish Navy
and passenger ships have been named after him. References to Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
in fiction[edit]

The Nintendo 3DS
Nintendo 3DS
game Bravely Default
Bravely Default
features a pirate captain named Hayreddin Barbarossa.[17] In the 2011 TV show Muhteşem Yüzyıl
Muhteşem Yüzyıl
he is portrayed by Tolga Tekin. In the 2013 computer game Europa Universalis IV, Hayreddin Barbarossa appears on a loading screen. It is the same image presented on his page. Although the game is presented as historical, he will not specifically appear in the game.

See also[edit]

Military history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
portal

Ottoman Navy

Notes[edit]

^ a b Niccolò Capponi (April 2007). Victory of the West: the great Christian-Muslim clash at the Battle of Lepanto. Da Capo Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-306-81544-7.  ^ Konstam, Angus (2016-08-25). The Barbary
Barbary
Pirates 15th-17th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472815446.  ^ a b H. J. Kissling; F. R. C. Bagley; N. Barbour; Bertold Spuler; J. S. Trimingham; H. Braun; H. Hartel (1997). The Last Great Muslim Empires. BRILL. p. 114. ISBN 90-04-02104-3. Their father was former Muslim soldier, probably from a recent converted family of the European Provinces. Their mother is said to have been the widow of a Greek priest.  ^ a b Bozbora, Nuray (1997). Osmanlı yönetiminde Arnavutluk ve Arnavut ulusçuluğu'nun gelişimi. p. 16. [need quotation to verify] ^ a b Kiel, Michael (2007). The Smaller Aegean Islands in the 16th-18th Centuries according to Ottoman Administrative Documents. Between Venice and Istanbul: Colonial Landscapes in Early Modern Greece. ASCSA. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-0-87661-540-9. [p. 36:] ...Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
(son of a Turkish sipahi [fief-holder in the cavalry service]) from Yenice-i Vardar in Macedonia and a Greek woman from Lesvos/Mytilini)...  ^ Andreas Rieger (1994). Die Seeaktivitäten der muslimischen Beutefahrer als Bestandteil der staatlichen Flotte während der osmanischen Expansion im Mittelmeer im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Klaus Schwarz Verlag. p. 548. ISBN 978-3-87997-223-4.  ^ "Barbarossa Ottoman admiral". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-12-07.  ^ Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
1520–1566 Roger Bigelow Merriman p.140 ^ a b Kritzler, Edward (November 3, 2009). Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean. Anchor. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-7679-1952-4. Retrieved 2010-05-02.  ^ History of Corfu ^ History of Corfu Archived 6 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Quran [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2002.02.0006%3Asura%3D61%3Averse%3D13 61:13–13] (Translated by Sahih International). "And [you will obtain] another [favor] that you love - victory from Allah and an imminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers." ^ Sache, Ivan. "Ottoman Empire: Flags with the Zulfikar sword".  ^ http://www.fahnenversand.de/fotw/misc/tr~barb.jpg ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Catalan-Atlas_-_1.png ^ Translation by John Freely in Strolling through Istanbul, p. 467, Sev Yayıncılık, 1997 ^ https://www.nintendo.co.uk/News/2014/March/An-introduction-to-the-foes-of-Bravely-Default-861399.html

References[edit]

Currey, E. Hamilton (1910). Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean. London.  Bono, Salvatore (1993). Corsari nel Mediterraneo. Perugia: Oscar Storia Mondadori.  "Corsari nel Mediterraneo: Condottieri di ventura. Online database in Italian, based on Salvatore Bono's book". Archived from the original on 5 May 2008.  Bradford, Ernle (1968). The Sultan's Admiral: The life of Barbarossa. London.  Wolf, John B. (1979). The barbary coast : Algiers
Algiers
under the Turks : 1500 to 1830 (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-01205-0.  "The Ottomans: Comprehensive and detailed online chronology of Ottoman history in English".  " Turkish Navy
Turkish Navy
official website: Historic heritage of the Turkish Navy (in Turkish)". Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha.

Look up Barbarossa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barbarossa.

Encyclopædia Britannica An article on the Barbarossa brothers Another article on the Barbarossa brothers Original Gazawat by Seyyid Muradi Hayreddin Barbarossa's tomb in Beşiktaş Hayreddin Barbarossa'nın Hatıraları (Memoirs of Hayreddin Barbarossa in Turkish)

v t e

Seamen of the Ottoman Empire

Kapudan Pashas

Zagan Pasha Mahmud Pasha Gedik Ahmed Pasha Mesih Pasha Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha Süleyman Pasha Hayreddin Barbarossa Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Sinan Pasha Piyale Pasha Müezzinzade Ali
Ali
Pasha Kılıç Ali
Ali
Pasha Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha Gazi Hüseyin Pasha Kara Musa Pasha Koca Musa Pasha Canım Hoca Mehmed Pasha Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha Mezzo Morto Hüseyin Pasha Baltacı Mehmet Pasha Koca Bekir Pasha Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha

Other important seamen

Kemal Reis Selman Reis Mustafa Bayram Hoca Sefer Piri Reis Aydın Reis Sinan Reis Turgut Reis Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis Salih Reis Seydi Ali
Ali
Reis Murat Reis Sefer Reis Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis Uluç Ali
Ali
Reis

v t e

Historical rulers of Algeria

Zayyanid rulers of the Kingdom of Tlemcen (1235–1556)

Yghomracen Ibn Zyan Abu Said Uthman
Uthman
I Abu Zayyan I Abu Hammu I Abu Tashufin I Abu Said Uthman
Uthman
II Abu Thabid I Abu Hammu II Musa Abu Zayyan Muhammad
Muhammad
II ibn Uthman Abu Tashufin II Abu Thabid II Abul Hadjdjadj I Abu Zayyan II Abu Muh I Abu Abdallah I Abd er Rahman I bin Abu Muh Said I bin Abu Tashufin Abu Malek I Abu Abdallah II Abu Abbas Ahmad I Abu Abdallah III Abu Tashufin III Abu Abdallah IV Abu Abdallah V Abu Hammu III Abu Muh II Abu Abdallah VI Abu Zayyan III Al Hassan ben Abu Muh

Ottoman governors of the Regency of Algiers (1517–1830)

Aruj
Aruj
Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa Hasan Agha Hadji Pasha Hasan Pasha Khalifa Saffah Salah Rais Hasan Corso Muhammad
Muhammad
Kurdogli Mehmed Tekkelerli Yusuf Pasha Yahyia Pasha Hasan Khüsro Aga Ahmed Bostandji Ahmad Pasha
Pasha
Qabia Muhamad Pasha Uluç Ali
Ali
Reis Mehmet Pasha Arab Ahmed Pasha Ramdan Pasha Hassan Veneziano Djafar Pasha Mami Muhammad
Muhammad
Pasha Dali Ahmed Pasha Hızır Pasha Hadji Shaban Pasha Mustapha Pasha Daly Hassan Pasha Soliman Pasha Muhammad
Muhammad
II the eunuch Mustapha II Pasha Rizvan Pasha Köse Mustafa Pacha Hasan IV Mustapha IV Pasha Soliman Katanya Kassan Kaid Koça Hizir Pasha Mustafa III Pasha Khüsrev Pacha Murat Pasha Hassan Khodja Yusuf II Pasha Ali
Ali
Bitchin Mahmud Bursali Pacha Ahmed I Pasha Yusuf III Pasha Murad Pasha Buzenak-Muhammad Ahmed II Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Ismail Pasha Khalil Aga Ramadan Aga Shaban Aga Ali
Ali
Aga Hadj Mohamed Dey Baba Hassan Dey Mezzo Morto Hüseyin Pasha Ahmed Sharban Hadji Ahmed ben al-Hadji Baba Hassan Hadji Mustapha Hussein Kodja Mohamed Bektach Deli Ibrahim Ali
Ali
Chauch Muhammad
Muhammad
III ben Hassan Abdy Pasha Mohammed Arslan Ibrahim ben Ramdan Kutchuk Ibrahim Muhammed ibn Bekir Baba Ali
Ali
Pasha
Pasha
Bousba Muhammad
Muhammad
V ben Osman Baba Hassan Mustafa ibn Ibrahim Ahmed ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Khodja Hadji Ali
Ali
ben Khrelil Khodja Hadji Muhammad
Muhammad
Dey Omar Agha Ali
Ali
Khodja Muhammad
Muhammad
VI ben Ali Hussein Dey

Governors of French Algeria (1830–1962)

Louis-Auguste-Victor Bertrand Clausel Pierre Bertheéne Anne Jean Marie René Savary Théophile Voirol Jean-Baptiste Drouet, comte d'Erlon Bertrand, comte Clauzel Charles-Marie Denys de Damrémont Sylvain Charles Valée Thomas Robert Bugeaud Christophe Juchault de Lamoricière Marie Alphonse Bedeau Henri d'Orleans Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Nicolas Théodule Changarnier Viala, Baron Charon Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul Aimable Pélissier Jacques Louis Randon Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte Prosper, comte de Chasseloup-Laubat Édouard de Martimprey Patrice MacMahon Louis, Baron Durieu Jean Walsin-Esterhazy Henri-Gabriel Didier Charles de Bouzet Romuald Vuillermoz Alexis Lambert Louis Henri de Gueydon Antoine Chanzy Albert Grévy Louis Tirman Jules Cambon Auguste Loze Louis Lépine Edouard Lafferrièr Celestine Charles Jonnart Paul Réviol Maurice Varnier Charles Lutaud Jean-Baptiste Abel Théodore Steeg Henri Dubief Maurice Viollette Pierre-Louis Bordes Jules-Gaston Henri Carde Georges le Beau Jean-Charles Abrial Maxime Weygand Yves-Charles Chatel Marcel-Edmond Peyrouton Georges Catroux Yves Chataigneau Marcel-Edmond Naegelen Roger Léonard Jacques Soustelle

Presidents of the Republic of Algeria (1962–present)

Abderrahmane Farès Ferhat Abbas Ahmed Ben Bella Houari Boumediene Rabah Bitat Chadli Bendjedid Abdelmalek Benhabyles Mohamed Boudiaf Ali
Ali
Kafi Liamine Zéroual Abdelaziz Bouteflika

v t e

Barbary
Barbary
Corsairs

Territories

Regency of Algiers Annaba Barbary
Barbary
coast Bizerte Cherchell Mahdiya Oran Rabat Republic of Salé Tetouan Regency of Tripoli Regency of Tunis

Commanders (Reis)

16th century

Aruj Hayreddin Barbarossa Sayyida al Hurra Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis Occhiali Salah Rais Murat Reis the Elder Kemal Reis Aydın Reis Muhammad
Muhammad
I Pasha Hasan Corso Muhammad
Muhammad
Kurdogli Hasan Agha Hasan Pasha Arnaut Mami Hassan Veneziano Sinan Reis Dragut

17th century

Jan Janszoon Salé
Salé
Rovers Anglo-Turkish piracy Sulayman Reis Ahmed el Inglizi Omar Agha Ali
Ali
Bitchin Simon Reis Yusuf Reis

18th century

Ahmed Karamanli Yusuf Karamanli

19th century

Ali
Ali
Khodja Hussein Dey Omar Agha Mohamed Kharnadji Haji Ali Baba Mohammed ben-Osman

Diplomacy

Franco-Ottoman alliance US Treaty with Tripoli
Tripoli
(1796) US Treaty with Tunis
Tunis
(1797) US Treaty with Tripoli
Tripoli
(1805) US Treaty with Algiers
Algiers
(1815) US Treaty with Tunis
Tunis
(1824) US Treaty with Morocco (1836)

Battles and conflicts

16th century

Ottoman raid on the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
(1501) Capture of Algiers
Algiers
(1516) Fall of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
(1518) Battle of Pianosa
Battle of Pianosa
(1519) Siege of Rhodes
Rhodes
(1522) Battle of Formentera (1529) Capture of Peñón of Algiers
Algiers
(1529) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1534) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1535) Sack of Mahón (1535) Siege of Corfu (1537) Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza
(1538) Siege of Castelnuovo
Siege of Castelnuovo
(1539) Battle of Alboran
Battle of Alboran
(1540) Siege of Nice
Siege of Nice
(1543) Ottoman wintering in Toulon
Toulon
(1543-1544) Capture of Mahdiye (1550) Invasion of Gozo (1551) Siege of Tripoli
Tripoli
(1551) Battle of Ponza
Ponza
(1552) Invasion of Corsica
Corsica
(1553) Capture of Bougie
Capture of Bougie
(1555) Siege of Oran
Oran
(1556) Ottoman invasion of the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
(1558) Battle of Wadi al-Laban
Battle of Wadi al-Laban
(1558) Expedition to Mostaganem (1558) Battle of Djerba
Djerba
(1560) Sieges of Oran
Oran
and Mers El Kébir (1563) Great Siege of Malta
Great Siege of Malta
(1565) Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)
Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)
(1568–71) Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1574) Capture of Fez (1576) Battle of Alcácer Quibir
Battle of Alcácer Quibir
(1578)

17th century

Expulsion of the Moriscos
Expulsion of the Moriscos
(1609) Raid of Żejtun
Raid of Żejtun
(1614) Battle of Cape Corvo
Battle of Cape Corvo
(1615) Turkish Abductions
Turkish Abductions
(1627) Sack of Baltimore (1631) Cretan War (1645–1669) Action of March 1665 Morean War
Morean War
(1684-1699) Sieges of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1694–1727) Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695)

18th century

Spanish conquest of Oran
Oran
(1732) Action of 28 November 1751 Danish-Algerian War
Danish-Algerian War
(1769-1772) Siege of Melilla (1774) Invasion of Algiers
Algiers
(1775) Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1783) Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1784) Action of 16 May 1797 First Barbary
Barbary
War (1801–1805) Second Barbary
Barbary
War (1815–1816)

19th century

Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1816) Invasion of Algiers
Algiers
(1830)

Slavery

Trinitarian Order Lazarists Redemptorists Barbary
Barbary
slave trade Bagnio

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary
Barbary
pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary
Barbary
Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary
Barbary
pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic slave trade Arab slave trade Barbary
Barbary
slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate code Pirate utopia Victual Brothers Pirate Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slaves Pirate Latitudes

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3264597 LCCN: no90008622 ISNI: 0000 0001 0598 0763 GND: 118675435 SUDOC: 027718514 BNF:

.