Hayam Wuruk, also called (after 1350) Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu,
or Bhatara Prabhu, (1334–1389), was a Javanese Hindu King:234
from the Rajasa
Dynasty and the fourth monarch of the Indianised
Majapahit Empire. Together with his prime minister Gajah Mada, he
reigned the empire at the time of its greatest power. During his reign
the Hindu epics, the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata, became ingrained in
the culture and worldview of the Javanese through the wayang kulit
(“leather puppets”). He was preceded by Tribhuwana
Wijayatunggadewi and succeeded by his son-in-law Wikramawardhana. Most
of the accounts of his life were taken from
1 Early life
2 The Reign
4 See also
6 Further reading
Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 4 and 5 (composed by Mpu
Prapanca in 1365),
Hayam Wuruk was born in 1256 Saka or correspond to
1334 CE, the same year that Mount
Kelud erupted. Prapanca argued that
this was the divine sign that Batara Gurunata (Javanese name for Shiva
Mahadewa) has manifest Himself on earth, reincarnated as the Javanese
king. Also in the same,
Gajah Mada declared his oath Sumpah Palapa.
Hayam Wuruk's name can be translated as "scholar rooster". He was the
son of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi and Sri Kertawardhana or Cakradhara. His
mother was the daughter of
Raden Wijaya founder of Majapahit,
meanwhile his father was the son of Bhre Tumapel lesser king of
Hayam Wuruk as
a handsome, bright, talented, and exceptional student in the courtly
martial arts of archery and fencing, also mastering politics and
scriptures, as well as arts and music. He was known as an accomplished
ceremonial dancer in the court. Some accounts tell of Hayam Wuruk's
performances in a traditional ceremonial Javanese mask dance. His
mother, Queen Tribhuwana, educated and groomed him to become the next
monarch of Majapahit.
Gayatri Rajapatni died in her retirement at a Buddhist
monastery. She was the consort of Raden Wijaya, the first king of
Majapahit, and also the grandmother of Hayam Wuruk. Queen Tribhuwana
had to abdicate because she ruled
Majapahit under Rajapatni's
auspices, and she was obliged to relinquish her throne to her son.
Hayam Wuruk inherited the throne in 1350 at the age of 16 when the
patih (prime minister)
Gajah Mada was at the height of his career.
Under his rule,
Majapahit extended its power throughout the Indonesian
Pararaton and Kidung Sunda, in 1357
Hayam Wuruk was
expected to marry Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi, the princess of the Sunda
Kingdom. The reason for this royal engagement was probably political,
to foster the alliance between the
Majapahit and the Sundanese
Kingdoms. However, in the Bubat incident, the Sunda royal family and
their guards were involved in a skirmish with
Majapahit troops. The
planned royal wedding ended in disaster with the death of the princess
and the whole Sunda royal party. The court officials blamed Gajah Mada
because it was his intention to demand submission from Sunda Kingdom
that ended in bloodshed.
Several years later
Hayam Wuruk married his half-sister, Paduka Sori,
daughter of Dyah Wiyat.
Hayam Wuruk and Paduka Sori have 1 father,
different mothers. In 1365 (or 1287 Saka year),
Mpu Prapanca wrote the
kakawin Nagarakretagama, the old Javanese eulogy for
Wuruk. The manuscript described Hayam Wuruk's royal excursion
Majapahit realm to visit villages, holy shrines, vassal
kingdoms and territory in East Java.
He sent embassies to China from 1370 to 1381.:240
Hayam Wuruk had a daughter, Crown Princess Kusumawardhani, with Queen
Sori. Kusumawardhani married a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana.
However, from a consort concubine,
Hayam Wuruk had a son, Prince
Wirabhumi. After Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, the empire fell into
chaos and decline during the contest over succession between
Wikramawardhana and Wirabhumi. The dispute ended in Wirabhumi's defeat
in the Paregreg war.
Hayam Wuruk as the King
Hinduism in Java, Balinese Hinduism, Greater India,
Indosphere, and Sanskritization
His reign, as part of
Indosphere of Greater India, helped further
Indianisation of Javanese culture through the spread of
Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
Indians in Indonesia
List of Hindu temples in Indonesia
^ a b c Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast
Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681.
^ a b c Mpu Prapanca, translated by Slamet Muljana. "Terjemahan
Kakawin Dēśawarṇnana (Nāgarakṛtāgama)" (in Indonesian). Jejak
Nusantara. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
^ a b Mark Juergensmeyer and Wade Clark Roof, 2012, Encyclopedia of
Global Religion, Volume 1, Page 557.
^ Malkiel-Jirmounsky, Myron (1939). "The Study of The Artistic
Antiquities of Dutch India". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies.
Harvard-Yenching Institute. 4 (1): 59–68. doi:10.2307/2717905.
Pringle, Robert (2004). A Short History of Bali: Indonesia's Hindu
Realm. Short History of Asia. Allen & Unwin.