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The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiye, Arabic: بنو هوية‎) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan traditionally inhabit central and southern Somalia, Ogaden
Ogaden
and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Kenya, respectively). Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their paternal ancestry to Irir, one of the sons of Samaale. Hawiye is one of the major Somali clans, with a wide traditional territory.[1] It is the dominant clan in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.[2]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Distribution 3 History 4 Clan Tree 5 Notable Hawiye figures

5.1 Politicians 5.2 Military personnel 5.3 Leading intellectuals 5.4 Traditional elders and religious leaders 5.5 Music and literature

6 Political factions and organizations 7 See also 8 References

Overview According to an official Military Survey conducted during the colonial period, Hawiye clan members are by tradition believed to be descended from a forefather named Hawiya Irrir. Hawiya Irrir is held to be the brother of Dir. I.M. Lewis and many sources maintain that the Dir together with the Hawiye trace ancestry through Irir son of Samaale to Banu Hashim Arabian origins with Aqeel Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib.[3][4][5][6][7] Distribution Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula
Somali peninsula
in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia
Somalia
between Barawa
Barawa
and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu
Mogadishu
and Warsheikh
Warsheikh
in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne
Beledweyne
in the Hiran region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo
Hobyo
in the arid central Mudug
Mudug
region.[8] History Hawiye along with some Samaale sub-clans migrated to central and southern Somalia
Somalia
in the 1st century AD to populate the Horn of Africa. They established farmlands in the fertile plain lands of southern Somalia
Somalia
and also established flourishing harbor ports in south and central Somalia.[9] The first written reference to the Hawiye dates back to a 12th-century document by the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who described Merca
Merca
at the time as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca
Merca
the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.[10] Along with Rahanweyn, Hawiye clan also came under the Ajuran
Ajuran
Empire control in the 13th century that governed much of southern Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo
Hobyo
in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo
Kismayo
in the south.[11] At the end of the 17th century, the Ajuran Empire
Ajuran Empire
was on its decline due to high taxation on none- Ajuran
Ajuran
clans and the practice of primae noctis which was the prime reason why the Hawiye clan revolted against the Ajuran
Ajuran
rulers and ever since this first revolt against the Ajuran other groups would follow in the rebellion which would eventually bring down Ajuran
Ajuran
rule of the inter-riverine region.[12] Lee Cassanelli in his book, "The Shaping of Somali society," provides a historical picture of the Hiraab Immate. He writes: "According to local oral tradition, the Hiraab imamate was a powerful alliance of closely related groups who shared a common lineage under the Gorgaarte clan divisions. It successfully revolted against the Ajuran Empire
Ajuran Empire
and established an independent rule for at least two centuries from the seventeen hundreds and onwards.[13] The alliance involved the army leaders and advisors of the Habar Gidir and Duduble, a Fiqhi/Qadi of Sheekhaal, and the Imam was reserved for the Mudulood branch who is believed to have been the first born. Once established, the Imamate ruled the territories from the Shabeelle valley, the Benaadir provinces, the Mareeg areas all the way to the arid lands of Mudug, whilst the ancient port of Hobyo
Hobyo
emerged as the commercial center and Mogadishu
Mogadishu
being its capital for the newly established Hiraab Imamate in the late 17th century.[13] Hobyo
Hobyo
served as a prosperous commercial centre for the Imamate. The agricultural centres of Eldher and Harardhere
Harardhere
included the production of sorghum and beans, supplementing with herds of camels, cattle, goats and sheep. Livestock, hides and skin, whilst the aromatic woods and raisins were the primary exports as rice, other foodstuffs and clothes were imported. Merchants looking for exotic goods came to Hobyo
Hobyo
to buy textiles, precious metals and pearls. The commercial goods harvested along the Shabelle
Shabelle
river were brought to Hobyo
Hobyo
for trade. Also, the increasing importance and rapid settlement of more southernly cities such as Mogadishu
Mogadishu
further boosted the prosperity of Hobyo, as more and more ships made their way down the Somali coast and stopped in Hobyo
Hobyo
to trade and replenish their supplies.[13] The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris.[14][15] Soon afterwards, the entire region was snapped up by the fascists Italians and it led to the birth of a Modern Somalia. However, the Hiraab hereditary leadership has remained intact up to this day and enjoys a dominant influence in national Somali affairs."[13] Clan Tree Ali Jimale Ahmed outlines the Hawiye clan genealogical tree in The Invention of Somalia:[16]

Samaale

Irir

Hawiye

Gugundhabe

Baadicade

Gorgate

Hiraab

Mudulood

Abgaal

Harti

Angonyar Warsangeli Abokor

Wabudhan

Da'oud Rer Mattan Mohamed Muse

Wa'esli

Wacdaan Moobleen Ujajeen

Duduble Habar Gidir

Sacad Saleebaan Cayr Saruur

A few clans in the borders of Somalia
Somalia
do not belong to the Hawiye clan, but came to be associated with them politically:

Gaalje'el in Hiran and elsewhere in central Somalia
Somalia
traces its paternal descent to Gardheere Samaale;[17][18] Degoodi in the Somali Region
Somali Region
of Ehiopia and North Eastern Province is related to Gaaje'el as Saransoor and traces its patrilineage to Gardheere Samaale;[17][18] Hawaadle in Hiran belongs to the Meyle Samaale;,[17][18] Ajuraan in the North Eastern Province claim descent from Maqaarre Samaale[19] Sheekhaal acknowledges descent from Sheikh Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, also known as Fiqi Umar.[20]

Thus the Gaalje'el, Degoodi Ajuraan and Hawaadle are said to have patrilateral ties with the Dir and Hawiye through Samaale to Aqeel Abu Talib, whereas the Sheekhaal traces descent to a different forefather than the Samaale progeny, but also trace to Aqeel Abu Talib. DNA analysis of a Hawiye clan member inhabiting Djibouti found that the individual belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup.[21] Notable Hawiye figures Politicians

Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, President of Somalia, 2000–2004 Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of Somalia, 1954–1960 Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, President of Somalia, 1960–67 Ali Mahdi Muhammad, President of Somalia, 1991–1995 Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2004–2007 Haji Farah Ali Omar, minister for Economic Affairs of Somalia,1956–1960 Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, current President of Somalia Mohamed Farrah Aidid, President of Somalia
Somalia
1995-1996 Nur Hassan Hussein, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2007–2009 Sharif Ahmed, President of Somalia, 2009-2012 Abdirahman Janaqow, Somali leader, deputy chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia
Somalia
(ICU), Minister of Justice Abdullahi Ahmed Addow, former Somalia
Somalia
Ambassador to the United States (1970–80) Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, businessman who used to control the El-ma`an beach area which served as Mogadishu's port since the closure in 1995 of the city's main port Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, secular faction leader; member of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mungab, Mayor of Mogadishu Mohamed Abdi Hassan, entrepreneur and faction leader Mohamed Afrah Qanyare, politician who was based to the south of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
and member of TFG parliament Mohamed Nur, former Mayor of Mogadishu Mohamed Moallim Hassan, Politician who served as minister of fishery and marine resources of Somalia, 2010- 2011

Military personnel

Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant colonel who defused Mig-17 jet fighter bombs Daud Abdulle Hirsi, Commander-in-chief of the Somali national forces, 1960–67 Hassan Dahir Aweys, leader of Islamist revolution in Somalia, 2006–09 Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, vice-president of Somalia
Somalia
under the Siad Barre regime Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress, 1991–1994 Muuse Suudi Yalahow, politician who served as Trade Minister in the Transitional Federal Government Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Father of the 1969 revolution

Leading intellectuals

Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, 2003 presidential candidate Abdirahman Yabarow, Editor-in-Chief of the VOA Somali Service Abdulkadir Yahya Ali, peace activist, co-director and founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue 1957-2005 [22] Abukar Umar Adani, businessman who operates the Elman port services Ali Jimale, educator at the City University of New York Ali Sheikh Ahmed, dual president of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
University and Al-Islaah Elman Ali Ahmed, entrepreneur and social activist Hilowle Imam Omar, co-chairman of the reconciliation program 1995-2000 Hussein Ali Shido, founding member of the United Somali Congress Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, author of the Kaddariya script, 1952 Ibrahim Hassan Addou, Former Professor of Washington University. Foreign Minister of the Union of Islamic courts in 2006 Omar Iman Abubakar, professor and researcher in Hadith Sunna, Chairman of Hisbi Islam[23][24]

Traditional elders and religious leaders

Sheikh Ali Dhere, founder of the first Islamic Court in Mogadishu

Music and literature

Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur, poet and composer, writer of several patriotic songs Abdulle Geedannaar, poet Hasan Adan Samatar, musician K'naan, Somali-Canadian poet, rapper and musician Magool (Halima Khalif Omar), musician Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow, 19th-century poet

Political factions and organizations

Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, (ARPCT) a Somali alliance created by various faction leaders and entrepreneurs Hizbul Shabaab, the Youth Movement wing of the ICU before ceding the organisation to Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow" Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
(ICU), a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government. Juba Valley Alliance (JVA), primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement Somali National Alliance (SNA) formed by Mohamed Farrah Aidid Somali Salvation Army (SSA), the Ali Mahdi Muhammad
Ali Mahdi Muhammad
branch of the United Somali Congress United Somali Congress (USC) Formed in 1987, it played a key role in the ouster of the dictatorship

See also

Somali aristocratic and court titles

References

^ Ethnic Groups (Map). Somalia
Somalia
Summary Map. Central Intelligence Agency. 2002. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - N.B. Various authorities indicate that the Hawiye is the largest Somali clan
Somali clan
within Somalia
Somalia
[1], whereas others suggest that the Darod
Darod
is among the largest Somali clans [2]. ^ "'Truce' after Somali gun battle". BBC News. 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2007-04-13.  ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-932415-98-1.  ^ Lewis, Ioan. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-932415-92-9.  ^ Lewis, I.M. (2008). Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society: Culture History and Society. Hurst. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85065-898-6.  ^ Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam
Islam
in a Clan-based Society. The Red Sea Press. p. 99-Chapter 8. ISBN 9781569021033.  ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780932415998.  ^ The Somali, Afar and Saho groups in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
by I.M Lewis ^ cite webhttps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=X1dDDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq=Somali+ancestral+home&source=bl&ots=6ef0Cptjf9&sig=AoBZCY7ZtstMD7--vrRQvLvR_wY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGl82i_PjYAhWCC8AKHRT5DTsQ6AEIWDAF#v=onepage&q&f=false/ ^ Herbert S. Lewis, "The Origins of the Galla and Somali", in The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press, 1966, pp 27–30. ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.102. ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, Towns and Trading centres in Somalia: A Nomadic perspective, Philadelphia, 1980, pp. 8-9. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Lee V. Cassanelli 1982 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Kenya’s past; an introduction to historical method in Africa page by Thomas T. Spear ^ The Shaping of Somali society; reconstructing the history of a pastoral people by Lee Cassanelli ^ Ali Jimale Ahmed (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea. p. 123. ISBN 0-932415-98-9.  ^ a b c Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739.  ^ a b c Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998.  ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780932415998.  ^ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165 ^ Iacovacci, Giuseppe; et al. (2017). "Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 27: 123–131. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.12.015. Retrieved 8 February 2018. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "CRD Somalia". Center for Research and Dialogue. 2005-07-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2012-09-24.  ^ "Somalia: Islamic Party Insurgents Declare War On New Govt". 8 February 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2018 – via AllAfrica. 

v t e

Somali clans

Darod

Absame

Ogaden
Ogaden
(clan) Jidwaq

Harti

Dhulbahante Majeerteen Dishiishe Warsangali

Lailkase Marehan

Isaaq

Arap Ayub Habar Awal

Sa'ad Musa Issa Musa

Garhajis

Habr Yunis Eidagale

Habar Jeclo Toljeclo Sanbuur Cimraan

Rahanweyn

Digil Mirifle

Samaale

Dir

Gadabuursi Issa Surre

Abdalla & Qubeys

Biimaal

Gaadsen

Garre

Quranyow

Gurgura Gurre Garire Bursuuk Bajimal

Hawiye

Abgaal Habar Gidir

Ayr

Hiraab Silcis

Others

Meyle

Hawadle

Gardhere

Gaalje'el Degodia Garre

Harmalle

Ajuran

Minorities

Madhiban Muse Ashar

.