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The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
(Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the "Sandwich Islands", a name chosen by James Cook
James Cook
in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii
Hawaii
Island. The Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893. The islands were subsequently put under the control of a republic, which the United States annexed in 1898.[1] The U.S. state
U.S. state
of Hawaii
Hawaii
now occupies the archipelago almost in its entirety (including the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States
United States
as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands. The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The islands are about 1,860 miles (3,000 km) from the nearest continent.[2]

Contents

1 Islands and reefs

1.1 Main islands 1.2 Smaller islands, atolls, reefs 1.3 Islets

2 Geology

2.1 Earthquakes

3 Tsunamis 4 Ecology 5 National Monument 6 Climate 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Islands and reefs[edit] Main article: History of Hawaii Captain James Cook
James Cook
visited the islands on January 18, 1778 and named them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, who was one of his sponsors as the First Lord of the Admiralty.[3] This name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name "Hawaii" gradually began to take precedence.[4] The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
have a total land area of 6,423.4 square miles (16,636.5 km2). Except for Midway, which is an unincorporated territory of the United States, these islands and islets are administered as Hawaii—the 50th state of the United States.[5] Main islands[edit] The eight main islands of Hawaii
Hawaii
(also called the Hawaiian Windward Islands) are listed here. All except Kahoolawe
Kahoolawe
are inhabited.[6]

Island Nickname Area Population (as of 2010) Density Highest point Elevation Age (Ma)[7] Location

Hawaiʻi[8] The Big Island 1 4,028.0 sq mi (10,432.5 km2) 185,079 4 45.948/sq mi (17.7407/km2) Mauna Kea 1 13,796 ft (4,205 m) 0.4 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.500°W / 19.567; -155.500 (Hawaii)

Maui[9] The Valley Isle 2 727.2 sq mi (1,883.4 km2) 144,444 2 198.630/sq mi (76.692/km2) Haleakalā 2 10,023 ft (3,055 m) 1.3–0.8 20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.800°N 156.333°W / 20.800; -156.333 (Maui)

Oʻahu[10] The Gathering Place 3 596.7 sq mi (1,545.4 km2) 953,207 1 1,597.46/sq mi (616.78/km2) Mount Kaʻala 5 4,003 ft (1,220 m) 3.7–2.6 21°28′N 157°59′W / 21.467°N 157.983°W / 21.467; -157.983 (Oahu)

Kauaʻi[11] The Garden Isle 4 552.3 sq mi (1,430.5 km2) 66,921 3 121.168/sq mi (46.783/km2) Kawaikini 3 5,243 ft (1,598 m) 5.1 22°05′N 159°30′W / 22.083°N 159.500°W / 22.083; -159.500 (Kauai)

Molokaʻi[12] The Friendly Isle 5 260.0 sq mi (673.4 km2) 7,345 5 28.250/sq mi (10.9074/km2) Kamakou 4 4,961 ft (1,512 m) 1.9–1.8 21°08′N 157°02′W / 21.133°N 157.033°W / 21.133; -157.033 (Molokai)

Lānaʻi[13] The Pineapple Isle 6 140.5 sq mi (363.9 km2) 3,135 6 22.313/sq mi (8.615/km2) Lānaʻihale 6 3,366 ft (1,026 m) 1.3 20°50′N 156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933 (Lanai)

Niʻihau[14] The Forbidden Isle 7 69.5 sq mi (180.0 km2) 170 7 2.45/sq mi (0.944/km2) Mount Pānīʻau 8 1,250 ft (381 m) 4.9 21°54′N 160°10′W / 21.900°N 160.167°W / 21.900; -160.167 (Niihau)

Kahoʻolawe[15] The Target Isle 8 44.6 sq mi (115.5 km2) 0 8 0 Puʻu Moaulanui 7 1,483 ft (452 m) 1.0 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W / 20.550; -156.600 (Kahoolawe)

Smaller islands, atolls, reefs[edit]

Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
from space.[16]

Smaller islands, atolls, and reefs (all west of Niʻihau are uninhabited) form the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, or Hawaiian Leeward Islands:

Nihoa
Nihoa
(Mokumana) Necker (Mokumanamana) French Frigate Shoals
French Frigate Shoals
(Kānemilohaʻi) Gardner Pinnacles
Gardner Pinnacles
(Pūhāhonu) Maro Reef
Maro Reef
(Nalukākala) Laysan
Laysan
(Kauō) Lisianski Island
Island
(Papaʻāpoho) Pearl and Hermes Atoll
Atoll
(Holoikauaua) Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
(Pihemanu) Kure Atoll
Atoll
(Mokupāpapa)

Islets[edit]

3-D perspective view of the southeastern Hawaiian Islands, with the white summits of Mauna Loa
Mauna Loa
(4,170 m or 13,680 ft high) and Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
(4,206 m or 13,799 ft high). The islands are the tops of massive volcanoes, the bulk of which lie below the sea surface. Ocean depths are colored from violet (5,750 m or 18,860 ft deep northeast of Maui) and indigo to light gray (shallowest). Historical lava flows are shown in red, erupting from the summits and rift zones of Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Hualalai volcanoes on Hawaiʻi.

The state of Hawaii
Hawaii
counts 137 "islands" in the Hawaiian chain.[17] This number includes all minor islands and islets, or very small island, offshore of the main islands (listed above) and individual islets in each atoll. These are just a few:

Ford Island
Island
(Mokuʻumeʻume) Lehua Ka'ula Kaohikaipu Mānana Mōkōlea Rock Nā Mokulua Molokini Mokoliʻi Moku Manu Moku Ola (Coconut Island, Hawaii) Moku o Loʻe (Coconut Island, Oahu) Sand Island Grass Island

A composite satellite image from NASA
NASA
of the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
taken from outer space. Click on the image for a larger view that shows the main islands and the extended archipelago.

Geology[edit] Main article: Hawaii
Hawaii
hotspot See also: List of Hawaii
Hawaii
rivers This chain of islands, or archipelago, developed as the Pacific Plate moved slowly northwestward over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle
Earth's mantle
at a rate of approximately 32 miles (51 km) per million years. Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and typically smaller, due to longer exposure to erosion. The age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods.[18] From this study and others,[19][20] it is estimated that the northwestern most island, Kure Atoll, is the oldest at approximately 28 million years (Ma); while the southeastern most island, Hawaiʻi, is approximately 0.4 Ma (400,000 years). The only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the southeastern island, Hawaiʻi, and on the submerged but growing volcano to the extreme southeast, Loʻihi. The Hawaiian Volcano
Volcano
Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images and interpretations of the volcanism. Almost all of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, and so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed almost entirely of this igneous rock. There is very little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase. Nephelinite
Nephelinite
is exposed on the islands but is extremely rare. The majority of eruptions in Hawaiʻi are Hawaiian-type eruptions because basaltic magma is relatively fluid compared with magmas typically involved in more explosive eruptions, such as the andesitic magmas that produce some of the spectacular and dangerous eruptions around the margins of the Pacific basin.

Eruptions from the Hawaii
Hawaii
hotspot left a trail of underwater mountains across the Pacific over millions of years, called the Emperor Seamounts

Hawaiʻi island (the Big Island) is the biggest and youngest island in the chain, built from five volcanoes. Mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth. The measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles (4 km), from sea level to sea floor about 3.1 miles (5 km).[21] Earthquakes[edit] Main article: List of earthquakes in Hawaii The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
have many earthquakes, generally caused by volcanic activity. Most of the early earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman and her family. From 1833 to 1896, approximately 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year.[22] Hawaii
Hawaii
accounted for 7.3% of the United States' reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes. Hawaii
Hawaii
ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this time period, after Alaska
Alaska
and California.[23] On October 15, 2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, near the Kona area of the big island. The initial earthquake was followed approximately five minutes later by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock. Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island. Several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, and effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, Oahu, nearly 150 miles (240 km) from the epicenter. Power outages lasted for several hours to days. Several water mains ruptured. No deaths or life-threatening injuries were reported. Earthquakes are monitored by the Hawaiian Volcano
Volcano
Observatory run by the USGS. Tsunamis[edit]

Aftermath of the 1960 Chilean tsunami in Hilo, Hawaiʻi, where the tsunami left 61 people dead and 282 seriously injured. The waves reached 35 feet (11 m) high.

The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
are subject to tsunamis, great waves that strike the shore. Tsunamis are most often caused by earthquakes somewhere in the Pacific. The waves produced by the earthquakes travel at speeds of 400–500 miles per hour (600–800 km/h) and can affect coastal regions thousands of miles (kilometers) away. Tsunamis may also originate from the Hawaiian Islands. Explosive volcanic activity can cause tsunamis. The island of Molokaʻi had a catastrophic collapse or debris avalanche over a million years ago; this underwater landslide likely caused tsunamis. The Hilina Slump on the island of Hawaiʻi is another potential place for a large landslide and resulting tsunami. The city of Hilo
Hilo
on the Big Island
Island
has been most affected by tsunamis, where the in-rushing water is accentuated by the shape of Hilo
Hilo
Bay. Coastal cities have tsunami warning sirens. A tsunami resulting from an earthquake in Chile hit the islands on February 27, 2010. It was relatively minor, but local emergency management officials utilized the latest technology and ordered evacuations in preparation for a possible major event. The Governor declared it a "good drill" for the next major event. A tsunami resulting from an earthquake in Japan hit the islands on March 11, 2011. It was relatively minor, but local officials ordered evacuations in preparation for a possible major event. The tsunami caused about $30.1 million in damages.[24] Ecology[edit] See also: Endemism
Endemism
in the Hawaiian Islands, List of animal species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands, and List of invasive plant species in Hawaii The islands are home to many endemic species. Since human settlement, first by Polynesians, non native trees, plants, and animals were introduced. These included species such as rats and pigs, that have preyed on native birds and invertebrates that initially evolved in the absence of such predators. The growing population of humans has also led to deforestation, forest degradation, treeless grasslands, and environmental degradation. As a result, many species which depended on forest habitats and food became extinct--with many current species facing extinction. As humans cleared land for farming, monocultural crop production replaced multi-species systems.[citation needed] The arrival of the Europeans had a more significant impact, with the promotion of large-scale single-species export agriculture and livestock grazing. This led to increased clearing of forests, and the development of towns, adding many more species to the list of extinct animals of the Hawaiian Islands. As of 2009[update], many of the remaining endemic species are considered endangered.[25] National Monument[edit]

Wikinews has related news: Bush proclaims Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a National Monument

On June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
issued a public proclamation creating Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument under the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
of 1906. The Monument encompasses the northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
and surrounding waters, forming the largest[26] marine wildlife reserve in the world. In August 2010, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
added Papahānaumokuākea to its list of World Heritage Sites.[27][28][29] On August 26, 2016, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
greatly expanded Papahānaumokuākea, quadrupling it from its original size.[30][31][32] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate
Climate
of Hawaii The climate of the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
is tropical but it experiences many different climates, depending on altitude and weather.[33] The islands receive most rainfall from the trade winds on their north and east flanks (the windward side) as a result of orographic precipitation.[33] Coastal areas in general and especially the south and west flanks or leeward sides, tend to be drier.[33] In general, the lowlands of Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
receive most of their precipitation during the winter months (October to April).[33] Drier conditions generally prevail from May to September.[33] The tropical storms, and occasional hurricanes, tend to occur from July through November.[33] See also[edit]

Geography portal Oceania portal United States
United States
portal Hawaii
Hawaii
portal Mountains portal Volcanoes portal

United States

Hawaii
Hawaii
Inter- Island
Island
Cable System Index of Hawaii-related articles List of birds of Hawaii List of fish of Hawaii List of mountain peaks of Hawaii List of Ultras of Hawaii Maritime fur trade Outline of Hawaii

References[edit]

^ Kent, Noel J. (1993). Hawaii: Islands Under the Influence. University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. pp. x. ISBN 0-8248-1552-1.  ^ Macdonald, Abbott, and Peterson, 1984 ^ James Cook
James Cook
and James King (1784). A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean: Undertaken, by the Command of His Majesty, for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere, to Determine the Position and Extent of the West Side of North America, Its Distance from Asia, and the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe: Performed Under the Direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Discovery, in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. 2. Nicol and Cadell, London. p. 222.  ^ Clement, Russell. "From Cook to the 1840 Constitution: The Name Change from Sandwich to Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). University of Hawai'i at Manoa Hamilton Library. Retrieved June 17, 2012.  ^ "Guide to State and Local Census Geography – Hawaii" (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 2013-09-09. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 2016-09-16.  ^ " Hawaii
Hawaii
Population 2016 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 2016-09-12.  ^ Blay, Chuck, and Siemers, Robert. Kauai‘’s Geologic History: A Simplified Guide. Kaua‘i: TEOK Investigations, 2004. ISBN 9780974472300. (Cited in "Hawaiian Encyclopedia : The Islands". Retrieved June 20, 2012. ) ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Island of Hawaiʻi ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Maui Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Oʻahu Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kauaʻi Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Molokaʻi Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lānaʻi Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Niʻihau Island ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kahoʻolawe Island ^ "Hawaii : Image of the Day". nasa.gov. Retrieved 4 June 2015.  ^ "Hawai'i Facts & Figures" (PDF). state web site. State of Hawaii Dept. of Business, Economic Development & Tourism. December 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ "Tectonics, geochronology, and origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain" (PDF). The Geology of North America, Volume N: The Eastern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and Hawaii. The Geology Society of America. 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-01-17.  ^ McDougall, IAN; Swanson, D. A. (1972). "Potassium-Argon Ages of Lavas from the Hawi and Pololu Volcanic Series, Kohala Volcano, Hawaii". Geological Society of America Bulletin. Geology Society of American Bulletin. 83 (12): 3731–3738. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1972)83[3731:PAOLFT]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2011-01-17.  ^ "Petrography and K-Ar Ages of Dredged Volcanic Rocks from the Western Hawaiian Ridge and the Southern Emperor Seamount
Seamount
Chain". 86 (7). Geology Society of America Bulletin. 1975: 991–998. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1975)86. Retrieved 2011-01-17.  ^ " Mauna Loa
Mauna Loa
Earth's Largest Volcano". Hawaiian Volcano
Volcano
Observatory web site. USGS. February 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  ^ " Hawaii
Hawaii
Earthquake
Earthquake
History". Earthquake
Earthquake
Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. 1972. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  ^ "Top Earthquake
Earthquake
States". Earthquake
Earthquake
Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. 2003. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  ^ Trusdell, Frank A.; Chadderton, Amy; Hinchliffe, Graham; Hara, Andrew; Patenge, Brent; Weber, Tom (2012-11-15). "Tohoku-Oki Earthquake
Earthquake
Tsunami
Tsunami
Runup and Inundation Data for Sites Around the Island
Island
of Hawai'i" (PDF). USGS. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2016-10-11.  ^ Craig R. Elevitch and Kim M. Wilkinson, eds. (2000). Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. Permanent Agriculture Resources. ISBN 0-9702544-0-7. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Barnett, Cynthia (August 26, 2016). " Hawaii
Hawaii
Is Now Home to an Ocean Reserve Twice the Size of Texas". National Geographic. Retrieved September 2, 2016.  ^ "21 sites added to Unesco World Heritage list – Wikinews, the free news source". en.wikinews.org. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ Saltzstein, Dan (2010-08-04). "Unesco Adds 21 Sites to World Heritage List". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ " World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
inscribes a total of 21 new sites on UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org. 2010-08-02. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ Cocke, Sophie (2016-08-25). "Obama expands Papahanaumokuakea marine reserve; plans Oahu
Oahu
trip". Honolulu
Honolulu
Star Advertiser. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ "Fact Sheet: President Obama to Create the World's Largest Marine Protected Area". whitehouse.gov. 2016-08-26. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ Barnett, Cynthia (2016-08-26). " Hawaii
Hawaii
Is Now Home to an Ocean Reserve Twice the Size of Texas". NationalGeographic.com. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ a b c d e f Lau, Leung-Ku Stephen; Mink, John Francis (2006-10-01). Hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands. pp. 39, 43, 49, 53. ISBN 9780824829483. 

Further reading[edit]

Morgan, Joseph R. (1996). "Hawai'i: A Unique Geography – Volcanic Landforms". Honolulu, HI: Bess Press. ISBN 1-57306-021-6.  An integrated information website focused on the Hawaiian Archipelago from the Pacific Region Integrated Data Enterprise (PRIDE). Macdonald, G. A., A. T. Abbott, and F. L. Peterson. 1984. Volcanoes in the Sea: The Geology of Hawaii, 2nd edition. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 517 pp. The Ocean Atlas of Hawai‘i – SOEST at University of Hawaiʻi. "Hawaiian Volcanoes – Introduction – Department of Geosciences". Corvallis, OR, USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2012. Volcano
Volcano
World ; Your World is Erupting – Oregon State University College of Science 

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