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Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, established on August 1, 1916, is an American National Park located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Hawaii
Hawaii
on the island of Hawaii. It encompasses two active volcanoes: Kīlauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, and Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano. The park delivers scientists insight into the birth of the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
and ongoing studies into the processes of volcanism. For visitors, the park offers dramatic volcanic landscapes as well as glimpses of rare flora and fauna. In recognition of its outstanding natural values, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park was designated as an International Biosphere Reserve
International Biosphere Reserve
in 1980 and a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987.[3] In 2012 the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park was honored on the 14th quarter of the America the Beautiful Quarters series.

Contents

1 Environment 2 History 3 Heads

3.1 Historic places

4 Visitor center and museums 5 Painting of Pele 6 Recent events 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Environment[edit] The park includes 323,431 acres (505.36 sq mi; 1,308.88 km2) of land.[4] Over half of the park is designated the Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes Wilderness area and provides unusual hiking and camping opportunities. The park encompasses diverse environments that range from sea level to the summit of the Earth's most massive active volcano, Mauna Loa
Mauna Loa
at 13,677 feet (4,169 m). Climates range from lush tropical rain forests, to the arid and barren Kaʻū Desert.

Lava erupting from the Puʻu ʻŌʻō
Puʻu ʻŌʻō
vent

Active eruptive sites include the main caldera of Kīlauea
Kīlauea
and a more active but remote vent called Puʻu ʻŌʻō.[5] The main entrance to the park is from the Hawaii
Hawaii
Belt Road. The Chain of Craters Road, as the name implies, leads past several craters from historic eruptions to the coast. It used to continue to another entrance to the park near the town of Kalapana, but that portion is now covered by a lava flow. History[edit] Kīlauea
Kīlauea
and its Halemaʻumaʻu caldera were traditionally considered the sacred home of the volcano goddess Pele, and Hawaiians visited the crater to offer gifts to the goddess. In 1790, a party of warriors (along with women and children who were in the area) were caught in an unusually violent eruption. Many were killed and others left footprints in the lava that can still be seen today.[6] The first western visitors to the site, English missionary William Ellis and American Asa Thurston, went to Kīlauea
Kīlauea
in 1823. Ellis wrote of his reaction to the first sight of the erupting volcano:

A spectacle, sublime and even appalling, presented itself before us. 'We stopped and trembled.' Astonishment and awe for some moments rendered us mute, and, like statues, we stood fixed to the spot, with our eyes riveted on the abyss below.[7]

The volcano became a tourist attraction in the 1840s, and local businessmen such as Benjamin Pitman and George Lycurgus
George Lycurgus
ran a series of hotels at the rim.[8] Volcano
Volcano
House is the only hotel or restaurant located within the borders of the national park. Lorrin A. Thurston, grandson of the American missionary Asa Thurston, was one of the driving forces behind the establishment of the park after investing in the hotel from 1891 to 1904. William R. Castle first proposed the idea in 1903. Thurston, who then owned the Honolulu Advertiser newspaper, printed editorials in favor of the park idea. In 1907, the territory of Hawaii
Hawaii
paid for fifty members of Congress and their wives to visit Haleakala
Haleakala
and Kīlauea. It included a dinner cooked over lava steam vents. In 1908 Thurston entertained Secretary of the Interior James Rudolph Garfield, and in 1909 another congressional delegation. Governor Walter F. Frear
Walter F. Frear
proposed a draft bill in 1911 to create "Kilauea National Park" for $50,000. Thurston and local landowner William Herbert Shipman
William Herbert Shipman
proposed boundaries, but ran into some opposition from ranchers. Thurston printed endorsements from John Muir, Henry Cabot Lodge, and former President Theodore Roosevelt.[9] After several attempts, the legislation introduced by delegate Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole
Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole
finally passed to create the park. House Resolution 9525 was signed by Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
on August 1, 1916. It was the 11th National Park in the United States, and the first in a Territory.[10] Within a few weeks, the National Park Service
National Park Service
Organic Act would create the National Park Service
National Park Service
to run the system.[11] Originally called " Hawaii
Hawaii
National Park", it was split from the Haleakalā
Haleakalā
National Park on September 22, 1961 (75 Stat. 577) to be formally known as Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. An easily accessible lava tube was named for the Thurston family. An undeveloped stretch of the Thurston Lava Tube extends an additional 1,100 ft (340 m) beyond the developed area and dead-ends into the hillside, but it is closed to the general public.

Park map including the Kahuku Ranch on left

In 2004, an additional 115,788 acres (468.58 km2) of Kahuku Ranch were added to the park, making it 56% larger. This was an area west of the town of Waiʻōhinu and east of Ocean View, the largest land acquisition in Hawaii's history. The land was bought for US$21.9 million from the Samuel Mills Damon
Samuel Mills Damon
Estate, with financing from the Nature Conservancy.[4] Heads[edit] National Park superintendents:[12][13]

1922—1922 — Albert O. Burkland 1922—1926 — Thomas Boles 1926—1926 — Albert O. Burkland 1927—1928 — Richard T. Evans 1928—1931 — Thomas J. Allen 1931—1933 — Ernest P. Leavitt 1933—1946 — Edward G. Wingate 1946—1946 — Gunnar O. Fagerlund 1946—1953 — Francis R. Oberhansley 1953—1959 — John B. Wosky 1959—1965 — Fred T. Johnston

1965—1967 — Glen T. Bean 1967—1970 — Daniel J. Tobin 1970—1971 — Gene J. Balaz 1971—1975 — G. Bryan Harry 1975—1978 — Robert D. Barbee 1979—1987 — David B. Ames 1987—1987 — James F. Martin 1987—1993 — Hugo H. Huntzinger 1993—2004 — James F. Martin from 2004 — Cynthia Orlando

Historic places[edit] Several of the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii
Hawaii
are located within the park:

1790 Footprints Ainahou Ranch Ainapo Trail Kilauea Crater Puna-Ka'u Historic District Volcano
Volcano
House Whitney Seismograph Vault No. 29 Wilkes Campsite

Panoramic view of the lava at the end of the Chain of Craters Road, Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park.

Visitor center and museums[edit]

Night view of Halemaʻumaʻu from Jaggar Museum

The main visitor center, located just within the park entrance at 19°25′46″N 155°15′25.5″W / 19.42944°N 155.257083°W / 19.42944; -155.257083, includes displays and information about the features of the park. The nearby Volcano
Volcano
Art Center, located in the original 1877 Volcano
Volcano
House hotel, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and now houses historical displays and an art gallery. The Thomas A. Jaggar Museum, located a few miles west on Crater Rim Drive, features more exhibits and a close view of the Kīlauea's active vent Halemaʻumaʻu. The museum is named after scientist Thomas Jaggar, the first director of the Hawaiian Volcano
Volcano
Observatory, which adjoins the museum. The observatory itself is operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and is not open to the public. Bookstores are located in the main visitor center and the Jaggar Museum.[14] The Kilauea Military Camp provides accommodations for U.S. military personnel.[15] As of 2008[update] the superintendent was Cindy Orlando.[4] Volunteer groups also sponsor events in the park.[16] Painting of Pele[edit]

Arthur Johnsen's Pele

About 1929, D. Howard Hitchcock
D. Howard Hitchcock
made an oil painting of Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, lightning, wind, and volcanoes. In 1966, the artist's son, Harvey, donated the painting to the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, where it was displayed in the visitors' center from 1966 to 2005.[17] The painting was criticized for portraying the Hawaiian goddess as a Caucasian.[17] In 2003, the Volcano
Volcano
Art Center announced a competition for a "more modern and culturally authentic rendering" of the goddess.[18] An anonymous judging panel of Native Hawaiian elders selected a painting by Arthur Johnsen of Pahoa, Hawaii
Hawaii
from 140 entries. In Johnsen's painting, the goddess has distinctly Polynesian features. She is holding a digging stick (ʻōʻō) in her left hand and the egg that gave birth to her younger sister Hiʻiaka in her right hand.[18] In 2005, the Hitchcock was replaced with Johnsen's painting. Recent events[edit] Further information: Halema`uma`u crater

Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
emissions from the Halemaʻumaʻu vent in April, 2008

On March 19, 2008, there was a small explosion in Halemaʻumaʻu crater, the first explosive event since 1924 and the first eruption in the Kīlauea
Kīlauea
caldera since September 1982. Debris from the explosion was scattered over an area of 74 acres (300,000 m2). A small amount of ash was also reported at a nearby community. The explosion covered part of Crater Rim Drive and damaged Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook. The explosion did not release any lava, which suggests to scientists that it was driven by hydrothermal or gas sources.[19] This explosion event followed the opening of a major sulfur dioxide gas vent, greatly increasing levels emitted from the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The dangerous increase of sulfur dioxide gas has prompted closures of Crater Rim Drive between the Jaggar Museum south/southeast to Chain of Craters Road, Crater Rim Trail from Kīlauea
Kīlauea
Military Camp south/southeast to Chain of Craters Road, and all trails leading to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, including those from Byron Ledge, ʻIliahi (Sandalwood) Trail, and Kaʻū Desert Trail.[20]

See also[edit]

Devastation Trail

References[edit]

^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ "Hawai'i's Only World Heritage Site". Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park web site. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  ^ a b c "2008 Business Plan" (PDF). Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  ^ "Kilauea Status Page". HVO. USGS.  ^ Nakamura, Jadelyn (2003). "Keonehelelei – the falling sands" (PDF). Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park Archaeological Inventory of the Footprints Area.  ^ "Early Kilauea Explorations". Hawaii
Hawaii
Nature Notes number 2. National Park Service. November 1953. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23.  ^ "The Volcano
Volcano
House". Hawaii
Hawaii
Nature Notes number 2. National Park Service. November 1953. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23.  ^ "The Park Idea". Hawaii
Hawaii
Nature Notes number 2. National Park Service. November 1953. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23.  ^ "The Final Thrust". Hawaii
Hawaii
Nature Notes number 2. National Park Service. November 1953.  ^ "The National Park Service
National Park Service
Organic Act". statutes of the 64th United States Congress. National Park Service. August 25, 1916.  ^ Historic Listing of National Park Service
National Park Service
Officials: Superintendents of National Park System Areas, Hawaii. Last Modified: 2000. ^ New Superintendent Named For Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park. National Park Service
National Park Service
Press Release: Jan. 5, 2004. ^ "Hawai'i Natural History Association". official web site. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  ^ "Kilauea Military Camp at Kilauea Volcano, a Joint Services Recreation Center". official web site. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  ^ "Friends of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park". official web site. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  ^ a b Rod Thompson (July 13, 2003). "Rendering Pele: Artists gather paints and canvas in effort to be chosen as Pele's portrait maker". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 2010-01-08.  ^ a b Thompson, Rod (August 15, 2003). "Winning Vision of Pele, an Unusual Take". Honolulu Star Bulletin. p. A3.  ^ "Explosive eruption in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, Kilauea Volcano". HVO. USGS. Archived from the original on 2008-03-23.  ^ "Closed Areas". Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park web site. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutHawaiʻi Volcanoes National Parkat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guide from Wikivoyage

"Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-21.  Official Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
website Volcano
Volcano
Gallery: Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park - Local Info Photo Gallery, Volcano
Volcano
Live Cam, Eruption Update and General Park Information. Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. HI-47, "Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Roads, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 6 photos, 20 measured drawings, 116 data pages, 1 photo caption page

HAER No. HI-76, " Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 51 photos, 40 measured drawings, 43 data pages, 5 photo caption pages HAER No. HI-48, "Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 17 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 3 photo caption pages HAER No. HI-48, "Chain of Craters Road, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 7 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 2 photo caption pages HAER No. HI-50, " Mauna Loa
Mauna Loa
Road, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 13 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 2 photo caption pages HAER No. HI-51, "Hilina Pali Road, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 8 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. HI-523, "Namakani Paio Campground, Highway 11, Volcano, Hawaii
Hawaii
County, HI", 6 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page

v t e

Hawaiian volcanism topics (list)

Windward Isles

Lōʻihi Māhukona Hawaiʻi Kīlauea
Kīlauea
( Kīlauea
Kīlauea
Iki, Puʻu ʻŌʻō) Mauna Loa Hualālai Mauna Kea Kohala Kahoʻolawe Kauaʻi Kaʻula Lānaʻi Maui Haleakalā West Maui Molokaʻi Penguin Bank West Molokai
Molokai
Volcano East Molokai
Molokai
Volcano Niʻihau Oʻahu Kaʻena Koʻolau Waiʻanae

Leeward Isles

French Frigate Shoals Gardner Pinnacles Kure Atoll Laysan Lisianski Island Maro Reef Midway Atoll Necker Island Nihoa Pearl and Hermes Atoll

Emperor Seamounts

Abbott Colahan Daikakuji Detroit Hancock Jingu Kammu Kimmei Koko Meiji Nintoku Ojin Suiko Yomei Yuryaku

Topics

1955 Hawaiian submarine eruption ʻAʻā (lava) Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes Haleakalā
Haleakalā
National Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain Hawaiian eruption Hawaiian Volcano
Volcano
Observatory Lava fountain Limu o Pele Pāhoehoe
Pāhoehoe
(lava) Pele's hair Pele's tears

v t e

Protected areas of Hawaii

Federal

National Parks

Haleakalā Hawaiʻi Volcanoes

National Historical Parks & Sites

Kalaupapa NHP Kaloko-Honokōhau NHP Puʻukoholā Heiau NHS Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau NHP

National Monuments

Honouliuli Papahānaumokuākea Marine World War II Valor in the Pacific

National Marine Sanctuary

Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
Humpback Whale

National Wildlife Refuges

Hakalau Forest Hanalei Hawaiian Islands Huleia James Campbell Kakahaia Kealia Pond Kilauea Point Kona Forest Oahu
Oahu
Forest Pearl Harbor

Wilderness Areas

Haleakala Hawaii
Hawaii
Volcanoes

State Parks, Monuments Recreation Areas and Preserves

Hawaiʻi (island)

Akaka Falls State Park Hapuna Beach State Recreation Area Hulihee Palace Kalopa State Recreation Area Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park Kohala Historical Sites State Monument Kona Coast (Kekaha Kai) State Park Kīholo State Park Reserve Lapakahi State Historical Park Lava Tree State Monument MacKenzie State Recreation Area Manuka State Wayside Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
Ice Age Reserve Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
State Recreation Area Old Kona Airport State Recreation Area Wailoa River State Recreation Area Wailuku River State Park

Kaua‘i

Ahukini State Recreation Pier Ha'ena State Park Koke'e State Park Nā Pali Coast State Park Polihale State Park Russian Fort Elizabeth
Russian Fort Elizabeth
State Historical Park Wailua River State Park Waimea Canyon State Park Waimea State Recreational Pier

Maui

Haleki'i-Pihana Heiau State Monument ʻĪao Valley State Monument Kaumahina State Wayside Park Makena State Park Polipoli Spring State Recreation Area Pua'a Ka'a State Wayside Park Wai'anapanapa State Park Wailua Valley State Wayside Park

Moloka‘i

Pala'au State Park

O‘ahu

Ahupua'a O Kahana State Park 'Aiea Bay State Recreation Area Diamond Head State Monument Hanauma Bay
Hanauma Bay
Nature Preserve He‘eia State Park ‘Iolani Palace State Monument Ka'ena Point State Park Kaiwi State Scenic Shoreline Kaka'ako Waterfront Park Kea'iwa Heiau State Recreation Area Kewalo Basin Kukaniloko Birthstones State Monument La'ie Point State Wayside Makapu‘u Point State Wayside Malaekahana State Recreation Area Nu'uanu Pali State Wayside Pu'u o Mahuka Heiau State Monument Pu'u 'Ualaka'a State Wayside Queen Emma Summer Palace Royal Mausoleum State Monument Sacred Falls State Park Sand Island State Recreation Area Ulupo Heiau State Historic Site Wa'ahila Ridge State Recreation Area Wahiawa Freshwater State Recreation Area

Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources

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National parks of the United States

Acadia American Samoa Arches Badlands Big Bend Biscayne Black Canyon of the Gunnison Bryce Canyon Canyonlands Capitol Reef Carlsbad Caverns Channel Islands Congaree Crater Lake Cuyahoga Valley Death Valley Denali Dry Tortugas Everglades Gates of the Arctic Gateway Arch Glacier Glacier Bay Grand Canyon Grand Teton Great Basin Great Sand Dunes Great Smoky Mountains Guadalupe Mountains Haleakalā Hawaiʻi Volcanoes Hot Springs Isle Royale Joshua Tree Katmai Kenai Fjords Kings Canyon Kobuk Valley Lake Clark Lassen Volcanic Mammoth Cave Mesa Verde Mount Rainier North Cascades Olympic Petrified Forest Pinnacles Redwood Rocky Mountain Saguaro Sequoia Shenandoah Theodore Roosevelt Virgin Islands Voyageurs Wind Cave Wrangell–St. Elias Yellowstone Yosemite Zion

List of national parks of the United States
List of national parks of the United States
(by elevation)

v t e

World Heritage Sites in the United States

Northeast

Independence Hall Statue of Liberty

Midwest

Cahokia

South

Everglades Great Smoky Mountains Mammoth Cave Monticello
Monticello
and the University of Virginia Poverty Point San Antonio Missions

West

Carlsbad Caverns Chaco Culture National Historical Park Grand Canyon National Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kluane-Wrangell–St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek1 Mesa Verde Olympic National Park Pueblo de Taos Papahānaumokuākea Redwood Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park1 Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park

Territories

La Fortaleza
La Fortaleza
and San Juan National Historic Site

1 Shared with Canada

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154981137 ISNI: 0000 0004 1794 4

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