HAWAIʻI VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK, established on August 1, 1916, is
an American National Park located in the
In recognition of its outstanding natural values, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes
National Park was designated as an
International Biosphere Reserve in
1980 and a
World Heritage Site
* 1 Environment * 2 History
* 3 Heads
* 3.1 Historic places
* 4 Visitor center and museums * 5 Painting of Pele * 6 Recent events * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
The park includes 323,431 acres (505.36 sq mi; 1,308.88 km2) of land.
Over half of the park is designated the
The main entrance to the park is from the
Kīlauea and its Halemaʻumaʻu caldera were traditionally considered the sacred home of the volcano goddess Pele , and Hawaiians visited the crater to offer gifts to the goddess.
In 1790, a party of warriors (along with women and children who were in the area) were caught in an unusually violent eruption. Many were killed and others left footprints in the lava that can still be seen today.
A spectacle, sublime and even appalling, presented itself before us. 'We stopped and trembled.' Astonishment and awe for some moments rendered us mute, and, like statues, we stood fixed to the spot, with our eyes riveted on the abyss below.
The volcano became a tourist attraction in the 1840s, and local
businessmen such as Benjamin Pitman and
George Lycurgus ran a series
of hotels at the rim.
Lorrin A. Thurston , grandson of the American missionary Asa
Thurston, was one of the driving forces behind the establishment of
the park after investing in the hotel from 1891 to 1904. William R.
Castle first proposed the idea in 1903. Thurston, who then owned the
Honolulu Advertiser newspaper, printed editorials in favor of the park
idea. In 1907, the territory of
Within a few weeks, the
National Park Service
An easily accessible lava tube was named for the Thurston family. An undeveloped stretch of the Thurston Lava Tube extends an additional 1,100 ft (340 m) beyond the developed area and dead-ends into the hillside, but it is closed to the general public. Park map including the Kahuku Ranch on left
In 2004, an additional 115,788 acres (468.58 km2) of Kahuku Ranch were added to the park, making it 56% larger. This was an area west of the town of Waiʻōhinu and east of Ocean View , the largest land acquisition in Hawaii's history. The land was bought for US$21.9 million from the Samuel Mills Damon Estate, with financing from the Nature Conservancy .
National Park superintendеnts :
* 1922—1922 — Albert O. Burkland * 1922—1926 — Thomas Boles * 1926—1926 — Albert O. Burkland * 1927—1928 — Richard T. Evans * 1928—1931 — Thomas J. Allen * 1931—1933 — Ernest P. Leavitt * 1933—1946 — Edward G. Wingate * 1946—1946 — Gunnar O. Fagerlund * 1946—1953 — Francis R. Oberhansley * 1953—1959 — John B. Wosky * 1959—1965 — Fred T. Johnston
* 1965—1967 — Glen T. Bean * 1967—1970 — Daniel J. Tobin * 1970—1971 — Gene J. Balaz * 1971—1975 — G. Bryan Harry * 1975—1978 — Robert D. Barbee * 1979—1987 — David B. Ames * 1987—1987 — James F. Martin * 1987—1993 — Hugo H. Huntzinger * 1993—2004 — James F. Martin * from 2004 — Cynthia Orlando
Several of the National Register of Historic Places listings on the
Panoramic view of the lava at the end of the Chain of Craters
VISITOR CENTER AND MUSEUMS
Night view of Halemaʻumaʻu from Jaggar Museum
The main visitor center, located just within the park entrance at
19°25′46″N 155°15′25.5″W / 19.42944°N
155.257083°W / 19.42944; -155.257083 , includes displays and
information about the features of the park. The nearby
Thomas A. Jaggar Museum , located a few miles west on Crater Rim
Drive, features more exhibits and a close view of the Kīlauea's
active vent Halemaʻumaʻu . The museum is named after scientist
Thomas Jaggar , the first director of the Hawaiian
Bookstores are located in the main visitor center and the Jaggar Museum. The Kilauea Military Camp provides accommodations for U.S. military personnel.
As of 2008 the superintendent was Cindy Orlando. Volunteer groups also sponsor events in the park.
PAINTING OF PELE
Arthur Johnsen's Pele
D. Howard Hitchcock
In 2003, the
For more details on this topic, see Halema`uma`u crater . Sulfur dioxide emissions from the Halemaʻumaʻu vent in April, 2008
On March 19, 2008, there was a small explosion in Halemaʻumaʻu crater, the first explosive event since 1924 and the first eruption in the Kīlauea caldera since September 1982. Debris from the explosion was scattered over an area of 74 acres (300,000 m2). A small amount of ash was also reported at a nearby community. The explosion covered part of Crater Rim Drive and damaged Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook. The explosion did not release any lava, which suggests to scientists that it was driven by hydrothermal or gas sources.
This explosion event followed the opening of a major sulfur dioxide gas vent, greatly increasing levels emitted from the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The dangerous increase of sulfur dioxide gas has prompted closures of Crater Rim Drive between the Jaggar Museum south/southeast to Chain of Craters Road, Crater Rim Trail from Kīlauea Military Camp south/southeast to Chain of Craters Road, and all trails leading to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, including those from Byron Ledge, ʻIliahi (Sandalwood) Trail, and Kaʻū Desert Trail.
* ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource
Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
* ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service.
* ^ "Hawai\'i\'s Only World Heritage Site". Hawai'i Volcanoes
National Park web site. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
* ^ A B C "2008 Business Plan" (PDF).
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