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Haut-Rhin (, ; Alsatian: ''Owerelsàss'' or ';. german: Oberelsass, ) is a department in the
Grand Est Grand Est (; gsw-als, Grossa Oschta; Moselle Franconian/ lb, Grouss Osten; Rhine Franconian: ''Groß Oschte''; german: Großer Osten ; en, Greater East, italic=yes) is an administrative region in Northeastern France France (), offic ...
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( environmental geography). Geographic ...
of France, named after the river
Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Director ...

Rhine
. Its name means '' Upper Rhine''. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departments of the former administrative
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2017, i ...

Alsace
region, the other being the
Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a Departments of France, department in Alsace which is a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name mea ...
( Lower Rhine). Especially after the 1871 cession of the southern territory known since 1922 as Territoire de Belfort, although it is still densely populated compared to the rest of
metropolitan France Metropolitan France (french: France métropolitaine or ''la Métropole''), also known as European France, is the area of the French Republic which is geographically in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several lar ...
. On 1 January 2021, the departments of
Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a Departments of France, department in Alsace which is a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name mea ...
and Haut-Rhin have merged into the European Collectivity of Alsace.


Subdivisions

The department consists of the following '' arrondissements'': * Altkirch * Colmar-Ribeauvillé *
Mulhouse Mulhouse (; Alsatian: or , ; ; meaning ''Mill (grinding), mill house'') is a Subprefectures in France, subprefecture of the Haut-Rhin Departments of France, department in the Grand Est Regions of France, region of Eastern France, close to the ...
* Thann-Guebwiller


History

Haut-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments, created during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Brumaire, November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles ...
, on 4 March 1790 through the application of the law of 22 December 1789 in respect of the southern half of the
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outs ...
of
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2017, i ...

Alsace
( Haute-Alsace). Its boundaries have been modified many times: * 1798, it absorbed Mulhouse, formerly a City-state, free city, and the last Switzerland, Swiss enclave in the south of Alsace; * 1800, it absorbed the whole ''département'' of Mont-Terrible; * 1814, it lost the territories which had been part of Mont-Terrible, which were returned to Switzerland, except for the old principality of Montbéliard; * 1816, it lost Montbéliard, which was transferred to the ''département'' of Doubs (department), Doubs; * 1871, it was mostly annexed by Germany (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), Treaty of Frankfurt). The remaining French part formed the Territoire de Belfort in 1922; * 1919, it was reverted to France (Treaty of Versailles) but remains administratively separated from Belfort. * 1940, it was annexed de facto by Nazi Germany. * 1944, it was recovered by France.


Geography

Haut-Rhin is bordered by the Territoire de Belfort and Vosges (department), Vosges ''départements'' and the Vosges Mountains to the west, the
Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a Departments of France, department in Alsace which is a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name mea ...
''département'' to the North, Switzerland to the south and its eastern border with Germany is also the
Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Director ...

Rhine
. In the centre of the ''département'' lies a fertile plain. The climate is semi-continental.


Demographics

Population development since 1801:


Economy

Haut-Rhin is one of the richest French ''départements''. Mulhouse is the home of a Peugeot automobile factory, manufacturing the 106 and 206 models. The lowest unemployment rate in France can be found in the Southern Sundgau region (approximately 2%). The countryside is marked by hills. Many ''Haut-Rhinois'' work in Switzerland, especially in the chemical industries of Basel, but commute from France where living costs are lower.


Law

Alsace and the adjacent Moselle (department), Moselle department have a Local law in Alsace-Moselle, legal system slightly different from the rest of France. The statutes in question date from the period 1871 - 1919 when the area was part of the German Empire. With the Treaty of Versailles, return of Alsace-Lorraine to France in 1919, Paris accepted that Alsace and Moselle should retain some local laws in respect of certain matters, especially with regard to hunting, economic life, local government relationships, health insurance and social rights. It includes notably the absence of any Laïcité, formal separation between church and state: several mainstream denominations of the Christian church benefit from state funding, in contrast to principles applied in the rest of France.


Politics


Current National Assembly Representatives


Tourism

File:Mulhouse - Town hall.jpg, Mulhouse town hall File:Colmar - Alsace.jpg, Colmar File:67-Riquewihr-arcade.jpg, Riquewihr File:2012-11-16 16-00-31-vallee-doller.jpg, View from the Ballon d'Alsace File:Hunawihr1P7.jpg, Hunawihr and Alsace wine, Alsatian vineyards


Culture

* Alsatian language


See also

*Cantons of the Haut-Rhin department *Communes of the Haut-Rhin department *Arrondissements of the Haut-Rhin department


References


External links

*
General Council website
*
Prefecture website
* {{Authority control Haut-Rhin, 1790 establishments in France Grand Est region articles needing translation from French Wikipedia Departments of Grand Est