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Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
(June 10, 1895 – October 26, 1952) was an American stage actress, professional singer-songwriter, and comedian. She is best known for her role as "Mammy" in Gone with the Wind (1939), for which she won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress, the first Academy Award
Academy Award
won by an African American entertainer. In addition to acting in many films, McDaniel was a radio performer and television star; she was the first black woman to sing on radio in the United States.[1][2] She appeared in over 300 films, although she received screen credits for only 80 or so.[3] McDaniel has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
in Hollywood: one at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood Boulevard
for her contributions to radio and one at 1719 Vine Street for acting in motion pictures. In 1975, she was inducted into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame and in 2006 became the first black Oscar winner honored with a US postage stamp.[4]

Contents

1 Background and early acting career

1.1 Gone with the Wind 1.2 1940 Academy Awards

2 Later career 3 Legal case: Victory on "Sugar Hill" 4 Controversy over roles 5 Community service 6 Marriages 7 Death 8 Whereabouts of the McDaniel Oscar 9 Legacy and recognition 10 Filmography

10.1 Features 10.2 Short subjects

11 Radio
Radio
appearances 12 Discography 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Background and early acting career[edit]

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McDaniel was born to former slaves on June 10, 1895, in Wichita, Kansas. She was the youngest of 13 children. Her mother, Susan Holbert (1850–1920), was a singer of religious music, and her father, Henry McDaniel (1845–1922), fought in the Civil War with the 122nd United States Colored Troops.[5] In 1900, the family moved to Colorado, living first in Fort Collins
Fort Collins
and then in Denver, where Hattie graduated from Denver
Denver
East High School. Her brother, Sam McDaniel (1886–1962), played the butler in the 1948 Three Stooges’ short film Heavenly Daze. Her sister Etta McDaniel
Etta McDaniel
was also an actress. McDaniel was a songwriter as well as a performer. She honed her songwriting skills while working with her brother's minstrel show. After the death of her brother Otis in 1916, the troupe began to lose money, and Hattie did not get her next big break until 1920. From 1920 to 1925, she appeared with Professor George Morrison's Melody Hounds, a black touring ensemble. In the mid-1920s, she embarked on a radio career, singing with the Melody Hounds on station KOA in Denver.[6] From 1926 to 1929, she recorded many of her songs for Okeh Records[7] and Paramount Records[8] in Chicago. McDaniel recorded seven sessions: one in the summer of 1926 on the rare Kansas City label Meritt; four sessions in Chicago
Chicago
for Okeh from late 1926 to late 1927 (of the 10 sides recorded, only four were issued), and two sessions in Chicago for Paramount in March 1929. After the stock market crashed in 1929, McDaniel could find work only as a washroom attendant and waitress at Club Madrid in Milwaukee. Despite the owner's reluctance to let her perform, she was eventually allowed to take the stage and soon became a regular performer. In 1931, McDaniel moved to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to join her brother and two sisters. When she could not get film work, she took jobs as a maid or cook. Sam was working on a KNX radio program, The Optimistic Do-Nut Hour, and was able to get his sister a spot. She performed on radio as "Hi-Hat Hattie", a bossy maid who often "forgets her place". Her show became popular, but her salary was so low that she had to continue working as a maid. She made her first film appearance in The Golden West (1932), in which she played a maid. Her second appearance came in the highly successful Mae West
Mae West
film I'm No Angel
I'm No Angel
(1933), in which she played one of the black maids with whom West camped it up backstage. She received several other uncredited film roles in the early 1930s, often singing in choruses. In 1934, McDaniel joined the Screen Actors Guild. She began to attract attention and landed larger film roles, which began to win her screen credits. Fox Film Corporation
Fox Film Corporation
put her under contract to appear in The Little Colonel (1935), with Shirley Temple, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Lionel Barrymore. Judge Priest
Judge Priest
(1934), directed by John Ford
John Ford
and starring Will Rogers, was the first film in which she played a major role. She had a leading part in the film and demonstrated her singing talent, including a duet with Rogers. McDaniel and Rogers became friends during filming. In 1935, McDaniel had prominent roles, as a slovenly maid in Alice Adams (RKO Pictures); a comic part as Jean Harlow's maid and traveling companion in China Seas (MGM) (McDaniels's first film with Clark Gable); and as the maid Isabella in Murder by Television, with Béla Lugosi. She appeared in the 1938 film Vivacious Lady, starring James Stewart and Ginger Rogers. McDaniel had a featured role as Queenie in the 1936 film Show Boat (Universal Pictures), starring Allan Jones and Irene Dunne, in which she sang a verse of Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man with Dunne, Helen Morgan, Paul Robeson, and a black chorus. She and Robeson sang "I Still Suits Me", written for the film by Kern and Hammerstein. After Show Boat, she had major roles in MGM's Saratoga (1937), starring Jean Harlow
Jean Harlow
and Clark Gable; The Shopworn Angel
The Shopworn Angel
(1938), with Margaret Sullavan; and The Mad Miss Manton
The Mad Miss Manton
(1938), starring Barbara Stanwyck and Henry Fonda. She had a minor role in the Carole Lombard–Frederic March film Nothing Sacred (1937), in which she played the wife of a shoeshine man (Troy Brown) masquerading as a sultan. McDaniel was a friend of many of Hollywood's most popular stars, including Joan Crawford, Tallulah Bankhead, Bette Davis, Shirley Temple, Henry Fonda, Ronald Reagan, Olivia de Havilland, and Clark Gable. She starred with de Havilland and Gable in Gone with the Wind (1939). Around this time, she was criticized by members of the black community for the roles she accepted and for pursuing roles aggressively rather than rocking the Hollywood boat. For example, in The Little Colonel (1935), she played one of the black servants longing to return to the Old South, but her portrayal of Malena in RKO Pictures's Alice Adams angered white Southern audiences, because she stole several scenes from the film's white star, Katharine Hepburn. McDaniel ultimately became best known for playing a sassy and opinionated maid. Gone with the Wind[edit] The competition to win the part of Mammy in Gone with the Wind was almost as fierce as that for Scarlett O'Hara. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt wrote to film producer David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
to ask that her own maid, Elizabeth McDuffie, be given the part.[9] McDaniel did not think she would be chosen because she had earned her reputation as a comic actress. One source claimed that Clark Gable
Clark Gable
recommended that the role be given to McDaniel; in any case, she went to her audition dressed in an authentic maid's uniform and won the part.[10] Upon hearing of the planned film adaptation, the NAACP
NAACP
fought hard to require the film's producer and director to delete racial epithets from the movie (in particular the offensive slur "nigger") and to alter scenes that might be incendiary and that, in their view, were historically inaccurate. Of particular concern was a scene from the novel in which black men attack Scarlett O'Hara, after which the Ku Klux Klan, with its long history of provoking terror on black communities, is presented as a savior.[11] Throughout the South, black men were being lynched based upon false allegations they had harmed white women. That attack scene was altered, and some offensive language was modified, but another epithet, "darkie", remained in the film, and the film's message with respect to slavery remained essentially the same. Consistent with the book, the film's screenplay also referred to poor whites as "white trash", and it ascribed these words equally to characters black and white.[12] Loew's Grand Theater on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia
was selected by the studio as the site for the Friday, December 15, 1939 premiere of Gone with the Wind. Studio head David Selznick asked that McDaniel be permitted to attend, but MGM
MGM
advised him not to, because of Georgia's segregation laws. Clark Gable
Clark Gable
threatened to boycott the Atlanta premiere unless McDaniel were allowed to attend, but McDaniel convinced him to attend anyway.[13] Most of Atlanta's 300,000 citizens crowded the route of the seven-mile (11 km) motorcade that carried the film's other stars and executives from the airport to the Georgian Terrace Hotel, where they stayed.[14][15] While Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
kept McDaniel from the Atlanta premiere, she did attend the film's Hollywood debut on December 28, 1939. Upon Selznick's insistence, her picture was also featured prominently in the program.[16] For her performance as the house slave who repeatedly scolds her owner's daughter, Scarlett O'Hara
Scarlett O'Hara
(Vivien Leigh), and scoffs at Rhett Butler (Clark Gable), McDaniel won the 1939 Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress, the first black American to win an Oscar. She was the first black American to have been nominated. "I loved Mammy," McDaniel said when speaking to the white press about the character. "I think I understood her because my own grandmother worked on a plantation not unlike Tara."[17] Her role in Gone with the Wind had alarmed some whites in the South; there were complaints that in the film she had been too "familiar" with her white owners.[18] At least one writer pointed out that McDaniel's character did not significantly depart from Mammy's persona in Margaret Mitchell's novel, and that in both the film and the book, the much younger Scarlett speaks to Mammy in ways that would be deemed inappropriate for a Southern teenager of that era to speak to a much older white person, and that neither the book nor the film hints of the existence of Mammy's own children (dead or alive), her own family (dead or alive), a real name, or her desires to have anything other than a life at Tara, serving on a slave plantation.[19] Moreover, while Mammy scolds the younger Scarlett, she never crosses Mrs. O'Hara, the more senior white woman in the household.[19] Some critics felt that McDaniel not only accepted the roles but also in her statements to the press acquiesced in Hollywood's stereotypes, providing fuel for critics of those who were fighting for black civil rights.[19] Later, when McDaniel tried to take her "Mammy" character on a road show, black audiences did not prove receptive.[20] While many blacks were happy over McDaniel's personal victory, they also viewed it as bittersweet. They believed Gone With the Wind celebrated the slave system and condemned the forces that destroyed it.[21] For them, the unique accolade McDaniel had won suggested that only those who did not protest Hollywood's systemic use of racial stereotypes could find work and success there.[21] 1940 Academy Awards[edit] The Twelfth Academy Awards
Academy Awards
took place at the Coconut Grove Restaurant of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. It was preceded by a banquet in the same room. Louella Parsons, an American gossip columnist, wrote about Oscar night, February 29, 1940:

Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
earned that gold Oscar by her fine performance of 'Mammy' in Gone with the Wind. If you had seen her face when she walked up to the platform and took the gold trophy, you would have had the choke in your voice that all of us had when Hattie, hair trimmed with gardenias, face alight, and dress up to the queen's taste, accepted the honor in one of the finest speeches ever given on the Academy floor.

“ Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, fellow members of the motion picture industry and honored guests: This is one of the happiest moments of my life, and I want to thank each one of you who had a part in selecting me for one of their awards, for your kindness. It has made me feel very, very humble; and I shall always hold it as a beacon for anything that I may be able to do in the future. I sincerely hope I shall always be a credit to my race and to the motion picture industry. My heart is too full to tell you just how I feel, and may I say thank you and God bless you.[22][23] ”

— From McDaniel's acceptance speech, 12th Annual Academy Awards, February 29, 1940

McDaniel received a plaque-style Oscar, approximately 5.5 inches (14 cm) by 6 inches (15 cm), the type awarded to all Best Supporting Actors and Actresses at that time.[24] She and her escort were required to sit at a segregated table for two at the far wall of the room; her white agent, William Meiklejohn, sat at the same table. The hotel had a strict no-blacks policy, but allowed McDaniel in as a favor.[25][26] Gone with the Wind won eight Academy Awards. It was later named by the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
(AFI) as number four among the top 100 American films of all time in the 1998 ranking and number six in the 2007 ranking.[27] Later career[edit] In the 1942 Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
film In This Our Life, starring Bette Davis and directed by John Huston, McDaniel once again played a domestic, but one who confronts racial issues when her son, a law student, is wrongly accused of manslaughter. The following year, McDaniel was in Warner Bros' Thank Your Lucky Stars, with Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
and Bette Davis. In its review of the film, Time wrote that McDaniel was comic relief in an otherwise "grim study," writing, "Hattie McDaniel, whose bubbling, blaring good humor more than redeems the roaring bad taste of a Harlem number called Ice Cold Katie".[28] McDaniel continued to play maids during the war years, in Warner Bros' The Male Animal
The Male Animal
(1942) and United Artists' Since You Went Away
Since You Went Away
(1944), but her feistiness was toned down to reflect the era's somber news. She also played the maid in Song of the South.

McDaniel as Beulah 1951, the year before her death

She made her last film appearances in Mickey (1948) and Family Honeymoon (1949), where that same year, she appeared on the live CBS television program The Ed Wynn Show. She remained active on radio and television in her final years, becoming the first black American to star in her own radio show with the comedy series Beulah. She also starred in the ABC television version of the show, replacing Ethel Waters after the first season. (Waters had apparently expressed concerns over stereotypes in the role.) Beulah was a hit, however, and earned McDaniel $2,000 a week. But the show was controversial. In 1951, the United States Army ceased broadcasting Beulah in Asia because troops complained that the show perpetuated negative stereotypes of black men as shiftless and lazy and interfered with the ability of black troops to perform their mission.[29] After filming a handful of episodes, however, McDaniel learned she had breast cancer. By the spring of 1952, she was too ill to work and was replaced by Louise Beavers.[30] Legal case: Victory on "Sugar Hill"[edit] McDaniel was the most famous of the black homeowners who helped to organize the black West Adams neighborhood residents who saved their homes. Loren Miller, an attorney and the owner and publisher of the California Eagle
California Eagle
newspaper, represented the minority homeowners in their restrictive covenant case.[31] In 1944, Miller won the case Fairchild v Rainers, a decision in favor of a black family in Pasadena, California, who had bought a nonrestricted lot but was sued by white neighbors anyway. Time magazine, in its issue of December 17, 1945, reported that

Spacious, well-kept West Adams Heights still had the complacent look of the days when most of Los Angeles' aristocracy lived there....

In 1938, Negroes, willing and able to pay $15,000 and up for Heights property, had begun moving into the old eclectic mansions. Many were movie folk — Actresses Louise Beavers, Hattie McDaniel, Ethel Waters, etc. They improved their holdings, kept their well-defined ways, quickly won more than tolerance from most of their white neighbors.

But some whites, refusing to be comforted, had referred to the original racial restriction covenant that came with the development of West Adams Heights back in 1902 which restricted "Non-caucasians" from owning property. For seven years they had tried to enforce it, but failed. Then they went to court....

Superior Judge Thurmond Clarke decided to visit the disputed ground—popularly known as "Sugar Hill." ... Next morning, ... Judge Clarke threw the case out of court. His reason: "It is time that members of the Negro race are accorded, without reservations or evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Judges have been avoiding the real issue too long."

Said Hattie McDaniel, of West Adams Heights: "Words cannot express my appreciation."[32]

McDaniel had purchased her white, two-story, seventeen-room house in 1942. The house included a large living room, dining room, drawing room, den, butler's pantry, kitchen, service porch, library, four bedrooms and a basement. McDaniel had a yearly Hollywood party. Everyone knew that the king of Hollywood, Clark Gable, could always be found at McDaniel's parties.[33] Controversy over roles[edit] As her fame grew, McDaniel faced growing criticism from some members of the black community. Groups such as the NAACP
NAACP
complained that Hollywood stereotypes not only restricted blacks to servant roles but often portrayed blacks as lazy, dim-witted, satisfied with lowly positions, or violent. In addition to addressing the studios, they called upon actors, and especially leading black actors, to pressure studios to offer more substantive roles and at least not pander to stereotypes. They also argued that these portrayals were unfair as well as inaccurate and that, coupled with segregation and other forms of discrimination, such stereotypes were making it difficult for all blacks, not only actors, to overcome racism and succeed in the entertainment industry.[34] Some attacked McDaniel for being an "Uncle Tom"—a person willing to advance personally by perpetuating racial stereotypes or being an agreeable agent of offensive racial restrictions.[35] McDaniel characterized these challenges as class-based biases against domestics, a claim that white columnists seemed to accept. And she reportedly said, "Why should I complain about making $700 a week playing a maid? If I didn't, I'd be making $7 a week being one."[36] McDaniel may also have been criticized because, unlike many other black entertainers, she was not associated with civil rights protests and was largely absent from efforts to establish a commercial base for independent black films. She did not join the Negro Actors Guild of America until 1947, late in her career.[37] McDaniel hired one of the few white agents who would represent black actors in those days, William Meiklejohn, to advance her career.[38] Evidence suggests her avoidance of political controversy was deliberate. When columnist Hedda Hopper
Hedda Hopper
sent her Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
placards and asked McDaniel to distribute them, McDaniel declined, replying she had long ago decided to stay out of politics. "Beulah is everybody's friend," she said.[37] Since she was earning a living honestly, she added, she should not be criticized for accepting such work as was offered. Her critics, especially Walter White of the NAACP, claimed that she and other actors who agreed to portray stereotypes were not a neutral force but rather willing agents of black oppression. McDaniel and other black actresses and actors feared that their roles would evaporate if the NAACP
NAACP
and other Hollywood critics complained too loudly.[39] She blamed these critics for hindering her career and sought the help of allies of doubtful reputation. After speaking with McDaniel, Hedda Hopper
Hedda Hopper
even claimed that McDaniel's career troubles were not the result of racism but had been caused by McDaniel's "own people".[40] Community service[edit]

McDaniel leading entertainers and hostesses to Minter Field for a performance and dance for World War II
World War II
soldiers

During World War II, she served as chairman of the Negro Division of the Hollywood Victory Committee, providing entertainment for soldiers stationed at military bases. (The military was segregated, and black entertainers were not allowed to serve on white entertainment committees.) She elicited the help of a friend, the actor Leigh Whipper, and other black entertainers for her committee. She made numerous personal appearances at military hospitals, threw parties, and performed at United Service Organizations
United Service Organizations
(USO) shows and war bond rallies to raise funds to support the war on behalf of the Victory Committee.[41][42] Bette Davis
Bette Davis
was the only white member of McDaniel's acting troupe to perform for black regiments; Lena Horne
Lena Horne
and Ethel Waters also participated.[43] McDaniel was also a member of American Women's Voluntary Services.[44] She joined the actor Clarence Muse, one of the first black members of the Screen Actors Guild, in an NBC
NBC
radio broadcast to raise funds for Red Cross
Red Cross
relief programs for Americans that had been displaced by devastating floods, and she gained a reputation for generosity, lending money to friends and strangers alike.[45] Marriages[edit] McDaniel married Howard Hickman at age 15 on January 19, 1911, in Denver, Colorado. He died in 1915. Her second husband, George Langford, died of a gunshot wound in January 1925, soon after she married him and while her career was on the rise. She married James Lloyd Crawford, a real estate salesman, on March 21, 1941, in Tucson, Arizona. According to Donald Bogle, in his book Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams, McDaniel happily confided to gossip columnist Hedda Hopper
Hedda Hopper
in 1945 that she was pregnant. McDaniel began buying baby clothes and set up a nursery in her house. Her plans were shattered when she suffered a false pregnancy and fell into a depression. She never had any children. She divorced Crawford in 1945, after four and a half years of marriage. Crawford had been jealous of her career success, she said, and once threatened to kill her.[46] She married Larry Williams, an interior decorator, on June 11, 1949, in Yuma, Arizona, but divorced him in 1950 after testifying that their five months together had been marred by "arguing and fussing." McDaniel broke down in tears when she testified that her husband tried to provoke dissension in the cast of her radio show and otherwise interfered with her work. "I haven't gotten over it yet," she said. "I got so I couldn't sleep. I couldn't concentrate on my lines."[47][48] Death[edit]

Cenotaph
Cenotaph
at Hollywood Forever Cemetery

Grave of McDaniel at Angelus Rosedale Cemetery

In August, 1950, McDaniel suffered a heart ailment and entered Temple Hospital in semi-critical condition. She was released in October to recuperate at home, and she was cited by United Press on Jan. 3, 1951, as showing "slight improvement in her recovery from a mild stroke." McDaniel died of breast cancer at age 57 on October 26, 1952, in the hospital on the grounds of the Motion Picture House in Woodland Hills, California. She was survived by her brother Sam McDaniel. Thousands of mourners turned out to celebrate her life and achievements. In her will, McDaniel wrote, "I desire a white casket and a white shroud; white gardenias in my hair and in my hands, together with a white gardenia blanket and a pillow of red roses. I also wish to be buried in the Hollywood Cemetery";[49] Hollywood Cemetery, on Santa Monica Boulevard in Hollywood, is the resting place of movie stars such as Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
and Rudolph Valentino. Its owner at the time, Jules Roth, refused to allow her to be buried there, because, at the time of McDaniel's death, the cemetery practiced racial segregation and would not accept the remains of black people for burial. Her second choice was Rosedale Cemetery (now known as Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery), where she lies today.[50] In 1999, Tyler Cassidy, the new owner of the Hollywood Cemetery (renamed the Hollywood Forever Cemetery), offered to have McDaniel re-interred there. Her family did not wish to disturb her remains and declined the offer. Instead, Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
built a large cenotaph on the lawn overlooking its lake. It is one of Hollywood's most popular tourist attractions.[51] McDaniel's last will and testament of December 1951 bequeathed her Oscar to Howard University, where she had been honored by the students with a luncheon after she had won her Oscar.[52] At the time of her death, McDaniel would have had few options. Very few white institutions in that day preserved black history. Historically, black colleges had been where such artifacts were placed.[53] Despite evidence McDaniel had earned an excellent income as an actress, her final estate was less than $10,000. The IRS claimed the estate owed more than $11,000 in taxes. In the end, the probate court ordered all of her property, including her Oscar, sold to pay off creditors.[54] Years later, the Oscar turned up where McDaniel wanted it to be: Howard University, where, according to reports, it was displayed in a glass case in the university's drama department.[55] Whereabouts of the McDaniel Oscar[edit] The whereabouts of McDaniel's Oscar are currently unknown.[56] In 1992, Jet magazine reported that Howard University
Howard University
could not find it and alleged that it had disappeared during protests in the 1960s.[57] In 1998, Howard University
Howard University
stated that it could find no written record of the Oscar having arrived at Howard.[58] In 2007, an article in the Huffington Post repeated rumors that the Oscar had been cast into the Potomac River
Potomac River
by angry civil rights protesters in the 1960s.[59] The assertion reappeared in the Huffington Post under the same byline in 2009. In 2010, Mo'Nique, the winner of the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress, wearing a blue dress and gardenias in her hair, as McDaniel had at the ceremony in 1940, in her acceptance speech thanked McDaniel "for enduring all that she had to so that I would not have to".[60] Her speech revived interest in the whereabouts of McDaniel's plaque. In 2011, J. Freedom duLac reported in the Washington Post that the plaque had disappeared in the 1960s.[61] In November 2011, W. B. Carter, of the George Washington University Law School, published the results of her year-and-a-half-long investigation into the Oscar's fate.[62] Carter rejected claims that students had stolen the Oscar (and thrown it in the Potomac River) as wild speculation or fabrication that traded on long-perpetuated stereotypes of blacks.[62] She questioned the sourcing of the Huffington Post stories. Instead, she argued that the Oscar was likely returned to Howard University's Channing Pollack Theater Collection between the spring of 1971 and the summer of 1973 or had possibly been boxed and stored in the drama department at that time.[62] The reason for its removal, she argued, was not civil rights unrest but rather efforts to make room for a new generation of black performers.[62] If neither the Oscar nor any paper trail of its ultimate destiny can be found at Howard today, she suggested, inadequate storage or record-keeping in a time of financial constraints and national turbulence may be blamed. She also suggested that a new generation of caretakers may have failed to realize the historic significance of the 5 1/2" x 6" plaque.[62] Legacy and recognition[edit]

Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
for contributions to radio at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard.

McDaniel has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
in Hollywood: one at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood Boulevard
for her contributions to radio and one at 1719 Vine Street for motion pictures.[63] In 1975, she was inducted posthumously into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame.[64] In 1994, the actress and singer Karla Burns launched her one-woman show Hi-Hat-Hattie (written by Larry Parr), about McDaniel's life. Burns went on to perform the role in several other cities through 2002, including Off-Broadway and the Long Beach Playhouse Studio Theatre in California.[65] In 2002, McDaniel's legacy was celebrated in American Movie Classics's (AMC) film Beyond Tara, The Extraordinary Life of Hattie McDaniel (2001), produced and directed by Madison D. Lacy and hosted by Whoopi Goldberg. This one-hour special depicted McDaniel's struggles and triumphs in the presence of rampant racism and brutal adversity. The film won the 2001–2002 Daytime Emmy Award, presented on May 17, 2002, for Outstanding Special
Special
Class Special.[66] McDaniel was the 29th inductee in the Black Heritage Series by the United States Postal Service. Her 39-cent stamp was released on January 29, 2006, featuring a 1941 photograph of McDaniel in the dress she wore to accept the Academy Award
Academy Award
in 1940.[67][68] The ceremony took place at the Margaret Herrick Library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, where the Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
collection includes photographs of McDaniel and other family members as well as scripts and other documents.[36] The American rapper Nas
Nas
pays tribute to McDaniel in his song "Blunt Ashes," from his eighth studio album, released December 15, 2006. " Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
Day" was celebrated on August 16, 2011, by the national GLBT
GLBT
radio station OutQ (Sirius XM) on the Frank Decaro Show. Kevin John Goff, McDaniel's great-grandnephew, is currently developing a series of components on McDaniel's life. The actress Mo’Nique
Mo’Nique
paid homage to Miss McDaniel when accepting her Best Supporting Actress Academy Award
Academy Award
for Precious. Filmography[edit] Features[edit]

Love Bound (1932) Impatient Maiden
Impatient Maiden
(1932) as Injured Patient (uncredited) Are You Listening? (1932) as Aunt Fatima - Singer (uncredited) The Washington Masquerade (1932) as Maid (uncredited) The Boiling Point (1932) as Caroline the Cook (uncredited) Crooner (1932) as Maid in Ladies' Room (uncredited) Blonde Venus
Blonde Venus
(1932) as Cora, Helen's Maid in New Orleans (uncredited) The Golden West (1932) as Mammy Lou (uncredited) Hypnotized (1932) as Powder Room Attendant (uncredited) Hello, Sister (1933) as Woman in Apartment House (uncredited) I'm No Angel
I'm No Angel
(1933) as Tira's Maid-Manicurist (uncredited) Goodbye Love (1933) as Edna the Maid (uncredited) Merry Wives of Reno (1934) as Bunny's Maid (uncredited) City Park (1934) as Tessie - the Ransome Maid (uncredited) Operator 13 (1934) as Annie (uncredited) King Kelly of the U.S.A. (1934) as Black Narcissus Mop Buyer (uncredited) Judge Priest
Judge Priest
(1934) as Aunt Dilsey Imitation of Life (1934) as Woman at Funeral (uncredited) Flirtation (1934) as Minor Role (uncredited) Lost in the Stratosphere
Lost in the Stratosphere
(1934) as Ida Johnson Babbitt (1934) as Rosalie, the Maid (uncredited) Little Men (1934) as Asia (uncredited) The Little Colonel (1935) as Mom Beck Transient Lady (1935) as Servant (uncredited) Traveling Saleslady
Traveling Saleslady
(1935) as Martha Smith (uncredited) China Seas (1935) as Isabel McCarthy, Dolly's Maid (uncredited) Alice Adams (1935) as Malena Burns Harmony Lane (1935) as Liza, the Cook (uncredited) Murder by Television
Murder by Television
(1935) as Isabella - the Cook Music Is Magic (1935) as Hattie Another Face (1935) as Nellie - Sheila's Maid (uncredited) We're Only Human (1935) as Molly, Martin's Maid (uncredited) Next Time We Love
Next Time We Love
(1936) as Hanna (uncredited) The First Baby (1936) as Dora The Singing Kid
The Singing Kid
(1936) as Maid (uncredited) Gentle Julia (1936) as Kitty Silvers Show Boat (1936) as Queenie High Tension (1936) as Hattie The Bride Walks Out
The Bride Walks Out
(1936) as Mamie - Carolyn's Maid Postal Inspector (1936) as Deborah (uncredited) Star for a Night (1936) as Hattie Valiant Is the Word for Carrie
Valiant Is the Word for Carrie
(1936) as Ellen Belle Libeled Lady
Libeled Lady
(1936) as Maid in Grand Plaza Hall (uncredited) Can This Be Dixie? (1936) as Lizzie Reunion (1936) as Sadie Racing Lady (1937) as Abby Don't Tell the Wife (1937) as Mamie, Nancy's Maid (uncredited) The Crime Nobody Saw
The Crime Nobody Saw
(1937) as Ambrosia The Wildcatter (1937) as Pearl (uncredited) Saratoga (1937) as Rosetta Stella Dallas (1937) as Maid Sky Racket
Sky Racket
(1937) as Jenny Over the Goal
Over the Goal
(1937) as Hannah Merry Go Round of 1938 (1937) as Maid (uncredited) Nothing Sacred (1937) as Mrs. Walker (uncredited) 45 Fathers
45 Fathers
(1937) as Beulah Quick Money (1937) as Hattie (uncredited) True Confession
True Confession
(1937) as Ella Mississippi Moods (1937) Battle of Broadway (1938) as Agatha Vivacious Lady
Vivacious Lady
(1938) as Hattie - Maid at Prom Dance (uncredited) The Shopworn Angel
The Shopworn Angel
(1938) as Martha Carefree (1938) as Hattie (uncredited) The Mad Miss Manton
The Mad Miss Manton
(1938) as Hilda The Shining Hour
The Shining Hour
(1938) as Belvedere Everybody's Baby (1939) as Hattie Zenobia (1939) as Dehlia Gone with the Wind (1939) as Mammy - House Servant Maryland (1940) as Aunt Carrie The Great Lie
The Great Lie
(1941) as Violet Affectionately Yours
Affectionately Yours
(1941) as Cynthia They Died with Their Boots On
They Died with Their Boots On
(1941) as Callie The Male Animal
The Male Animal
(1942) as Cleota In This Our Life
In This Our Life
(1942) as Minerva Clay George Washington Slept Here
George Washington Slept Here
(1942) as Hester, the Fullers' Maid Johnny Come Lately (1943) as Aida Thank Your Lucky Stars (1943) as Gossip in 'Ice Cold Katie' Number Since You Went Away
Since You Went Away
(1944) as Fidelia Janie (1944) as April - Conway's Maid Three Is a Family (1944) as Maid Hi, Beautiful (1944) as Millie Janie Gets Married
Janie Gets Married
(1946) as April Margie (1946) as Cynthia Never Say Goodbye (1946) as Cozie Song of the South
Song of the South
(1946) as Aunt Tempy The Flame (1947) as Celia Mickey (1948) as Bertha Family Honeymoon
Family Honeymoon
(1948) as Phyllis The Big Wheel (1949) as Minnie

Short subjects[edit]

Mickey's Rescue (1934) as Maid (uncredited) Fate's Fathead (1934) as Mandy - the Maid (uncredited) The Chases of Pimple Street (1934) as Hattie, Gertrude's Maid (uncredited) Anniversary Trouble
Anniversary Trouble
(1935) as Mandy, the Maid Okay Toots! (1935) as Hattie - the Maid (uncredited) Wig-Wag (1935) as Cook (uncredited) The Four Star Boarder (1935) as Maid (uncredited) Arbor Day (1936) as Buckwheat's Mother Termites of 1938
Termites of 1938
(1938)

Radio
Radio
appearances[edit]

Year Program Episode/source

1941 Gulf Screen Guild Theatre No Time for Comedy[69]

Station KOA, Denver, Melony Hounds (1926) Station KNX, Los Angeles, The Optimistic Do-Nut Hour (1931) CBS
CBS
Network, The Beulah Show (1947). McDaniel was a semi-regular on the radio program Amos 'n' Andy, first as Andy's demanding landlady. In one episode they nearly marry. Andy was out for her money, aided and abetted by the Kingfish, who gives his wife's diamond ring to present to McDaniel as an engagement ring. The scheme blows up in their faces when Sapphire decides to throw a party to celebrate. Andy desperately tries to conceal the ring from Sapphire. In frustration and growing anger, McDaniel says to Andy, "Andy, sweetheart, darlin'. Is you gonna let go of my hand or does I have to pop you??!!" This episode aired on NBC
NBC
in June 1944. She played a similar character, "Sadie Simpson", in several later episodes.

Discography[edit] Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
recorded infrequently as a singer. In addition to the musical numbers over her long career in films, she recorded for Okeh Records, Paramount, and the small Kansas City, Missouri label Merrit. All of her known recordings (some of which were never issued) were recorded in the 1920s.

Label Title Recorded Format Catalogue No.

Merrit Records Brown-Skinned Baby Doll/Quittin' My Man 06/26 Unissued Merrit 2202

Okeh Records I Wish I Had Somebody/Boo Hoo Blues 11/10/26 78 rpm Okeh 9899/9900

Wonderful Dream/Lonely Heart 11/17/26 Unissued Okeh W80845/W80846

Sam Henry Blues/Poor Boy Blues 05/10/27 Unissued Okeh W80852/W80853

I Thought I'd Do It/Just One Sorrowing Heart 12/14/27 78 rpm Okeh W82061/W82062

Sam Henry Blues/Destroyin Blues 12/14/27 Unissued Okeh W82063/W82064

Paramount Records Dentist Chair Blues Part 1/Dentist Chair Blues Part 2 (with Papa Charlie Jackson) 03/??/29 78 rpm Paramount 12751 A/12751 B

That New Love Maker Of Mine/Any Kind Of Man Would Be Better Than You 03/??/29 78 rpm Paramount 17290

See also[edit]

List of African-American firsts List of black Academy Award
Academy Award
winners and nominees List of stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

African Americans portal Biography portal Film in the United States portal

References[edit] Notes

^ " Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
Biography". MTV. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Jackson, Carlton. Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel, Lanham, Maryland: Madison Books, 1990. ISBN 1-56833-004-9 ^ "Hattie Mcdaniel". blackclassicmovies.com. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ "Hattie McDaniel, First African American
African American
to Win an Academy Award, Featured on New 39-Cent Postage Stamp" Archived 2008-07-07 at the Wayback Machine., press release, US Postal Service, January 25, 2006. ^ Jackson, Carlton. Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel, p. 4. ^ Lyman, Darryl (2005). Great African American
African American
Women. Jonathan David. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8. ^ Laird, Ross (2004). Discography of Okeh Records, 1918–1934. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 392, 446. ISBN 0-313-31142-0. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003).All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues. Backbeat Books. p. 274. ISBN 0-87930-736-6. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. Harper Collins. p. 151. ^ Harris, Warren G. (2002). Clark Gable: A Biography. Harmony. p. 203. ISBN 0-307-23714-1. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. pp. 152–171. ISBN 0-06-051490-6. ^ W. Burlette Carter. "Finding the Oscar". p. 114, n. 40. ^ Harris, ibid., p. 211. ^ Time Magazine: "Gone with the Wind Premiere", Monday, December 25, 1939. ^ Bridges, Herb (1999). Gone with the Wind: The Three-day Premiere in Atlanta. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-672-X. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. p. 172. ISBN 0-06-051490-6. ^ Lyman, Darryl (2005). Great African American
African American
Women. Jonathan David. p. 161. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8. ^ Lotchin, Roger W. (1999). The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second Great War. University of Illinois Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-252-06819-X. ^ a b c W. Burlette Carter. "Finding the Oscar", p. 114, n. 40, p. 115, n. 47. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. pp. 188–190. ISBN 0-06-051490-6. ^ a b W. B. Carter, "Finding the Oscar", pp. 199–20, n. 40. ^ See and hear Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
acceptance speech at the end of this video. ^ Jackson, Carlton. Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel, p. 52. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 109, n. 08. ^ Abramovitch, Seth (19 February 2015). "Oscar's First Black Winner Accepted Her Honor in a Segregated 'No Blacks' Hotel in L.A." The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ W. Burlette Carter. "Finding the Oscar". pp. 115–16, citing photograph of guests at 12th Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences Awards banquet (1939), Margaret Herrick Library, Special Collections ^ "American Film Institute". Connect.afi.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Time, "Review: Thank Your Lucky Stars (Warner)", Monday, October 4, 1943. ^ Smith, Milton A. (1951). "Offensive to GIs, Banned: Army Drops ‘Beulah’ Show Taken Off Air After Fighters Complain". Baltimore Afro-American. February 17, 1951, at 1. ^ Three of McDaniel's episodes are readily available on videocassette and on the Internet. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. p. 328. ^ Time magazine, "Victory on Sugar Hill", Monday, December 17, 1945. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood, p. 212. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", pp. 122–23. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 117, n. 67, citing "No Hope for the Negro in Films, Says Writer, As Long As Hattie McDaniel ‘Toms’", Cleveland Gazette, February 17, 1945, p. 9. ^ a b CBSNEWS.com: First black Oscar winner honored with stamp, Thursday, January 26, 2006. Archived May 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 123. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. p. 129. ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. pp. 226–227. ^ Hedda Hopper, Screen and Stage: Own People Slow Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
Up, L.A. Times, December 14, 1947, at H3. ^ " Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
and the Negro Division of the Hollywood Victory Committee". Cghs.dade.k12.fl.us. Archived from the original on 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. p. 210. ^ Spada, James (1993). More Than a Woman: An Intimate Biography of Bette Davis. Little, Brown. pp. 191–192. ISBN 0-553-56868-X. ^ "Network and Local Radio
Radio
Listings". The Sunday Sun. 4 Jan 1942. Retrieved 8 Jan 2011.  ^ Watts, Jill (2005). Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. p. 126. ^ Monday, December 31, 1945 (1945-12-31). "Time Magazine article, Monday, December 31, 1945". Time.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Time magazine article, Monday, December 18, 1950. ^ Long Beach Press-Telegram, Long Beach, California, Wednesday, December 6, 1950. ^ Associated Press, First black to win Oscar to get part of final wish, The Frederick Post, Frederick, Maryland, Monday, October 25, 1999. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 31275). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ^ "The Memorial to Actress Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
at Hollywood Forever Memorial Park". Cemeteryguide.com. 1952-10-24. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ "And Hattie McDaniel's Oscar went to .... ? 1940 prize, Howard U. play roles in mystery". Washington Post, May 26, 2010. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", pp. 136–37. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 129. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 139. ^ " Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
Oscar Plaque Missing".  ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 109, n. 10, citing " Howard University
Howard University
Can't Find McDaniel Oscar," Jet, May 4, 1992, p. 24. ^ W. Burlette Carter, "Finding the Oscar", p. 109, n. 10, citing "Hattie McDaniel's Academy Award
Academy Award
Is Lost," Jet, April 13, 1998, p. 33. ^ Tom Gregory, "Oscar Time for Hattie McDaniel", The Huffington Post. ^ "The Flower in Mo'Nique's Hair: Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
Tribute". jezebel. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ Freedom du Lac, J. (May 26, 2010). "And Hattie McDaniel's Oscar Went to .... ? 1940 Prize, Howard U. Play Roles in Mystery". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ a b c d e Burlette Carter, W. (2011). "Finding the Oscar". Howard Law Journal. pp. 107–171.  ^ "Gone with the Wind: Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Stars". Destinationhollywood.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Ferguson, Carroy U. (2004).Transitions in Consciousness from an African American
African American
Perspective. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. p. 243. ISBN 0-7618-2700-5. ^ "Karla Burns: Broadway to Vegas, May 30, 2004". Broadwaytovegas.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21. [dead link] ^ "2001–2002 Daytime Emmy Awards". Infoplease.com. 2002-05-17. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ "Hattie McDaniel, First African American
African American
to Win an Academy Award, Featured on New 39-cent Postage Stamp" (Press release). United States Postal Service. 2006-01-25. Archived from the original on 2008-07-07. Retrieved 2008-07-09. Hattie McDaniel, movie actress, singer, radio and television personality, and the first African American
African American
to win an Academy Award
Academy Award
today became the 29th honoree in the U.S. Postal Service's long-running Black Heritage commemorative stamp series  ^ Gickerr, William J. (ed.) (2006). " Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
39¢". USA Philatelic (print). 11 (3): 12. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Abel, Walter". radioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 

Bibliography

The Life and Struggles of Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
(author Jill Watts audio interview), hear the voice of Hattie McDaniel Carter, W. B. (2011). "Finding the Oscar". Howard Law Journal. 55 (1): 107. SSRN 1980721 .  Hopper, Hedda. "Hattie Hates Nobody". Chicago
Chicago
Sunday Tribune, 1947. Jackson, Carlton. Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1990. ISBN 1-56833-004-9 Mitchell, Lisa. "More Than a Mammy". Hollywood Studio Magazine, April 1979. Salamon, Julie. "The Courage to Rise Above Mammyness". New York Times, August 6, 2001. Watts, Jill. Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-051490-6 Young, Al. "I’d Rather Play a Maid Than Be One". New York Times, October 15, 1989. Zeigler, Ronny. "Hattie McDaniel: ‘(I’d)... rather play a maid.’" N.Y. Amsterdam News, April 28, 1979. Access Newspaper Archive – search for "Hattie McDaniel"

External links[edit]

Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
on IMDb Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
at Find a Grave

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress

1936–1950

Gale Sondergaard
Gale Sondergaard
(1936) Alice Brady
Alice Brady
(1937) Fay Bainter
Fay Bainter
(1938) Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
(1939) Jane Darwell
Jane Darwell
(1940) Mary Astor
Mary Astor
(1941) Teresa Wright
Teresa Wright
(1942) Katina Paxinou
Katina Paxinou
(1943) Ethel Barrymore
Ethel Barrymore
(1944) Anne Revere
Anne Revere
(1945) Anne Baxter
Anne Baxter
(1946) Celeste Holm
Celeste Holm
(1947) Claire Trevor
Claire Trevor
(1948) Mercedes McCambridge
Mercedes McCambridge
(1949) Josephine Hull (1950)

1951–1975

Kim Hunter
Kim Hunter
(1951) Gloria Grahame
Gloria Grahame
(1952) Donna Reed
Donna Reed
(1953) Eva Marie Saint
Eva Marie Saint
(1954) Jo Van Fleet
Jo Van Fleet
(1955) Dorothy Malone
Dorothy Malone
(1956) Miyoshi Umeki
Miyoshi Umeki
(1957) Wendy Hiller
Wendy Hiller
(1958) Shelley Winters
Shelley Winters
(1959) Shirley Jones
Shirley Jones
(1960) Rita Moreno
Rita Moreno
(1961) Patty Duke
Patty Duke
(1962) Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
(1963) Lila Kedrova
Lila Kedrova
(1964) Shelley Winters
Shelley Winters
(1965) Sandy Dennis (1966) Estelle Parsons
Estelle Parsons
(1967) Ruth Gordon
Ruth Gordon
(1968) Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
(1969) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1970) Cloris Leachman
Cloris Leachman
(1971) Eileen Heckart (1972) Tatum O'Neal
Tatum O'Neal
(1973) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1974) Lee Grant
Lee Grant
(1975)

1976–2000

Beatrice Straight (1976) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1977) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1978) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1979) Mary Steenburgen
Mary Steenburgen
(1980) Maureen Stapleton
Maureen Stapleton
(1981) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(1982) Linda Hunt
Linda Hunt
(1983) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1984) Anjelica Huston
Anjelica Huston
(1985) Dianne Wiest
Dianne Wiest
(1986) Olympia Dukakis
Olympia Dukakis
(1987) Geena Davis
Geena Davis
(1988) Brenda Fricker
Brenda Fricker
(1989) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1990) Mercedes Ruehl
Mercedes Ruehl
(1991) Marisa Tomei
Marisa Tomei
(1992) Anna Paquin
Anna Paquin
(1993) Dianne Wiest
Dianne Wiest
(1994) Mira Sorvino
Mira Sorvino
(1995) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(1996) Kim Basinger
Kim Basinger
(1997) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(1998) Angelina Jolie
Angelina Jolie
(1999) Marcia Gay Harden
Marcia Gay Harden
(2000)

2001–present

Jennifer Connelly
Jennifer Connelly
(2001) Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones
(2002) Renée Zellweger
Renée Zellweger
(2003) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2004) Rachel Weisz
Rachel Weisz
(2005) Jennifer Hudson
Jennifer Hudson
(2006) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2007) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
(2008) Mo'Nique
Mo'Nique
(2009) Melissa Leo
Melissa Leo
(2010) Octavia Spencer
Octavia Spencer
(2011) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2012) Lupita Nyong'o
Lupita Nyong'o
(2013) Patricia Arquette
Patricia Arquette
(2014) Alicia Vikander
Alicia Vikander
(2015) Viola Davis
Viola Davis
(2016) Allison Janney
Allison Janney
(2017)

v t e

Colorado
Colorado
Women's Hall of Fame

1980–1989

1985

Archuleta, LenaLena Archuleta Bird, IsabellaIsabella Bird Bonfils, HelenHelen Bonfils Brown, MollyMolly Brown Chipeta Chase, Mary CoyleMary Coyle Chase Eisenhower, MamieMamie Eisenhower Ford, JustinaJustina Ford Griffith, EmilyEmily Griffith Jackson, Helen HuntHelen Hunt Jackson Lamm, DottieDottie Lamm Maxwell, MarthaMartha Maxwell Meir, GoldaGolda Meir Owl Woman Rippon, MaryMary Rippon Sabin, FlorenceFlorence Sabin Schmoll, HazelHazel Schmoll Schroeder, PatPat Schroeder Stanton, May BonfilsMay Bonfils Stanton Steinbeck, AnneAnne Steinbeck Stockton, RuthRuth Stockton Tabor, Baby DoeBaby Doe Tabor Wormington-Volk, MarieMarie Wormington-Volk Yancey, JeanJean Yancey

1986

Brico, AntoniaAntonia Brico Peterson, Helen WhiteHelen White Peterson Roche, JosephineJosephine Roche Smith, Eudochia BellEudochia Bell Smith

1987

Goldberg, MiriamMiriam Goldberg Jacobs, Frances WisebartFrances Wisebart Jacobs Lathrop, Mary FlorenceMary Florence Lathrop Walker, Lenore E.Lenore E. Walker

1988

Churchill, CarolineCaroline Churchill Crain, OletaOleta Crain Orullian, LaRaeLaRae Orullian Stone, Elizabeth Hickok RobbinsElizabeth Hickok Robbins Stone

1989

Brown, ClaraClara Brown Fallis, Edwina HumeEdwina Hume Fallis Hennessy, SumikoSumiko Hennessy Robinson, Cleo ParkerCleo Parker Robinson

1990–1999

1990

Bancroft, CarolineCaroline Bancroft Cantwell, Hendrika B.Hendrika B. Cantwell Platt-Decker, SarahSarah Platt-Decker Ries, Jane SilversteinJane Silverstein Ries

1991

Black, Helen MarieHelen Marie Black Fiore, GenevieveGenevieve Fiore Tabor, AugustaAugusta Tabor Webb, WilmaWilma Webb

1996

Van Derbur, MarilynMarilyn Van Derbur Birkland, JoanJoan Birkland Boulding, Elise M.Elise M. Boulding Crawford, Dana HudkinsDana Hudkins Crawford Curry, Margaret L.Margaret L. Curry Finkel, Terri H.Terri H. Finkel Gilfoyle, Elnora M.Elnora M. Gilfoyle Long, Mary Hauck ElitchMary Hauck Elitch Long McConnell-Mills, FrancesFrances McConnell-Mills Noel, Rachel BassetteRachel Bassette Noel Walter, Mildred PittsMildred Pitts Walter

1997

Anderson, SusanSusan Anderson Archuleta, EppieEppie Archuleta Barry, CealCeal Barry Bourdas, JuanaJuana Bourdas Hunt, SwaneeSwanee Hunt Muse, ReyneldaReynelda Muse Tobin, Mary LukeMary Luke Tobin

2000–2009

2000

Baca, PollyPolly Baca Burns, JoyJoy Burns Heath, JosieJosie Heath Lincoln, J. VirginiaJ. Virginia Lincoln Robinson, Pauline ShortPauline Short Robinson Urioste, Martha M.Martha M. Urioste Weinshienk, ZitaZita Weinshienk Alvarado, LindaLinda Alvarado Fraser, VirginiaVirginia Fraser

2002

Gaskill, GudyGudy Gaskill Joselyn, Jo Ann CramJo Ann Cram Joselyn Miller, MaryMary Miller Miller, SueSue Miller Tanner, GloriaGloria Tanner Warner, Emily HowellEmily Howell Warner

2004

Anna Lee AldredAnna Lee Aldred Boyd, Louie CroftLouie Croft Boyd Chambers, MerleMerle Chambers Gabow, PatriciaPatricia Gabow LaNier, CarlottaCarlotta LaNier Perry, AntoinetteAntoinette Perry Perry, CharlotteCharlotte Perry and Mansfield, PortiaPortia Mansfield Taylor, Arie ParksArie Parks Taylor

2006

Allen, StephanieStephanie Allen Collins, JudyJudy Collins Downs, MarionMarion Downs Estés, Clarissa PinkolaClarissa Pinkola Estés Hirschfeld, ArleneArlene Hirschfeld Jones, JeanJean Jones Lorber, FannieFannie Lorber Solomon, SusanSusan Solomon Spencer, CarolineCaroline Spencer Spitz, VivienVivien Spitz

2008

Anschutz-Rodgers, SueSue Anschutz-Rodgers Alicia Cuarón, AliciaAlicia Alicia Cuarón Dennis, EvieEvie Dennis Dubofsky, JeanJean Dubofsky Makepeace, Mary LouMary Lou Makepeace Nie, LilyLily Nie Petteys, AnnaAnna Petteys Routt, ElizaEliza Routt Woltman, RheaRhea Woltman Zaharias, Mildred DidriksonMildred Didrikson Zaharias

2010–2019

2010

Albright, MadeleineMadeleine Albright Greenberg, ElinorElinor Greenberg Guajardo, MariaMaria Guajardo Marrack, PhilippaPhilippa Marrack Martinez, RamonaRamona Martinez McDaniel, HattieHattie McDaniel O'Brien, SusanSusan O'Brien Scott, Bartley MarieBartley Marie Scott Taylor, Alice BemisAlice Bemis Taylor Tietjen, JillJill Tietjen

2012

Anseth, Kristi S.Kristi S. Anseth Bonnema, JanetJanet Bonnema Duncan, Fannie MaeFannie Mae Duncan Ford, Loretta C.Loretta C. Ford Gallegos, Erinea GarciaErinea Garcia Gallegos Gilpin, LauraLaura Gilpin Grandin, TempleTemple Grandin Hsu, Ding-WenDing-Wen Hsu Kerwin, Mary AnnMary Ann Kerwin Mullarkey, Mary J.Mary J. Mullarkey

2014

Julia Archibald Holmes Elizabeth Wright Ingraham Christine Arguello Lauren Young Casteel Penny Hamilton Kristina Johnson Diana Wall Joanne M. Maguire Morley Cowles Ballantine Helen Ring Robinson

2015

Anne Evans Minnie Harding Laura Ann Hershey Elizabeth Pellet

2016

Anna Jo Haynes Arlene Vigil Kramer Lydia Peña Sandra I. Rothenberg Shari Shink Judith B. Wagner

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45100688 LCCN: n85151822 ISNI: 0000 0000 2497 1304 GND: 118909282 SUDOC: 066950988 MusicBrainz: 037b0471-652d-4dc2-a464-a5051d5e1

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