A HAT is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including
protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as
university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a fashion
accessory . In the past, hats were an indicator of social status .
In the military , hats may denote nationality, branch of service, rank
or regiment . Police typically wear distinctive hats such as peaked
caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police . Some hats have a protective function. As examples, the hard
hat protects construction workers' heads from injury by falling
objects and a British police
Custodian helmet protects the officer's
head, a sun hat shades the face and shoulders from the sun, a cowboy
hat protects against sun and rain and a
Ushanka fur hat with fold-down
earflaps keeps the head and ears warm. Some hats are worn for
ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard , which is worn (or
carried) during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn
by members of a certain profession, such as the
* 1 History * 2 Famous hatmakers * 3 Collections * 4 Styles * 5 Size * 6 References * 7 External links
Some archaeologists think that the 26,000-year-old Venus of Brassempouy depicts a woman with a hat, not a hairstyle.
While there are not many official records of hats before 3,000 BC,
they probably were commonplace before that. Archaeologists think that
Venus of Brassempouy
One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a tomb painting from Thebes, Egypt , which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat, dated to around 3200 BC. Hats were commonly worn in ancient Egypt. Many upper-class Egyptians shaved their heads , then covered it in a headdress intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians often wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase.
Other early hats include the Pileus , a simple skull-like cap; the
St. Clement , the patron saint of felt hatmakers , is said to have discovered wool felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet, around 800 AD.
In the Middle Ages, hats were a marker of social status and used to single out certain groups. The 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat ("Jewish hat"), marking them as targets for anti-Semitism . The hats were usually yellow and were either pointed or square.
In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin , and denoted social status. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century. The term 'milliner' comes from the Italian city of Milan, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman's occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but also choosing lace, trimmings and accessories to complete an outfit. Left-to-right: Top-hat , peaked cap , Borsalino , bowler hat (Sweden, early 20th century) A hat shop from about 1900 inside the Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum
In the first half of the 19th century, women wore bonnets that gradually became larger, decorated with ribbons, flowers, feathers, and gauze trims . By the end of the century, many other styles were introduced, among them hats with wide brims and flat crowns, the flower pot and the toque. By the middle of the 1920s, when women began to cut their hair short, they chose hats that hugged the head like a helmet.
The tradition of wearing hats to horse racing events began at the
Royal Ascot in Britain, which maintains a strict dress code. All
guests in the Royal Enclosure must wear hats. This tradition was
adopted at other horse racing events, such as the
Extravagant hats were popular in the 1980s, and in the early 21st
century, flamboyant hats made a comeback, with a new wave of
competitive young milliners designing creations that include turban
caps, trompe-l\'oeil -effect felt hats and tall headpieces made of
human hair. Some new hat collections have been described as "wearable
sculpture." Many pop stars, among them
One of the most famous
IMAGE NAME DESCRIPTION
ASCOT CAP A hard men's cap, similar to the flat cap, but distinguished by its hardness and rounded shape.
BALMORAL BONNET Traditional Scottish bonnet or cap worn with Scottish Highland dress .
BASEBALL CAP A type of soft, light cotton cap with a rounded crown and a stiff, frontward-projecting bill.
BEANIE A brimless cap, with or without a small visor , once popular among school boys. Sometimes includes a propeller. Note: In New Zealand, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, "beanie" also or otherwise refers to the tuque .
The tall, furry hat of the
Brigade of Guards ' full-dress uniform,
originally designed to protect them against sword-cuts, etc. Commonly
A soft round cap, usually of woollen felt, with a bulging flat
crown and tight-fitting brimless headband. Worn by both men and women
and traditionally associated with
Basque people ,
BICORNE A broad-brimmed felt hat with brim folded up and pinned front and back to create a long-horned shape. Also known as a cocked hat . Worn by European military officers in the 1790s and, as illustrated, commonly associated with Napoleon .
BOWLER / DERBY
A hard felt hat with a rounded crown created in 1850 by Lock's of
St James\'s , the hatters to Thomas Coke, 2nd
Earl of Leicester
CHULLO Peruvian or Bolivian hat with ear-flaps made from vicuña , alpaca , llama or sheep's wool.
CLOCHE HAT A bell -shaped ladies' hat that was popular during the Roaring Twenties .
CRICKET CAP A type of soft cap traditionally worn by cricket players.
CONICAL ASIAN HAT A conical straw hat associated with East and Southeast Asia. Sometimes known as a "coolie hat", although the term "coolie" may be interpreted as derogatory.
COONSKIN CAP A hat, fashioned from the skin and fur of a raccoon , that became associated with Canadian and American frontiersmen of the 18th and 19th centuries.
CUSTODIAN HELMET A helmet traditionally worn by British police constables while on foot patrol.
A warm, close-fitting tweed cap, with brims front and behind and
ear-flaps that can be tied together either over the crown or under the
chin. Originally designed for use while hunting in the climate of
FEDORA A soft felt hat with a medium brim and lengthwise crease in the crown.
FEZ Red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone, common to Arab-speaking countries.
FULANI HAT A conical plant fiber hat covered in leather both at the brim and top, worn by men of the Fulani people in West Africa.
KEFFIYAH Three piece ensemble consisting of a Thagiyah skull cap, Gutrah scarf, and Ogal black band. Gutrahs are plain white or checkered, denoting ethnic or national identities..
HARD HAT A rounded rigid helmet with a small brim predominantly used in workplace environments, such as construction sites, to protect the head from injury by falling objects, debris and bad weather.
KIPPAH A hemispherical cap worn by Jews to fulfill the customary requirement held by halachic authorities that the head be covered at all times.
KUFI A brimless, short, rounded cap worn by Africans and people throughout the African diaspora.
MONTERA A crocheted hat worn by bullfighters.
PHRYGIAN CAP A soft conical cap pulled forward. In sculpture, paintings and caricatures it represents freedom and the pursuit of liberty. The popular cartoon characters The Smurfs wear white Phrygian caps.
PILLBOX HAT A small hat with straight, upright sides, a flat crown , and no brim.
PITH HELMET A lightweight rigid cloth-covered helmet made of cork or pith, with brims front and back. Worn by Europeans in tropical colonies in the 1800s.
A tall, round, usually crocheted and brightly colored, cap worn by
A floppy pointed red hat trimmed in white fur traditionally
SOMBRERO A Mexican hat with a conical crown and a very wide, saucer-shaped brim, highly embroidered made of plush felt.
TOP HAT Also known as a beaver hat , a magician's hat, or, in the case of the tallest examples, a stovepipe hat. A tall, flat-crowned, cylindrical hat worn by men in the 19th and early 20th centuries, now worn only with morning dress or evening dress. Cartoon characters Uncle Sam and Mr. Monopoly are often depicted wearing such hats. Once made from felted beaver fur.
TOQUE (informally, "chef's hat") A tall, pleated, brimless, cylindrical hat traditionally worn by chefs.
A soft hat with a low crown and broad brim, pinned up on either
side of the head and at the back, producing a triangular shape. Worn
by Europeans in the 18th century. Larger, taller, and heavily
ornamented brims were present in
TUQUE In Canada, a knitted hat, worn in winter, usually made from wool or acrylic. Also known as a ski cap, knit hat, knit cap, sock cap, stocking cap, toboggan, watch cap, or goobalini. In New Zealand, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, the term "beanie" is applied to this cap.
TURBAN A headdress consisting of a scarf-like single piece of cloth wound around either the head itself or an inner hat.
USHANKA A Russian fur hat with fold-down ear-flaps.
ZUCCHETTO Skullcap worn by clerics typically in Roman Catholicism.
Traditional hat size is worked out by adding the fore and aft and side to side measurements (in inches) then dividing by two. In the UK, an equivalent hat size is an eighth of an inch smaller than in the US.
HAT SIZES SIZE
YOUTH S/M YOUTH L/XL XXS XS S M L XL XXL XXXL
AGE (YEARS) 0 ½ 1 1½ 2
CIRCUMFERENCE IN CM 34 43 47 48 49 50 51–52 53–54 55–56 57–58 59–60 61–62 63–64 65–66
CIRCUMFERENCE IN INCHES 13⅜ 17 18½ 18¾ 19¼ 19¾ 20–20½ 20–21¼ 21–22 22–22½⅞ 23–23½⅝ 24–24⅜ 24¾–25¼ 25–26
UK HAT SIZE
5 5¾ 6 6 6–6¼⅜ 6–6½⅝ 6–6¾⅞ 7–7⅛ 7–7¼⅜ 7–7½ 7–7¾⅞ 8–8⅛
US HAT SIZE
5⅞ 6 6⅛ 6¼ 6–6½ 6⅝- 6¾ 6–7 7–7¼ 7–7½ 7–7¾ 7–8 8–8¼
FRENCH HAT SIZE
0 ½ 1 1½ 2–2½ 3–3½ 4–4½ 5–5½ 6–6½ 7–7½ 8–8½ 9–9½
* ^ Pauline Thomas (2007-09-08). "The Wearing of Hats Fashion
History". Fashion-era.com. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
* ^ "The social meanings of hats". University of Chicago Press.
* ^ "Insignia:The Way You Tell Who\'s Who in the Military". United
States Department of Defense . Archived from the original on
2012-04-14. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
* ^ "The