HOME
The Info List - Hashimiyya


--- Advertisement ---



The Kaysanites
Kaysanites
were a Shi'i sect of Islam
Islam
that reportedly formed from the followers of Al-Mukhtar. They are often described in later literature as ghulat – a kind of heretic.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Beliefs 3 History

3.1 Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and, Kaysanites

4 Kaysanite sub-sects 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

Etymology[edit] The followers of Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
who emerged from his movement (including all subsequent sub-sects which evolved from his movement) who firstly upheld the Imamate of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
and his descendants or any other designated successors were initially named the "Mukhtariyya" (after Al-Mukhtar), but were soon more commonly referred to as the "Kaysānīyya" (i.e. Kaysanites). It is nonetheless established that Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hanafiyyah never claimed the Imamat for himself but later the first Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph as-Saffah referred it to him and his descendents. The name Kaysānīyya must have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysān, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
by Ali, or the name of a freed mawlā of ʿ Ali
Ali
who was killed at the Battle of Siffin
Battle of Siffin
called Kaysān, from whom it is claimed Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
acquired his ideas. Similarly, it may be named after Abu ‘Umra Kaysān, a prominent Mawālī and chief of Al-Mukhtar’s personal bodyguard. Others claim that either ʿAli or Ibn al-Ḥanafiya named Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
‘Kaysān,’ because of his ingeniousness.[1] [2][3][4][5] Beliefs[edit] The Kaysanites
Kaysanites
as a collective sect held the following common beliefs:

They condemned the first 3 Caliphs before Ali
Ali
as illegitimate usurpers and also held that the community had gone astray by accepting their rule.[6] They believed Ali
Ali
and his 3 sons Hasan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
and Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
were the successive Imams and successors to Muhammad
Muhammad
by divine appointment and that they were endowed with supernatural attributes.[6][7][8][9] They believed that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
was the Mahdi.[10] They believed in Bada’.[11] The seepage of Dualist Zoroastran sub-sect Mazdakism
Mazdakism
beliefs into the Kaysanite beliefs.[12]

Furthermore, some Kaysanite sub-sects established their own unique beliefs, such as:

Some believed Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
was concealed (ghayba) at Mount Radwa near Medina, guarded by lions and tigers and fed by mountain goats[13] and would return ( Raj'a
Raj'a
i.e. the return to life of the Mahdi
Mahdi
with his supporters for retribution before the Qiyama) as the Mahdi.[14][11] Some referred to dar al-taqiyya (i.e. the domain of Taqiyya) as those territories that were not their own. Their own territories were referred to as dar al-‘alaniya (i.e. the domain of publicity).[15] Some began to use ideas of a generally Gnostic
Gnostic
nature which were current in Iraq
Iraq
during the 8th century.[16] Some interpreted Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah’s temporary banishment to Mount Radwa and concealment as chastisement for his mistake of travelling from Mecca
Mecca
to Damascus
Damascus
to pledge allegiance and pay a visit to the false Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.[9][17]

History[edit] Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and, Kaysanites[edit]

Kaysanites
Kaysanites
amongst shia Islam

The Kaysanites
Kaysanites
pursued an activist anti-establishment policy against the Umayyads, aiming to transfer leadership of the Muslims to Alids[18] and accounted for the bulk allegiance of the Shi'a populace (even overshadowing the Imamis) [19] until shortly after the Abbasid revolution. Initially they broke away from the religiously moderate attitudes of the early Kufan Shi'a.[20] Most of the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
support came from superficially Islamicized Mawalis in southern Iraq, Persia and elsewhere,[20] as well as other supporters in Iraq, particularly in Kufa
Kufa
and Al-Mada'in
Al-Mada'in
(Ctesiphon).[9] Following the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah, the bulk of the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
acknowledged the Imamate of Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah (a.k.a. Abu Hashim, the eldest son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah, d. 716). This sub-sect (a.k.a. Hashimiyya, named after Abu Hashim), which comprised the majority of the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
was the earliest Shi'ite group whose teachings and revolutionary stance were disseminated in Persia, especially in Greater Khorasan, where it found adherents among the Mawalis and Arab settlers.[21] By the end of the Umayyad period the majority of the Hashimiyya, transferred their allegiance to the Abbasid
Abbasid
family and they played an important role in the propaganda campaign that eventually led to the successful Abbasid
Abbasid
revolution.[20] However, the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
did not survive as a sect, even though they occupied a majority position among the Shi'a until shortly after the Abbasid
Abbasid
revolution.[22] The remaining Kaysanites
Kaysanites
who had not joined the Abbasid
Abbasid
party sought to align themselves with alternative Shi'a communities. Therefore, in Khurasan and other eastern lands many joined the Khurramites. In Iraq
Iraq
they joined Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
or Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, who were then the main Alid
Alid
claimants to the Imamate. However, with the demise of the activist movement of al-Nafs az-Zakiyya, Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
emerged as their main rallying point.[23] Hence, By the end of the 8th century the majority of the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
had turned to other Imams.[9] Kaysanite sub-sects[edit] The Kaysanite Shi'a sect split into numerous sub-sects throughout its history. These splits would occur after a Kaysanite leader died and his followers would divide by pledging their allegiance to different leaders, with each sub-sect claiming the authenticity of its own leader. When Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
died in 700 the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
split into at least 3 distinct sub-sects:[24]

Karibiyya or Kuraybiyya, named after their leader Abu Karib (or Kurayb) al-Darir. They refused to acknowledge Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah’s death and believed he was concealed (gha’ib) in the Radwa Mountains near Medina, from whence he would eventually emerge as the Mahdi
Mahdi
to fill the earth with justice and equity, as it had formerly been filled with injustice and oppression.[24] Another sub-sect was under the leadership of a man named Hayyan al-Sarraj. They affirmed the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah, but maintained that he and his partisans would return to life in the future when he would establish justice on earth.[24] Another sub-sect founded by Hamza ibn ‘Umara al-Barbari asserted divinity for Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
and prophethood for Hamza ibn ‘Umara al-Barbari and acquired some supporters in Kufa
Kufa
and Medina.[24] Another sub-sect was the Hashimiyya. The Hashimiyya
Hashimiyya
comprised the majority of the Kaysanites
Kaysanites
after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah. They accepted Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah’s death and recognized his eldest son Abu Hashim
Abu Hashim
as his successor.[25] The Hashimiyya
Hashimiyya
believed that Abu Hashim
Abu Hashim
was personally designated by Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
as his successor. Therefore, Abu Hashim became the Imam of the majority of the Shi'a of that time even though he was slightly younger than his cousin Zayn al-Abidin. From their Kufa
Kufa
base, the Hashimiyya
Hashimiyya
managed to recruit adherents in other provinces, especially among the Mawali in Khurasan.[26]

After the death of Abu Hashim, no less than 4 to 5 sub-sects claimed succession to Abu Hashim
Abu Hashim
from the original Hashimiyya:[27][28][29]

The Harbiyya, which would later be known as the Janahiyya, were the followers of Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya
Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya
ibn Abdallah ibn Ja'far.[30] Abdullah ibn Muawiya was Abu Hashim’s cousin and the grandson of Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib.[29] According to the Harbiyya/Janahiyya, he was the legitimate successor of Abu Hashim.[31] He revolted after the death of his cousin Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
and his nephew Yahya ibn Zayd ibn Ali. His revolt spread through Iraq
Iraq
into Isfahan
Isfahan
and Fārs
Fārs
from 744 to 748. He was also joined by the Zaidiyyah, Abbasids, and Kharijites
Kharijites
in revolt. For a while, Abdallah ibn Muawiya established himself at Estakhr
Estakhr
from where he ruled for a few years over Fārs
Fārs
and other parts of Persia,[30] including Ahvaz, Jibal, Isfahan
Isfahan
and Kerman
Kerman
from 744 to 748 until fleeing to Khurasan from the advancing Umayyad forces.[32] When fleeing to Khurasan, he was killed (on behalf of the Abbasids) by Abu Muslim Khorasani in 748 while imprisoned.[33][30][31] The Harbiyya/Janahiyya sub-sect expounded many extremist and Gnostic
Gnostic
ideas such as the pre-existence of souls as shadows (azilla), the transmigration of souls (tanaukh al-arwah i.e. the return in a different body while having the same spirit) and a cyclical history of eras (adwar) and eons (akwar). Some of these ideas were adopted by other early Shi'a Ghulat
Ghulat
groups.[30]

After the death of Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya, a sub-sect of the Harbiyya/Janahiyya claimed that he was alive and hiding in the mountains of Isfahan.[28]

Another sub-sect of the Hashimiyya
Hashimiyya
recognized the Abbasid
Abbasid
Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Abdallah ibn ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
as the legitimate successor of Abu Hashim. This Abbasid
Abbasid
sub-sect comprised the majority of the original Hashimiyya.[34] The Abbasids alleged that Abu Hashim (who died childless in 716) had named his successor to be Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Abdullah (d. 744). Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Abdullah became the founder of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate.[35] He had a brother named Ibrahim (who was killed by the Umayyads); and two sons As-Saffah
As-Saffah
(who became the first Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph) and Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
(who became the second Abbasid Caliph). [36] Therefore, the ideological engine of the Abbasid
Abbasid
revolt was that of the Kaysanites.[37]

Another sub-sect was the Abu Muslimiyya sub-sect (named after Abu Muslim Khorasani). This sub-sect maintained that the Imamate had passed from As-Saffah
As-Saffah
to Abu Muslim. They also believed that Al-Mansur did not kill Abu Muslim, but instead someone who resembled Abu Muslim and that Abu Muslim was still alive.[38] Another sub-sect was the Rizamiyya. They refused to repudiate Abu Muslim, but also affirmed that the Imamate would remain in the Abbasid family until the Qiyama, when a descendent of ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib would be the Mahdi.[38]

See also[edit]

Islamic schools and branches List of extinct Shi'a sects

References[edit]

^ Ibn Qutayba, p. 622; Nawbaḵti, pp. 20-21 ^ Daftary 1990, pp. 59–60. ^ Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1 January 1981). "Islamic Messianism: The Idea of Mahdi
Mahdi
in Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism". SUNY Press – via Google Books.  ^ Lalani, Arzina R. (1 January 2000). "Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir". I.B.Tauris – via Google Books.  ^ De Lacy O'Leary. A short history of the Fatimid khalifate. p. 5.  ^ a b Daftary 2005, p. 13. ^ Glassé, Cyril; Smith, Huston (1 January 2003). "The New Encyclopedia of Islam". Rowman Altamira – via Google Books.  ^ Daftary 1998, p. 27. ^ a b c d Halm 2004, p. 18. ^ Daftary 2005, p. 12. ^ a b Early Shīʻī thought: the teachings of Imam Muhạmmad al-Bāqir, by Arzina R. Lalani, Institute of Ismaili Studies, pg.11 ^ The new encyclopedia of Islam, by Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith, pg.252 ^ Halm 2004, p. 491. ^ Islamic messianism: the idea of Mahdī in twelver Shīʻism, by Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina, pg.10 ^ Kippenberg, Hans Hans Gerhard; Stroumsa, Guy G. (1 January 1995). "Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions". BRILL – via Google Books.  ^ Halm 2004, p. 498. ^ Madelung, Wilferd; Walker, Paul Ernest (1 January 1998). "باب الشيطان من كتاب الشجرة لابي تمام: The "Bāb Al-shayṭān" from Abū Tammām's Kitāb Al-shajara". BRILL – via Google Books.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (27 November 2004). "Ismaili Literature: A Bibliography of Sources and Studies". I.B.Tauris – via Google Books.  ^ "History of Civilizations of Central Asia (vol.4,part-1)". Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1 January 1992 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c Daftary 2005, p. 15. ^ "History of Civilizations of Central Asia (vol.4,part-1)". Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1 January 1992 – via Google Books.  ^ Daftary 1998, p. 22. ^ Daftary 1998, p. 31. ^ a b c d Daftary 1990, pp. 60. ^ O'Leary, De Lacy (1 January 1954). "Arabic Thought and Its Place in History". Routledge & Kegan Paul – via Google Books.  ^ Daftary 1990, pp. 61. ^ Early Shīʻī thought: the teachings of Imam Muhạmmad al-Bāqir, by Arzina R. Lalani, Institute of Ismaili Studies, pg.42 ^ a b Yücesoy, Hayrettin (1 January 2009). "Messianic Beliefs and Imperial Politics in Medieval Islam: The ʻAbbāsid Caliphate
Caliphate
in the Early Ninth Century". Univ of South Carolina Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b Babayan, Kathryn (1 January 2002). "Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran". Harvard CMES – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d The historical, social and economic setting, by M.S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, pg.45 ^ a b Islamic messianism: the idea of Mahdī in twelver Shīʻism, by Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina, pg.11 ^ Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, by Kathryn Babayan, pg.258 ^ Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, by Kathryn Babayan, pg.287 ^ The historical, social and economic setting, by M.S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, pg.46 ^ A short history of the Fatimid khalifate, by De Lacy O'Leary, pg.5 ^ Arabic Thought and Its Place in History, by De Lacy O'Leary, pg.59 ^ Messianic Beliefs and Imperial Politics in Medieval Islam: The Abbasid
Abbasid
..., by Hayrettin Yücesoy, pg.2, 21, 23 ^ a b Messianic Beliefs and Imperial Politics in Medieval Islam: The Abbasid
Abbasid
..., by Hayrettin Yücesoy, pg.25

Bibliography[edit]

Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37019-1.  Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0904-0.  Daftary, Farhad (2005). Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-091-9.  Halm, Heinz (2004). Shi'ism (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1888-0. 

External links[edit]

Kaysanite Imams family tree, pg.20

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid
Alid
dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami
Imami
Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami
Imami
Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God

Theism

Forms

Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism

Concepts

Deity Divinity Gender of God
Gender of God
and gods

Male deity Goddess

Numen

Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

Concepts

Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being

God
God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

Trinitarianism

Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine simplicity Divine presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith

Christian

History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology

Hindu

Ayyavazhi theology Krishnology

Islamic

Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment

Jewish

Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Isla

.