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The HASHEMITES ( Arabic
Arabic
: الهاشميون‎‎, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also HOUSE OF HASHEM), is the ruling royal family of Jordan
Jordan
. The House was also the royal family of Syria (1920), Hejaz (1916–1925), Iraq (1921–1958). The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca
Mecca
– also referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca
Mecca
continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf , great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
Muhammad
.

The current dynasty was founded by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali , who was appointed as Sharif and Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
in 1908, then in 1916 was proclaimed King of the Arab Lands (but only recognized as King of the Hejaz) after initiating the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. His sons Abdullah and Faisal assumed the thrones of Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq in 1921. The dynasty is the oldest ruling dynasty in the Islamic World, and the second-oldest in the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 During and after World War I * 3 Family tree * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

The Hashemites claim to trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn \'Abd Manaf (died c. 497 AD), the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, although the definition today mainly refers to the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah . The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad. The Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib , an uncle of Muhammad. Muhammad's father had died before he was born, and his mother died while he was a child, so Muhammad
Muhammad
was raised by his uncle Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib , chief of the Hashemites.

From the 10th century onwards, the sharif (religious leader) of Mecca and its Emir
Emir
was, by traditional agreement, a Hashemite. Before World War I, Hussein bin Ali
Ali
of the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan. For some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir
Emir
of Mecca
Mecca
from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali
Ali
was appointed to the Emirate of Mecca
Mecca
. He found himself increasingly at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul
Istanbul
, while he strove to secure his family's position as hereditary Emirs.

DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR I

Sharif
Sharif
Hussein bin Ali
Ali
rebelled against the rule of the Ottomans during the Arab Revolt of 1916. Between 1917 and 1924, after the collapse of Ottoman power, Hussein bin Ali
Ali
ruled an independent Hejaz, of which he proclaimed himself king, with the tacit support of the British Foreign Office . His supporters are sometimes referred to as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian party". Hussein bin Ali's chief rival in the Arabian Peninsula, the king of the Najd (highlands), Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
, annexed the Hejaz in 1925 and established his own son, Faysal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud , as governor. The region was later incorporated into Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
.

Hussein bin Ali
Ali
had five sons:

* Ali
Ali
, who briefly succeeded to the throne of Hejaz before its loss to the Saud family in 1925. * Abdullah , became the amir of Transjordan in 1921 and king of Jordan
Jordan
in 1946, and whose descendants continue to rule the kingdom known ever since as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Jordan
. * Faisal , briefly proclaimed King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria in 1920, became King of Iraq in 1921. * Prince Zeid bin Hussein , who moved to Jordan
Jordan
when his brother's grandson, King Faisal II of Iraq , was overthrown and murdered in a coup in 1958 . * Hassan, died at a young age.

FAMILY TREE

Hashim ibn Abd Manaf

Abdul-Muttalib

Abdullah

Abu Talib

MUHAMMAD

Fatimah

Ali
Ali

Hasan

Hasan al-Mu'thannā

Abdullah

Musa al-Djawn

Abdullah

Musa

Muhammad

Abdullah

Muhammad

Abdullah

Ali

Suleiman

Al-Hussein

Issa

Abd al-Karim

Muta'in

Idris

Qatada

Ali

Al-Hassan

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abu Numayy

Rumaythah

'Ajlan

Al-Hassan

Barakat I

Muhammad
Muhammad

Barakat II

Abu Numayy II

Al-Hassan

Abdullah

Al-Hussein

Abdullah

Muhsin

Auon, Ra'i al-Hadala

Abdul Mu'een

Muhammad
Muhammad

Ali

Hussein

Abdullah I

Talal

Hussein

Abdullah II

Hussein

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HASHEMITES .

* Line of succession to the Jordanian throne * Line of succession to the Iraqi throne

REFERENCES

* ^ http://themuslim500.com/profile/king-abdullah-ii-jordan * ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom , reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 48 * ^ Time-Life Books , What Life Was Like: In the Land of the Prophet, p. 17 * ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 53

EXTERNAL LINKS

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