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Abu Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Ashraf ibn ‘Alī Zayn al-‘Ābidīn (Medina, ca. 844 – Amul, January/February 917), better known as al-Ḥasan al-Uṭrūsh ("the Deaf"), was an Alid
Alid
Shia
Shia
missionary of the Zaydi
Zaydi
sect who re-established Zaydid
Zaydid
rule over the province Tabaristan
Tabaristan
in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid
Samanid
rule. He ruled Tabaristan until his death under the regnal name of al-Nāṣir li'l-Ḥaqq ("Defender of the True Faith"), and became known as al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr ("al-Nasir the Elder") to distinguish him from his descendants who bore the same surname. He is still known and recognized as Imam
Imam
among the Zaydis of Yemen.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Recovery of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and aftermath 3 References 4 Sources 5 External links

Early life[edit] Hasan was born in Medina
Medina
around 844. Hasan's father was a descendant of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
and third Shi'a
Shi'a
Imam, via his eldest son Zayn al-Abidin, while his mother was an unnamed Khurasani slave.[2] When Hasan ibn Zayd, a descendant of Husayn's brother Hasan, established his rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
in the 860s, Hasan joined him there. However, he eventually fell out with Hasan ibn Zayd's brother and successor, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zayd, who distrusted him. Hasan left Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and tried to set up a realm of his own in the provinces further east. To this end, he allied himself with the ruler of Khurasan, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdallah al-Khujistani, who was an enemy of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zayd. Soon, however, al-Khujistani too came to distrust him and had him imprisoned and scourged, as a result of which he lost his hearing and received the sobriquet al-Utrush ("the Deaf"), by which he is known.[2] When he was released from imprisonment, Hasan returned to Tabaristan and the service of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zayd. Hasan was present and fought alongside the latter in the disastrous battle in 900 at Gurgan
Gurgan
against the Samanid
Samanid
army of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Harun al-Sarakhsi. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zayd was defeated and died of his wounds, leaving Tabaristan
Tabaristan
open to Samanid
Samanid
occupation.[2][3] Hasan managed to escape the defeat and at first sought refuge in Rayy. There he received the invitation of the Justanid
Justanid
king of Daylam, who had also supported and served the Zaydid brothers. Together, Hasan and the Justanids tried in 902 and 903 to recover control of Tabaristan, but without success. Worried by the fickleness of the Justanids, Hasan resolved to build a power base of his own. He therefore engaged in a mission to the as yet unconverted Gilites
Gilites
and the Daylamites to the north of the Alburz
Alburz
mountains, where he preached in person and founded mosques. His efforts were swiftly crowned by success: the mountain Daylamites and the Gilites
Gilites
east of the Safid Rud
Safid Rud
river recognized him as their imam with the name of al-Nāṣir li'l-Ḥaqq ("Defender of the True Faith") and were converted to his own branch of Zaydi
Zaydi
Islam, which was named after him as the Nasiriyya and differed in some practices from the "mainstream" Qasimiyya branch adopted in Tabaristan
Tabaristan
following the teachings of Qasim ibn Ibrahim.[1][4] This development threatened the position of the Justanid
Justanid
king, Justan ibn Vahsudan, but in the ensuing showdown between the two Hasan was able to affirm his position and compel the Justanid
Justanid
to swear allegiance to himself.[5] Recovery of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and aftermath[edit] Seeing Hasan's rise to power, the Samanid
Samanid
ruler Ahmad ibn Isma'il sent an army under Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Sa'luk to Tabaristan
Tabaristan
to oppose a new Zaydid takeover of the province. Although the Samanid
Samanid
force was far superior in numbers and equipment, Hasan managed to inflict a crushing defeat upon it in December 913 at Burdidah on the river Burrud west of Chalus. A detachment that managed to find refuge in the fortress of Chalus was induced to surrender and then massacred by his son-in-law, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hasan ibn al-Qasim. After this success, the provincial capital Amul opened its gates to the Zaydid
Zaydid
forces, and Hasan took up residence in the palace.[2][5] Taking advantage of the murder of Ahmad ibn Ismai'il soon after, and the preoccupation of his successor Nasr II with cementing his own authority, Hasan was soon able to extend his control over all the old Zaydid
Zaydid
domains, including both Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Gurgan. A Samanid
Samanid
counter-attack temporarily forced him to abandon Amul and withdraw to Chalus, but after 40 days he beat the invasion back and re-established his position. Even old opponents of the first Zaydid
Zaydid
emirs, like the Bavandid
Bavandid
Sharwin II, made peace with him and accepted his authority.[2][5] His achievement was undermined, however, by tensions among his supporters over the issue of his succession, given his advanced age. Hasan's own sons were regarded as dissolute and incapable for leadership, while Hasan fell out with his son-in-law and chief general, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hasan ibn al-Qasim. On one occasion the latter even took the elderly imam captive, but this produced such an outcry that he was forced to flee to Daylam. In the end, the notables of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
prevailed upon both to mend their differences, and Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
was named as successor over Hasan's own sons.[1][6] Hasan ruled over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
until his death in January/February 917, and even a Sunni
Sunni
historian like al-Tabari comments that "the people had not seen anything like the justice of al-Utrush, his good conduct, and his fulfilment of the right".[1][5] His tomb in Amul became a major site of pilgrimage for the Daylamite and Gilite Shi'ites, and his descendants, who kept the honorific surname al-Nasir, were held in high esteem.[7] Upon his death, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
returned from Gilan and succeeded him as ruler until his death in 928. Although a popular ruler, his reign was constantly threatened by Hasan's sons Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad and Abu'l-Qaim Ja'far and their supporters, who deposed and forced him to exile briefly in 919 and again in 923–926.[8][9] References[edit]

^ a b c d Strothmann (1971), pp. 254–255 ^ a b c d e Strothmann (1971), p. 254 ^ Madelung (1975), p. 207 ^ Madelung (1975), pp. 208–209 ^ a b c d Madelung (1975), p. 209 ^ Madelung (1975), p. 210 ^ Madelung (1975), pp. 209–210 ^ Madelung (1975), pp. 210–211 ^ Strothmann (1971), p. 255

Sources[edit]

Strothmann, R. (1971). "Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲". In Lewis, B.; Ménage, V. L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III: H–Iram. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 254–255. ISBN 90-04-08118-6.  Madelung, W. (1975). "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R.N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. 

External links[edit]

Tabaristan
Tabaristan
portal

Madelung, W. "ʿALIDS OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 25 January 2013.  Madelung, W. "GĪLĀN iv. History in the Early Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 

v t e

Zaydi
Zaydi
dynasties of Tabaristan

Hasanids

Hasan ibn Zayd
Hasan ibn Zayd
(al-Da'i al-Kabir) Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zayd (al-Da'i al-Saghir) Hasan ibn Mahdi Hasan ibn Qasim (al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq)

Husaynids

Hasan al-Utrush
Hasan al-Utrush
(al-Nasir al-Kabir) Ahmad ibn al-Nasir Ja'far ibn al-Nasir Abu Ali Muhammad Ismail Abu Ja'far Husayn

Military usurpers

Asfar ibn Shir

.