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Harvey Williams Cushing
Harvey Williams Cushing
(April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon, pathologist, writer and draftsman. A pioneer of brain surgery, he was the first exclusive neurosurgeon and the first person to describe Cushing's disease. He wrote a biography of William Osler in three volumes. Together with Ernest Sachs, he is known as the Father of Neurosurgery.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Early career 4 First World War 5 Later career 6 Legacy 7 Family 8 Trained under Cushing 9 Publications 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Early life[edit] Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
was born in Cleveland, Ohio. His parents were Elizabeth Maria "Betsey M." Williams and Henry Kirke Cushing,[2] a physician whose ancestors came to Hingham, Massachusetts, as Puritans in the 17th century.[3] Harvey was the youngest of ten children. Education[edit] As a child, Cushing attended the Cleveland
Cleveland
Manual Training School which expanded his interest in science and medicine. The school’s emphasis on experimental training and a “physics-focused” approach to education played an important role in influencing Cushing towards a career in medical surgery. The school's manual dexterity training program also contributed to Cushing’s future success as a surgeon.[4] He graduated with an A.B. degree in 1891 from Yale University, where he was a member of Scroll and Key
Scroll and Key
and Delta Kappa Epsilon
Delta Kappa Epsilon
(Phi chapter). He studied medicine at Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
and earned his medical degree in 1895. Cushing completed his internship at Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital and then did a residency in surgery under the guidance of pioneering surgeon William Stewart Halsted
William Stewart Halsted
at the Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
in Baltimore. Early career[edit] After doing exceptional cerebral surgery abroad under Kocher at Bern and Sherrington at Liverpool, he began private practice in Baltimore. During his time with Kocher, he first encountered the Cushing reflex which describes the relationship between blood pressure and intracranial pressure. At the age of 32, he was made associate professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and was placed in full charge of cases of surgery of the central nervous system. Yet he found time to write numerous monographs on surgery of the brain and spinal column and to make important contributions to bacteriology. He made (with Kocher) a study of intracerebral pressure and (with Sherrington) contributed much to the localization of the cerebral centers. In Baltimore, he developed the method of operating with local anaesthesia, and his paper on its use in hernia gave him a European reputation. In 1911, he was appointed surgeon-in-chief at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston.[5] He became a professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
starting in 1912.[6] In 1913, he was made an honorary F.R.C.S. (London). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1914.[7] In 1915, before the Clinical Congress of Surgeons in Boston, he showed the possibility of influencing stature by operating on the pituitary gland.[5] First World War[edit] Shortly after the entry of the United States
United States
into the First World War, Cushing was commissioned as a major in the U.S. Army Medical Corps
U.S. Army Medical Corps
on May 5, 1917. He was director of the U.S. base hospital attached to the British Expeditionary Force in France. Cushing also served as the head of a surgical unit in a French military hospital outside of Paris. During his time at the French military hospital, Cushing experimented with the use of electromagnets to extract fragments of metallic missile shrapnel that were lodged severely within the brain.[8] He was mentioned in a dispatch by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig
Douglas Haig
in November 1917.[9] On June 6, 1918, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and was assigned as senior consultant in neurological surgery for the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He attained the rank of Colonel (O-6) on October 23, 1918.[5] In that capacity, he treated Lieutenant Edward Revere Osler, who was fatally wounded during the third battle of Ypres. Lieutenant Osler was the son of Sir William Osler.[10] Cushing returned to the United States
United States
in February 1919 and was discharged on April 9 of the same year. In recognition of his service during the war, Cushing was invested as a Companion of the Bath by the British government.[9] In 1923 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by the U.S. Army.[11] Later career[edit] Cushing authored the Pulitzer prize-winning biography, Life of Sir William Osler
William Osler
(London: Oxford University Press, 1925). From 1933 to 1937, when he retired, he worked at the Yale School of Medicine as Sterling Professor
Sterling Professor
of Neurology.[6] Cushing died on October 7, 1939 in New Haven, Connecticut, from complications of a myocardial infarction.[6][12] He was interred at Lake View Cemetery
Lake View Cemetery
in Cleveland.[13] Interestingly, an autopsy performed on Cushing revealed that his brain harbored a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Legacy[edit] In the beginning of the 20th century, Dr. Cushing developed many of the basic surgical techniques for operating on the brain. This established him as one of the foremost leaders and experts in the field. Under his influence neurosurgery became a new and autonomous surgical discipline.

Historical marker at Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland

He considerably improved the survival of patients after difficult brain operations for intracranial tumors. He used X-rays to diagnose brain tumors. He used electrical stimuli for study of the human sensory cortex. He played a pivotal role in development of the Bovie electrocautery tool with William T. Bovie, a physicist. He was the world's leading teacher of neurosurgeons in the first decades of the 20th century.

Arguably, Cushing's greatest contribution came with his introduction to North America of blood pressure measurement. Upon visiting colleague Scipione Riva-Rocci, an Italian physician, Cushing was astonished by Riva-Rocci's non-invasive way of measuring intra-arterial pressure. In 1896, Riva-Rocci developed a wall-mounted mercury manometer linked to a balloon-inflated cuff that would measure the pressure needed to compress arterial systolic pressure, i.e. systolic blood pressure measurement. Riva-Rocci's design was based on a more primitive version developed by French physician Pierre Potain. Cushing returned to the USA with a sample of Riva-Rocci's sphygmomanometer and blood pressure measurement became a vital sign. The use of the Riva-Rocci sphygmomanometer as a diagnostic tool rapidly spread across the US and western world, a direct contribution by Harvey Cushing. The device's use continued until Russian physician Nikolai Korotkov
Nikolai Korotkov
included diastolic blood pressure measurement in 1905 (after he discovered the famed "Korotkoff sounds") with his improved sphygmomanometer, which also replaced the mercury manometer with a smaller, round dial manometer.[14]

Dr. Harvey Cushing, 1908; oil on canvas, Edmund C. Tarbell

Cushing's name is commonly associated with his most famous discovery, Cushing's disease. In 1912 he reported in a study an endocrinological syndrome caused by a malfunction of the pituitary gland which he termed "polyglandular syndrome." He published his findings in 1932 as "The Basophil Adenomas of the Pituitary Body and Their Clinical Manifestations: pituitary Basophilism".[15] Cushing was also awarded the 1926 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography for a book recounting the life of one of the fathers of modern medicine, Sir William Osler.[16] In 1930, Cushing was awarded the Lister Medal
Lister Medal
for his contributions to surgical science. As part of the award, he delivered the Lister Memorial Lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in July 1930.[17][18] Cushing was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
in 1934, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London.[19] He served as president of the History of Science Society
History of Science Society
in 1934.[20] Cushing was also a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, nominated at least 38 times.[21] In 1988, the United States
United States
Postal Service issued a 45-cent postage stamp in his honor, as part of the Great Americans series.[22]

Cushing ventricular cannula

Cushing developed many surgical instruments that are in use today, most notably Cushing forceps and the Cushing ventricular cannula. The forceps instrument is used to grasp the thick tissues of the scalp during cranial surgery and the cannula is used to enter the brain ventricles for CSF drainage. He also developed a surgical magnet while working with the Harvard Medical Unit in France
France
during World War I to extract shrapnel from the heads of wounded soldiers. The Harvey Cushing/ John Hay Whitney
John Hay Whitney
Medical Library[23] at Yale University contains extensive collections in the field of medicine and the history of medicine. In 2005, the library released portions of its collection online, including the Peter Parker Collection which consists of a collection of portrait engravings and 83 mid-19th-century oil paintings rendered by artist Lam Qua
Lam Qua
of Chinese tumor patients, and a biography of Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
by John F. Fulton. In 2010, Yale placed on display Cushing's collection of brain specimens.[24] There is also a collection of his papers at the National Library of Medicine.[25] Family[edit] He married Katharine Stone Crowell, a Cleveland
Cleveland
childhood friend, on June 10, 1902. They had five children:

William Harvey Cushing Mary Benedict Cushing, who married Vincent Astor
Vincent Astor
and later James Whitney Fosburgh;[26] Betsey Cushing, who married James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
and later John Hay Whitney;[27] Henry Kirke Cushing Barbara "Babe" Cushing, the socialite wife of Stanley Grafton Mortimer and later William S. Paley.[28]

Trained under Cushing[edit]

Walter Dandy, the first pediatric neurosurgeon and the developer of pneumoencephalography Prof. Leo M. Davidoff,[29] founder of the Department of Neurological Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine Prof. Norman Dott[30] Wilder Penfield, pioneer neurosurgeon and founder of the Montreal Neurological Institute

Publications[edit]

The Pituitary Body and its Disorders (1912) Tumours of the Nervus Acousticus (1917) Blood Vessel Tumours of the Brain (1928) Consecratio Medici and other papers (1928) The Medical Career (1940) A Visit to Le Puy-En-Velay (1945)[31][32][33]

See also[edit]

History of medicine Timeline of medicine and medical technology

References[edit]

^ Witters, Lee A. (Winter 2007). "A Diligent Effort". Dartmouth Medicine. p. 3. Retrieved May 31, 2016.  ^ https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/fellows/biographical_index/fells_indexp1.pdf ^ Lincoln, Solomon Jr.; Gill, Caleb Jr. History of the Town of Hingham, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, Farmer and Brown, Hingham, 1827. ^ Fulton, John. Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
A Biography. Springfield, Illinois. 1946. Print. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Cushing, Harvey". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(12th ed.). London
London
& New York.  ^ a b c "Brainman". Time. April 17, 1939. Retrieved March 21, 2010.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter C" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 14, 2011.  ^ Ellis, H (2012). "Harvey Cushing: Cushing's disease". Journal of perioperative practice. 22 (9): 298–9. PMID 23101174.  ^ a b Harvard's Military Record during the World War. Harvard Alumni Association. 1921. pg. 238. ^ Starling, P H (March 2003). "The case of Edward Revere Osler". Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 149 (1): 27–29. doi:10.1136/jramc-149-01-05. PMID 12743923.  ^ Decorations of the United States
United States
Army, 1862-1926. War Department. Office of the Adjutant General. Washington. 1927. pg. 693. ^ "Dr. Cushing Dead; Brain Surgeon, 70. A Pioneer Who Won Fame as Founder of New School of Neuro-Surgery. Discovered Malady Affecting Pituitary Gland. Was Noted Teacher and Author". The New York Times. October 8, 1939. Retrieved March 21, 2010.  ^ "Services for Surgeon
Surgeon
Held in Cleveland
Cleveland
Cemetery". The New York Times. October 11, 1939. Retrieved March 22, 2010. Harvey Williams Cushing, noted brain surgeon and neurologist, who died in New Haven, Conn., on Saturday, was buried here today on a knoll, a plot adjoining that of John D. Rockefeller, in Lake View Cemetery. Burial a brief private service read by the Rev. ...  ^ Mangione, Salvatore (2000) Physical Diagnosis Secrets. Hanley & Belfus. ISBN 1560531649 ^ Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism)". Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 50: 137–95.  Reprinted in Cushing, Harvey (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism)". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 44 (4): 180–1. PMC 2387613 . PMID 19310569.  ^ Cushing, Harvey (1925). The Life of Sir William Osler. Oxford: Clarendon Press. OCLC 268160.  ^ The lecture is available at: Neurohypophysial mechanisms from a clinical standpoint Cushing, H., Lancet (Lond.), 1930, ii, 119–147; 175–184. ^ For a picture of Cushing's Lister Medal, and an offprint of the lecture, see Harvey Cushing, M.D.
M.D.
Legendary Neurosurgeon
Neurosurgeon
Archived December 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ehistorybuff.com (accessed February 17, 2009) ^ Cannon, W. B. (1941). "Harvey (Williams) Cushing". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 3 (9): 276–290. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1941.0003.  ^ The History of Science Society
History of Science Society
"The Society: Past Presidents of the History of Science Society" Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., accessed December 4, 2013 ^ Hansson N, Schlich T (2015). "Highly Qualified Loser"? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize". J Neurosurg. 122 (4): 976–79.  ^ Scott catalog
Scott catalog
# 2188. ^ Digital Library Collections of the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library Archived May 29, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. at Yale University ^ "Inside Neurosurgery's Rise". The New York Times. August 23, 2010.  ^ " Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
Correspondence 1930–1939". National Library of Medicine.  ^ "Mary Fosburgh, 72. One of Cushing Sisters and a Leader in Arts. Raised Funds During War". The New York Times. November 8, 1978. Retrieved March 21, 2010. Mary Gushing Fosburgh, the eldest of the socially prominent Cushing sisters and widow of the painter James Whitney Fosburgh, died Saturday at her home in Manhattan after a long illness. She was 72 years old and lived at 32 East 64th Street.  ^ Nemy, Enid (March 26, 1998). " Betsey Cushing Whitney Is Dead at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2010. Betsey Cushing Roosevelt Whitney, the widow of John Hay (Jock) Whitney, the first wife of James Roosevelt and the last of the three glamorous Cushing sisters of Boston, died yesterday at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y. She was 89.  ^ Nemy, Enid (July 7, 1978). "Barbara Cushing Paley Dies at 63; Style Pace-Setter in Three Decades; Symbol of Taste". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2010. Barbara Cushing Paley, the wife of William S. Paley, the chairman of the board of the Columbia Broadcasting System, died of cancer at their apartment in New York City yesterday after a long illness. She was 63 years old.  ^ Wisoff HS (2012). "Leo Max Davidoff: his formative years and participation in the MacMillan Arctic Expedition". J. Neurosurg. 117: 447–54. doi:10.3171/2012.4.JNS111211. PMID 22725989.  ^ http://lhsa.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/the-life-of-norman-dott-examined.html ^ Cushing, Harvey (1944). A Visit to Le Puy-En-Velay. Cleveland: The Rowfant Club.  ^ "JAMA Book Review: A Visit to Le Puy-En-Velay; 1945". The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1945;75(2):143. Retrieved November 7, 2017.  ^ "Cushing as Artist". Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Cushing Center. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harvey W. Cushing.

Fulton, John F. Harvey Cushing: A Biography, Charles C. Thomas (Springfield, Illinois), 1946. Guide to the Harvey Williams Cushing
Harvey Williams Cushing
Papers, Manuscripts and Archives[permanent dead link], Yale University
Yale University
Library Bliss, Michael. Harvey Cushing: a Life in Surgery, Oxford University Press, 2005. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir[permanent dead link] Harvey Cushing: A Journey Through His Life Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
Fonds. Osler Library of the History of Medicine. McGill University. Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
at Find a Grave
Find a Grave

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography
(1926–1950)

Harvey Cushing
Harvey Cushing
(1926) Emory Holloway (1927) Charles Edward Russell
Charles Edward Russell
(1928) Burton J. Hendrick (1929) Marquis James
Marquis James
(1930) Henry James (1931) Henry F. Pringle (1932) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1933) Tyler Dennett (1934) Douglas S. Freeman
Douglas S. Freeman
(1935) Ralph Barton Perry (1936) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1937) Odell Shepard/ Marquis James
Marquis James
(1938) Carl Van Doren (1939) Ray Stannard Baker
Ray Stannard Baker
(1940) Ola Elizabeth Winslow (1941) Forrest Wilson (1942) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1943) Carleton Mabee (1944) Russel Blaine Nye (1945) Linnie Marsh Wolfe (1946) William Allen White
William Allen White
(1947) Margaret Clapp
Margaret Clapp
(1948) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1949) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1950)

Complete list (1917–1925) (1926–1950) (1951–1975) (1976–2000) (2001–2025)

v t e

Presidents of the History of Science Society

1924–1949

Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1924–1925) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1926) David Eugene Smith
David Eugene Smith
(1927) Edgar Fahs Smith
Edgar Fahs Smith
(1928) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1929) Henry Crew
Henry Crew
(1930) William H. Welch
William H. Welch
(1931) Berthold Laufer (1932) J. Playfair McMurrich
J. Playfair McMurrich
(1933) Harvey Williams Cushing
Harvey Williams Cushing
(1934) Charles Albert Browne, Jr.
Charles Albert Browne, Jr.
(1935–1936) Chauncey D. Leake (1937–1938) Henry E. Sigerist
Henry E. Sigerist
(1939) Richard H. Shryock (1940–1942) Louis Charles Karpinski (1943–1944) Isaiah Bowman (1944) Vilhjalmur Stefansson
Vilhjalmur Stefansson
(1945–1946) John Farquhar Fulton
John Farquhar Fulton
(1947–1950)

1950–1999

Harcourt Brown (1951–1952) Dorothy Stimson (1953–1956) Henry Guerlac (1957–1960) I. Bernard Cohen (1961–1962) Marshall Clagett (1963–1964) Charles Coulston Gillispie (1965–1966) C. D. O'Malley (1967–1968) Thomas Kuhn
Thomas Kuhn
(1969–1970) Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (1971–1972) Erwin N. Hiebert (1973–1974) John C. Greene
John C. Greene
(1975–1976) Richard S. Westfall
Richard S. Westfall
(1977-1978) Robert P. Multhauf (1979–1980) Frederic L. Holmes (1981–1982) Gerald Holton (1983–1984) Edward Grant (1985–1986) William Coleman (1987) Mary Jo Nye
Mary Jo Nye
(1988–1989) Stephen G. Brush (1990–1991) Sally Gregory Kohlstedt (1992–1993) David C. Lindberg (1994–1995) Frederick Gregory (1996–1997) Albert Van Helden (1998–1999)

2000–present

Ronald Numbers
Ronald Numbers
(2000–2001) John Servos (2002–2003) Michael Sokal (2004–2005) Joan Cadden (2006–2007) Jane Maienschein (2008–2009) Paul Lawrence Farber (2010–2011) Lynn K. Nyhart (2012–2013) Angela N. H. Creager
Angela N. H. Creager
(2014–2015) Janet Browne
Janet Browne
(2016–2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76395316 LCCN: n79132482 ISNI: 0000 0001 0917 4240 GND: 119377152 SUDOC: 032703295 BNF: cb12368252x (data) MGP: 105984 NDL: 00620546 BNE: XX4613

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