HARVARD UNIVERSITY is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts , established in 1636, whose history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.
Established originally by the Massachusetts legislature and soon thereafter named for John Harvard (its first benefactor), Harvard is the United States\' oldest institution of higher learning , and the Harvard Corporation (formally, the _President and Fellows of Harvard College_) is its first chartered corporation . Although never formally affiliated with any denomination , the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites . Following the American Civil War , President Charles W. Eliot 's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university ; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College .
The university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study —with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area : its 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium , are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston and the medical , dental , and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area . Harvard's $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution .
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. It operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums, alongside the Harvard Library , which is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries with over 18 million volumes. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents , several foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires , 359 Rhodes Scholars , and 242 Marshall Scholars . To date, some 130 Nobel laureates , 18 Fields Medalists , and 13 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or staff.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Colonial * 1.2 19th century * 1.3 20th century * 1.4 21st century
* 2 Campuses
* 2.1 Cambridge * 2.2 Allston * 2.3 Longwood * 2.4 Other
* 3 Organization and administration
* 3.1 Governance
* 3.2 Endowment
* 3.2.1 Divestment
* 4 Academics
* 4.1 Admission * 4.2 Teaching and learning * 4.3 Research * 4.4 Libraries and museums * 4.5 University rankings
* 5 Student life
* 5.1 Student body * 5.2 Athletics * 5.3 Song
* 6 Notable people
* 6.1 Alumni * 6.2 Faculty
* 7 Literature and popular culture
* 7.1 Literature * 7.2 Film
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Citations * 9.2 Further reading
* 10 External links
Main article: History of Harvard University
_ The official seal of the Harvard Corporation . Found on Harvard diplomas, it carries the university's original motto, Christo et Ecclesiae_ ("Christ and Church"), later changed to _Veritas_ ("Truth"). Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere , 1767
Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony . In 1638, it obtained British North America's first known printing press. In 1639 it was named _ Harvard College _ after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £ 779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.
A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; in its early years trained many Puritan ministers. It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge —but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism . It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.
The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.
Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. :1–4 When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years later, which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas). :4–5 :24
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart , whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth , John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge . The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.
Charles W. Eliot , president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson , these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.
During the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College , established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians"—a group later called "WASPs" ( White Anglo-Saxon Protestants ). By the 1970s it was much more diversified.
James Bryant Conant (president, 1933–1953) reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee its preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as the college level. The resulting _Report_, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in the history of American education in the 20th century.
In 1945–1960 admissions policies were opened up to bring in students from a more diverse applicant pool. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools , the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics or Asians.
Harvard graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century, and during World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women students) began attending Harvard classes alongside men, The first class of women was admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945. Since the 1970s Harvard has been responsible for essentially all aspects of admission, instruction, and undergraduate life for women, and Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard in 1999.
Drew Gilpin Faust , the Dean at Radcliffe, became the first female president of Harvard in 2007.
Harvard's 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university , academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall , Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories . Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses , nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River . The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall and library. The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness .
Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard , is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common . Memorial Hall Memorial Church
Between 2011 and 2013, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 104 forcible sex offenses, 55 robberies, 83 aggravated assaults, 89 burglaries, and 43 cases of motor vehicle theft.
Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes. This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel , The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel.
Main article: Harvard University\'s expansion in Allston, Massachusetts
The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium , are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston , a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge , a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River , connects the two campuses. Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge. A ten-year plan calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School ; a hotel and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student housing and to Harvard Stadium ; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms for the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ; expansion of the Harvard Education Portal; and a district energy facility.
Main article: Longwood Medical and Academic Area
Further south, the Harvard Medical School , Harvard School of Dental Medicine , and the Harvard School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston. The Arnold Arboretum , in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, is also owned and operated by Harvard.
Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection , in Washington, D.C. ; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts ; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts and the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence , Italy. Harvard also operates the Harvard Shanghai Center in China.
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
COLLEGE/SCHOOL YEAR FOUNDED
Harvard College 1636
Dental Medicine 1867
Arts and Sciences 1872
Public Health 1922
Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007
Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University . There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors teaching 7,200 undergraduates and 14,000 graduate students.
The Faculty of Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College , Graduate School of Arts and Sciences , and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education , which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School . There are ten other graduate and professional school faculties, in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study .
Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology , the Broad Institute , The Observatory of Economic Complexity , and edX .
Main article: Harvard University endowment
Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world. As of September 2011 , it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession. It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010 and $26 billion in 2009. It suffered about 30% loss in 2008–09. In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) from July to October 2008, necessitating budget cuts. Later reports suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone. Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion. One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents. As of 2012 , Harvard University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant reserve of $4.093 million available for disbursement.
Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa , the tobacco industry , Sudan during the Darfur genocide , and the fossil fuel industry.
During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups." However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.
Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in". Harvard College accepted 5.2% of applicants for the class of 2021, a record low and the second lowest acceptance rate among all national universities. Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016, an early action program was reintroduced.
The undergraduate admissions office's policies on preference for children of alumni have been the subject of scrutiny and debate as it primarily aids Caucasians and the wealthy and seems to conflict with the concept of meritocratic admissions.
TEACHING AND LEARNING
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929. The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations (majors), 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2008–2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master's degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460 professional degrees.
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an "arts and sciences focus". Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration. Since 2008, undergraduate students have been required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World. Harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program, and there is a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate degrees. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching , _ The New York Times _, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education.
Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. Undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time. In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work. Students graduating in the top 4–5% of the class are awarded degrees _summa cum laude_, students in the next 15% of the class are awarded _magna cum laude_, and the next 30% of the class are awarded _cum laude_. Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually. Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation , although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased. Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and " Harvard College Scholar" will now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.
University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating." In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students. In 2013, there was a report that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university, and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor code .
For the 2012–13 school year, annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of $57,000. Beginning in 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%).
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Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and remains a research university with "very high" research activity and a "comprehensive" doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine. Research and development expenditures in 2011 totaled $649.7 million, 27th among American universities.
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
The Harvard University Library System is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over 18 million volumes. According to the American Library Association , this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. Cabot Science Library, Lamont Library, and Widener Library are three of the most popular libraries for undergraduates to use, with easy access and central locations. There are rare books, manuscripts and other special collections throughout Harvard's libraries; Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library . _ Henry Moore 's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure_, near Lamont Library
Harvard operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums. The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum , formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art , covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance , British pre-Raphaelite , and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum , Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology . Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts , designed by Le Corbusier , housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology , specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.
_ARWU _ 1
_FORBES _ 4
_U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT _ 2
_WASHINGTON MONTHLY _ 2
_ARWU _ 1
_QS _ 3
_TIMES _ 6
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NATIONAL PROGRAM RANKINGS
Biological Sciences 1
Clinical Psychology 16
Computer Science 18
Earth Sciences 8
Medicine: Primary Care 16
Medicine: Research 1
Political Science 1
Public Affairs 3
Public Health 2
GLOBAL PROGRAM RANKINGS
Agricultural Sciences 13
Arts & Humanities 2
Biology & Biochemistry 1
Clinical Medicine 1
Computer Science 6
Economics & Business 1
Materials Science 5
Molecular Biology & Genetics 1
Neuroscience & Behavior 1
Pharmacology & Toxicology 1
Plant & Animal Science 5
The Harvard Crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Ivy League . Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with Yale University culminating in _The Game _, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football game. This rivalry, though, is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world.
Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game ". While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp (former captain of the Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass , perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history.
Harvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion , a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams. The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC", serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five-story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool , a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held, an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC offers personal trainers and specialty classes. It is home to Harvard volleyball, fencing and wrestling.
Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively. The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, Connecticut, as their training camp for the annual Harvard-Yale Regatta . The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports.
As of 2013 , there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships .
Older than _The Game_ by 23 years, the Harvard-Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. It is held annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing . Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as the Harvard Crimson men\'s ice hockey team (with a strong rivalry against Cornell ), squash , and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing . Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003.
Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.
_ Harvard Undergraduate Television _ has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game.
The school color is crimson , which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, _ The Harvard Crimson _. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta ) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot , a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.
Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are " Ten Thousand Men of Harvard " and " Harvardiana ." While " Fair Harvard " is actually the alma mater , "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers, at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song " Fight Fiercely, Harvard ," which he composed while an undergraduate.
Main articles: List of Harvard University people and Notable non-graduate alumni of Harvard
2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758)
6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1798) *
19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845) *
26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880) *
32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903) *
American author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, Radcliffe College, 1904) *
35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (SB, 1940) *
President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971) *
11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, 1973) *
43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975) *
Founder of Microsoft Bill Gates (COL, 1977; LLD, 2007) *
Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984) *
46th First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988) *
44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991) *
Co-Founder of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg (COL, 2006)
Harvard's faculty includes scholars such as biologist E. O. Wilson , cognitive scientist Steven Pinker , physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber , chemists Elias Corey , Dudley R. Herschbach and George M. Whitesides , computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant , Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt , writer Louis Menand , critic Helen Vendler , historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Niall Ferguson , economists Amartya Sen , N. Gregory Mankiw , Robert Barro , Stephen A. Marglin , Don M. Wilson III and Martin Feldstein , political philosophers Harvey Mansfield , Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael Sandel , Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau , political scientists Robert Putnam , Joseph Nye , and Stanley Hoffmann , scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands , astrophysicist Alyssa A. Goodman , and legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig .
LITERATURE AND POPULAR CULTURE
_ Tower at the University of Puerto Rico , showing (right)_ the emblem of Harvard University—the oldest in the United States—and _(left)_ that of National University of San Marcos , Lima—the oldest in the Americas
Harvard's legacy as a leading research and educational institution has a significant impact in both academy and popular culture. Furthermore, the perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.
* William Faulkner 's _ The Sound and the Fury _ (1929) and _Absalom! Absalom! _ (1936) both depict Harvard student life. * _Of Time and the River_ (1935), Thomas Wolfe 's fictionalized autobiography, includes his alter ego's student days at Harvard. * _ The Late George Apley _ (1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize), by John P. Marquand , parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century. * _The Second Happiest Day_ (1953), by John P. Marquand, Jr. , depicts the Harvard of the World War II generation.
Harvard's policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.
* Erich Segal 's _Love Story _ (1970), which concerns a romance between a wealthy hockey player (Ryan O\'Neal ) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means ( Ali MacGraw ), is screened annually for incoming freshmen. * _The Paper Chase _ (1973) * _Prozac Nation _ (2001) * _ Legally Blonde _ (2001) * _ Stealing Harvard _ (2002) * _ The Social Network _ (2010)
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* 2012 Harvard cheating scandal * Academic regalia of Harvard University * Gore Hall * Harvard College * Harvard University Police Department * Harvard University Press * Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society * I, Too, Am Harvard * List of universities by number of billionaire alumni * Outline of Harvard University * Secret Court of 1920
* ^ Harvard's _Veritas_ appears on the university's arms; heraldically speaking, however, a 'motto' is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms. Since 1692 University seals have borne _Christo et Ecclesiae_ (for Christ and the Church) in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university's motto in a heraldic sense. This legend is otherwise not in general use today. * ^ An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). _History of Harvard University_. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co. , p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". _Time_. September 28, 1936. Retrieved September 8, 2006. : "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony ." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006. , "Sept. 8, 1836 - Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: _The New York Times,_ September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836." * ^ As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017. * ^ Office of Institutional Research. (2009). "Faculty". _Harvard University Fact Book_ (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. ("Unduplicated, Paid Instructional Faculty Count: 2,107. Unduplicated instructional faculty count is the most appropriate count for general reporting purposes.") * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ As of 1 September 2014 . "Harvard at a Glance". _Harvard University_. Retrieved November 27, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
* ^ Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). _Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University_. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0 . Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. (...) Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
* Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John. _How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire_. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN 0-89608-284-9 . ... tremendous institutional power and prestige (...) Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning ... * David Altaner (March 9, 2011). "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012. * _Collier's Encyclopedia_. Macmillan Educational Co. 1986. Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636. * Newport, Frank. "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place". Gallup. * "ARWU - Harvard University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2015. * "The Week in Review: Harvard Ends Early Admissions and Guess Who Wins". _The New York Times_. September 17, 2006. The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated.
* ^ Rudolph, Frederick (1961). _The American College and University_. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1 . * ^ Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". _Journal of Social History_. 8 (3): 94–121. doi :10.1353/jsh/8.3.94 . * ^ Farrell, Betty G. (1993). _Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston_. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Member Institutions and years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Carnegie Classifications - Harvard University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rimer, Sara; Finder, Alan (December 10, 2007). "Harvard Steps Up Financial Aid". _The New York Times_. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The Nation\'s Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. May 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009. * ^ "Speaking Volumes". _Harvard Gazette_. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. * ^ "Joining the ranks of Rhodes". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Janhavi Kumar Sapra (August 11, 2010). "Billionaire Universities". _ Forbes _. Retrieved August 31, 2010. * ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/statistics * ^ "The complete list of Fields Medal winners". _areppim AG_. 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015. * ^ "The instrument behind New England’s first literary flowering". Harvard University. Retrieved January 18, 2014. * ^ "Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press" (PDF). Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull. Retrieved January 18, 2014. * ^ "John Harvard Facts, Information.". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009. He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor.
* ^ Wright, Louis B. (2002). _The Cultural Life of the American Colonies_. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-486-42223-7 . * ^ Grigg, John A.; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). _British Colonial America: People and Perspectives_. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-59884-025-4 . * ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (July 26, 2007). "Harvard guide intro". Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gary J. Dorrien. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805-1900, Volume 1. Westminster John Knox Press, 2001 * ^ Peter S. Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 ISBN 978-0847688425 * ^ Nartonis, David K. (2005). " Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846". _Journal of the History of Ideas_. 66 (3): 437–449. JSTOR 3654189 . doi :10.1353/jhi.2005.0045 . * ^ Shoemaker, Stephen P. (2006–2007). "The Theological Roots of Charles W. 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ISBN 978-0-674-02089-4 . * ^ Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press * ^ Office of Institutional Research (2009). _Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010_ (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. ("Faculty") * ^ Harvard University. (2010). _Financial Report, Fiscal Year 2010_ (PDF). p. 20. * ^ "Harvard Endowment Rises $4.4 Billion to $32 Billion". _Harvard Magazine_. November–December. 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011. * ^ "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014. * ^ Beth Healy (January 28, 2010). "Harvard endowment leads others down". _The Boston Globe_. Retrieved September 2, 2010. * ^ Hechinger, John (December 4, 2008). 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USA Today , April 26, 2004. * ^ Davis, Kevin S. (February 15, 1994). "How Does Harvard Define Cheating?". The Harvard Crimson,. Retrieved September 15, 2013. ...Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student... * ^ Curry, Coleen (August 31, 2012). "Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects \'Culture of Cheating,\' Grad Says". ABC News. Retrieved September 15, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hu, Melody Y.; Newcomer, Eric P. (March 24, 2010). "Administrators Discuss College Honor Code". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...one thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called _a real problem_"... * ^ Perez-Pena, Richard (February 1, 2013). "Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
* ^ Moya-Smith, Simon (September 6, 2013). "Survey: 42 percent of Harvard\'s incoming freshman class cheated on homework". NBC News. Retrieved September 6, 2013. * ^ Harrington, Rebecca (September 14, 2012). "Song of the Cheaters". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...an honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted * ^ " Harvard University Tuition And Costs". Retrieved November 22, 2013. * ^ "Tuition at Harvard Schools: FY1990 – FY2010" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2013. * ^ "Table 14: Higher education R&D expenditures, ranked by all R">(PDF). National Science Foundation. 2011. 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Retrieved August 29, 2010. * ^ Nelson, David M., _Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game_, 1994, pp. 127–128 * ^ "Harvard : Women’s Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University". Gocrimson.com. August 9, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2013. * ^ "The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard". Harvard University. September 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. * ^ Thomas, Sarah (September 24, 2010). "‘Social Network’ taps other campuses for Harvard role". _Boston.com_. ‘In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness.... Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston ... can get this idea that it’s all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls.’ * ^ King, Michael (2002). _Wrestling with the Angel_. p. 371. ...praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class. * ^ Halberstam, Michael J. (February 18, 1953). 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* Abelmann, Walter H., ed. _The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995_ (2004). 346 pp. * Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. _Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years_ (1977). 569 pp. * Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. _The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries_ (2d ed.1982). 499 pp. * Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. _Harvard A to Z_ (2004). 396 pp. excerpt and text search * Bethell, John T. _Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century_, Harvard University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-37733-8 * Bunting, Bainbridge. _Harvard: An Architectural History_ (1985). 350 pp. * Carpenter, Kenneth E. _The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition_ (1986). 216 pp. * Cuno, James et al. _Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting_ (1996). 364 pp. * Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. _Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives_ (1992). 380 pp. * Hall, Max. _ Harvard University Press: A History_ (1986). 257 pp. * Hay, Ida. _Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum_ (1995). 349 pp. * Hoerr, John, _We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard;_ Temple University Press , 1997, ISBN 1-56639-535-6 * Howells, Dorothy Elia. _A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979_ (1978). 152 pp. * Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. _Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University_ (2001), major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition * Lewis, Harry R. _Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education_ (2006) ISBN 1-58648-393-5 * Morison, Samuel Eliot. _Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936_ (1986) 512pp; excerpt and text search * Powell, Arthur G. _The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority_ (1980). 341 pp. * Reid, Robert. _Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School_ (1994). 331 pp. * Rosovsky, Henry . _The University: An Owner's Manual_ (1991). 312 pp. * Rosovsky, Nitza. _The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe_ (1986). 108 pp. * Seligman, Joel. _The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School_ (1978). 262 pp. * Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. _Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe_ (1993). 548 pp. * Trumpbour, John, ed., _How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire_, Boston: South End Press, 1989, ISBN 0-89608-283-0 * Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed., _Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History_, New York: Palgrave Macmillan , 2004. 337 pp. * Winsor, Mary P. _Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum_ (1991). 324 pp. * Wright, Conrad Edick. _Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence_ (2005). 298 pp.
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