HARVARD COLLEGE is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard
University . Founded in 1636 in
* 1 History * 2 Academics * 3 House system * 4 Athletics * 5 Student organizations * 6 Notable alumni * 7 Fictional alumni * 8 Footnotes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links
Main article: History of
The school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and
General Court (colonial legislature, second oldest in British America)
Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton
(1610–1674); in 1639, he also became its first instructor to be
dismissed, for overstrict discipline. The school's first students
were graduated in 1642. In 1665,
Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck (c.
1643–1666) "from the
Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the
first Indian to do so in the colonial period." Lt Gov William
Stoughton , (1631–1701), Colonial Governor: 1694–99, 1700–01;
circa 1700 overlooking one of the buildings of
The _colleges_ of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board. Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would eventually constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no later than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, and it was increasingly styled Harvard _University_, even as Harvard _College_ was increasingly thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying; of those admitted, approximately three-quarters choose to attend. These figures make Harvard perhaps the most selective and sought-after college in the world. Very few transfers are accepted.
Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard _fields of concentration_ (what most schools call academic majors ); many also declare a _secondary field_ (called _minors_ elsewhere). _Joint_ concentrations (combining the requirements of two standard concentrations) and _special_ concentrations (of the student's own design) are also possible.
Undergraduates must also fulfill the General Education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields:
* Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding * Culture and Belief * Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning
* Ethical Reasoning * Science of Living Systems * Science of the Physical Universe
* Societies of the World
Each student's exposure (via "Gen Ed") to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."
In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course. The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015.
The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board , for 2015–2016 was $60,659. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%).
Lowell House in autumn
Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard (see List of Harvard dormitories ) and later in the upperclass _Houses_—administrative subdivisions of the College as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a socially incohesive and administratively daunting university environment. Each house is presided over by a senior-faculty _Faculty Dean,_ (until 2016 called the house's _Master_) while its _ Allston Burr Resident Dean _ (usually a junior faculty member) supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being. The Faculty Dean and Resident Dean are assisted by other members of the _ Senior Common Room _—select graduate students (called _tutors_), faculty, and University officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the House, as do the Faculty Dean and Resident Dean. (Terms such as tutor, Senior Common Room and _ Junior Common Room _—the House's undergraduate members—reflect a debt to the residential college systems at Oxford and Cambridge from which Harvard's system took inspiration.)
The Houses were created by President Lowell in the 1930s to combat what he saw as pernicious social stratification engendered by the private, off-campus living arrangements of many undergraduates at that time. Lowell's solution was to provide every man—Harvard was male-only at the time—with on-campus accommodations throughout his time at the College; Lowell also saw great benefits flowing from other features of the House system, such as the relaxed discussions (academic or otherwise) which he hoped would take place among undergraduates and members of the Senior Common Room over meals in each House's dining hall.
The way in which students come to live in particular Houses has changed greatly over time. Under the original "draft" system, Masters negotiated privately over the assignment of "rising sophomores" (that is, current freshmen, who will be sophomores in the coming academic year) considered most—or least—promising. From the 1960s to the mid-1990s, each student ranked the Houses according to personal preference, with an impersonal lottery resolving the oversubscription of more popular houses. Today, groups of one to eight freshmen form a block which is then assigned, essentially at random, to an upperclass house. The "River" Houses. Harvard Yard at top center.
South of Harvard Yard, near the
The construction of the River houses was financed largely by a 1928
Construction of the first River houses began in early 1929, but the
land on which they were built had been assembled decades before. After
graduating Harvard in 1895, Edward Waldo Forbes (grandson of Ralph
Waldo Emerson ) found himself inspired by the Oxford and Cambridge
systems during two years of study in England; on returning to the
The three _Quad Houses_ (in the Radcliffe Quadrangle ) enjoy a residential setting one-half mile (800 m) northwest of Harvard Yard. These were built by Radcliffe College and housed Radcliffe College students until the Harvard and Radcliffe residential systems merged in 1977. They are:
A thirteenth house, Dudley House , is nonresidential but fulfills, for some graduate students and the (very few) undergraduates living off campus, the administrative and social functions provided on-campus residents by the other twelve houses.
Harvard's residential houses are paired with Yale's residential colleges in sister relationships .
Main article: Harvard Crimson
By the late 19th century critics of intercollegiate athletics, including Harvard president Charles William Eliot , believed that sports competition had become over-commercialized and took students away from their studies, and they called for reform and limitations on all sports. This opposition prompted Harvard's athletic committee to target 'minor' sports—basketball and hockey—for reform and regulation in order to deflect attention from the major sports—football, baseball, track, and crew. The committee made it difficult for the basketball team to operate by denying financial assistance and limiting the number of overnight away games in which the team could participate. Several losing seasons, negative attitudes toward the commercialization of intercollegiate sports, and the need for reform contributed to basketball's demise at Harvard in 1909.
Today Harvard, one of the eight members of the Ivy League , claims to have the largest Division I intercollegiate athletics program, with 41 varsity teams and over 1,500 student-athletes.
Begun in 1852, the Harvard-
Main article: List of Harvard College undergraduate organizations
Harvard has hundreds of undergraduate organizations. The Phillips Brooks House Association acts as an umbrella service organization.
In an effort to marginalize organizations that "contribute to a social life and a student culture that for many on our campus is disempowering and exclusionary", students entering in the fall of 2017 or later who join unrecognized single-sex organizations (such as single-sex "final clubs ", fraternities, and sororities) will be barred from campus leadership positions such as team captaincies, and from receiving recommendation letters from Harvard requisite for certain scholarships and fellowships.
See also: List of
William S. Burroughs
E. E. Cummings
John Dos Passos
Performing arts – music, theater, and film
* Amy Farrah Fowler (show: _
The Big Bang Theory _)
* Ari Gold
Charles Emerson Winchester III
* Emily Sweeney (show: _
The Big Bang Theory _)
* Frasier Crane
James "Toofer" Spurlock
* Oliver Barrett IV
Method Man (movie: _
* ^ Harkness' gift was anonymous, at least at first. "I have forgotten the gentleman's name," Harvard's President Lowell told the faculty in making the initial announcement. "I told him I would."
* ^ Rudolph, Frederick (1961). _The American College and University_. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1 .
* ^ Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). _Making Harvard Modern:
The Rise of America's University_.
* Gookin, Daniel , _Historical Collections,_ 53: Railton,
"Vineyard's First Harvard Men," 91-112.
* King, Moses , _Harvard and its surroundings_, Cambridge,
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