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_HARRY POTTER_ is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
. The novels chronicle the life of a young wizard , Harry Potter
Harry Potter
, and his friends Hermione Granger
Hermione Granger
and Ron Weasley
Ron Weasley
, all of whom are students at Hogwarts
Hogwarts
School of Witchcraft and Wizardry . The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort , a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic, and subjugate all wizards and muggles , a reference term that means non-magical people.

Since the release of the first novel, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher\'s Stone _, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide. They have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers, and are often considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature. The series has also had its share of criticism, including concern about the increasingly dark tone as the series progressed, as well as the often gruesome and graphic violence it depicts. As of May 2013 , the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history , and have been translated into seventy-three languages . The last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling roughly eleven million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release.

The series was originally published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press
Scholastic Press
in the United States. A play, _ Harry Potter and the Cursed Child_, based on a story co-written by Rowling, premiered in London
London
on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre , and its script was published by Little, Brown as the eighth book in the series. The original seven books were adapted into an eight-part film series by Warner Bros. Pictures
Warner Bros. Pictures
, which has become the second highest-grossing film series of all time as of August 2015 . In 2016, the total value of the _Harry Potter_ franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making _Harry Potter_ one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time .

A series of many genres , including fantasy , drama , coming of age , and the British school story (which includes elements of mystery , thriller , adventure , horror and romance ), the world of _Harry Potter_ explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice, corruption, and madness.

The success of the books and films has ensured that the _Harry Potter_ franchise continues to expand, with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London
London
that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J.K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, and a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016, among many other developments. Most recently, themed attractions, collectively known as _ The Wizarding World of Harry Potter_, have been built at several Universal Parks ">' Middle-earth
Middle-earth
a mythic past, the wizarding world of _Harry Potter_ exists in parallel within the real world and contains magical versions of the ordinary elements of everyday life, with the action mostly set in Scotland (Hogwarts), the West Country, Devon, London
London
and Surrey in southeast England. The world only accessible to wizards and magical beings comprises a fragmented collection of overlooked hidden streets, ancient pubs, lonely country manors and secluded castles invisible to the Muggle
Muggle
population.

EARLY YEARS

When the first novel of the series, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher\'s Stone _ (published in America and other countries as _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Sorcerer's Stone_) opens, it is apparent that some significant event has taken place in the Wizarding World – an event so very remarkable, even Muggles(non-magical people) notice signs of it. The full background to this event and Harry Potter's past is revealed gradually through the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday, and it is at this point that his magical background begins to be revealed.

Despite Harry's aunt and uncle's desperate prevention of Harry gleaning about his powers , their efforts are in vain. Harry meets a half-giant, Rubeus Hagrid, who is also his first contact with the Wizarding World. Hagrid reveals himself to be the Keeper of Keys and Grounds at Hogwarts
Hogwarts
as well as some of Harry's history. Harry learns that, as a baby, he witnessed his parents' murder by the power-obsessed dark wizard Lord Voldemort
Lord Voldemort
, who subsequently attempted to kill him as well. Instead, the unexpected happened: Harry survived with only a lightning-shaped scar on his forehead as a memento of the attack and Voldemort
Voldemort
disappeared soon afterwards, gravely weakened by his own rebounding curse. As its inadvertent saviour from Voldemort's reign of terror, Harry has become a living legend in the Wizarding World. However, at the orders of the venerable and well-known wizard Albus Dumbledore, the orphaned Harry had been placed in the home of his unpleasant Muggle
Muggle
relatives, the Dursleys, who have kept him safe but treated him poorly, including confining him to a cupboard without meals and torturing him like he is their servant. Hagrid then officially invites Harry to attend Hogwarts
Hogwarts
School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a famous magic school in Scotland that educates young teenagers on their magical development for seven years, from age eleven to seventeen.

With Hagrid's help, Harry prepares for and undertakes his first year of study at Hogwarts. As Harry begins to explore the magical world, the reader is introduced to many of the primary locations used throughout the series. Harry meets most of the main characters and gains his two closest friends: Ron Weasley
Ron Weasley
, a fun-loving member of an ancient, large, happy, but poor wizarding family, and Hermione Granger , a gifted, bright, and hardworking witch of non-magical parentage. Harry also encounters the school's potions master, Severus Snape
Severus Snape
, who displays a conspicuously deep and abiding dislike for him, the rich brat Draco Malfoy
Draco Malfoy
whom he quickly makes enemies with, and the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Quirinus Quirrell, who later turns out to be allied with Lord Voldemort. He also discovers a talent of flying on broomsticks and is recruited for his house's Quidditch
Quidditch
team, a sport in the wizarding world where players fly on broomsticks. The first book concludes with Harry's second confrontation with Lord Voldemort, who, in his quest to regain a body, yearns to gain the power of the Philosopher\'s Stone , a substance that bestows everlasting life and turns any metal into pure gold.

The series continues with _ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
_, describing Harry's second year at Hogwarts. He and his friends investigate a 50-year-old mystery that appears uncannily related to recent sinister events at the school. Ron's younger sister, Ginny Weasley , enrolls in her first year at Hogwarts, and finds an old notebook in her belongings which turns out to be an alumnus's diary, Tom Marvolo Riddle, later revealed to be Voldemort's younger self, who is bent on ridding the school of "mudbloods", a derogatory term describing wizards and witches of non-magical parentage. The memory of Tom Riddle resides inside of the diary and when Ginny begins to confide in the diary, Voldemort
Voldemort
is able to possess her. Through the diary, Ginny acts on Voldemort's orders and unconsciously opens the "Chamber of Secrets", unleashing an ancient monster, later revealed to be a basilisk , which begins attacking students at Hogwarts. It kills those who make direct eye contact with it and petrifies those who look at it indirectly. The book also introduces a new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Gilderoy Lockhart, a highly cheerful, self-conceited wizard with a pretentious facade, later turning out to be a fraud. Harry discovers that prejudice exists in the Wizarding World through delving into the school's history, and learns that Voldemort's reign of terror was often directed at wizards and witches who were descended from Muggles. Harry also learns about the innate ability of his to speak the snake language Parseltongueis rare and often associated with the Dark Arts . When Hermione is attacked and petrified, Harry and Ron finally piece together the puzzles and unlock the Chamber of Secrets, with Harry destroying the diary for good and saving Ginny, and also destroying a part of Voldemort's soul. The end of the book reveals Lucius Malfoy, Draco's father and rival of Ron and Ginny's father, to be the culprit who slipped the book into Ginny's belongings and introduced the diary into Hogwarts.

The third novel, _ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban_, follows Harry in his third year of magical education. It is the only book in the series which does not feature Lord Voldemort
Lord Voldemort
in any form. Instead, Harry must deal with the knowledge that he has been targeted by Sirius Black , his father's best friend, and, according to the Wizarding World, an escaped mass murderer who assisted in the murder of Harry's parents. As Harry struggles with his reaction to the dementors – dark creatures with the power to devour a human soul and feed on despair – which are ostensibly protecting the school, he reaches out to Remus Lupin, a Defence Against the Dark Artsteacher who is eventually revealed to be a werewolf . Lupin teaches Harry defensive measures which are well above the level of magic generally executed by people his age. Harry comes to know that both Lupin and Black were best friends of his father and that Black was framed by their fourth friend, Peter Pettigrew , who had been hiding Ron's pet rat, Scabbers. In this book, a recurring theme throughout the series is emphasised – in every book there is a new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, none of whom lasts more than one school year.

VOLDEMORT RETURNS

_ The Elephant House was one of the cafés in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
where Rowling wrote the first part of Harry Potter_.

During Harry's fourth year of school (detailed in _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire _), Harry is unwillingly entered as a participant in the Triwizard Tournament, a dangerous yet exciting contest where three "champions", one from each participating school, must compete with each other in three tasks in order to win the Triwizard Cup. This year, Harry must compete against a witch and a wizard "champion" from overseas visiting schools Beauxbatons and Durmstrang, as well as another Hogwarts
Hogwarts
student, causing Harry's friends to distance themselves from him. Harry is guided through the tournament by their new Defence Against the Dark Artsprofessor, Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody , who turns out to be an impostor – one of Voldemort's supporters named Barty Crouch, Jr. in disguise. The point at which the mystery is unravelled marks the series' shift from foreboding and uncertainty into open conflict. Voldemort's plan to have Crouch use the tournament to bring Harry to Voldemort
Voldemort
succeeds. Although Harry manages to escape, Cedric Diggory, the other Hogwarts
Hogwarts
champion in the tournament, is killed by Peter Pettigrew and Voldemort
Voldemort
re-enters the Wizarding World with a physical body.

In the fifth book, _ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
_, Harry must confront the newly resurfaced Voldemort. In response to Voldemort's reappearance, Dumbledore re-activates the Order of the Phoenix , a secret society which works from Sirius Black's dark family home to defeat Voldemort's minions and protect Voldemort's targets, especially Harry. Despite Harry's description of Voldemort's recent activities, the Ministry of Magicand many others in the magical world refuse to believe that Voldemort
Voldemort
has returned. In an attempt to counter and eventually discredit Dumbledore, who along with Harry is the most prominent voice in the Wizarding World attempting to warn of Voldemort's return, the Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridgeas the High Inquisitor of Hogwarts
Hogwarts
and the new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher. She transforms the school into a dictatorial regime and refuses to allow the students to learn ways to defend themselves against dark magic.

With Ron and Hermione's suggestion, Harry forms "Dumbledore\'s Army ", a secret study group aimed to teach his classmates the higher-level skills of Defence Against the Dark Artsthat he has learned from his previous encounters with Dark wizards. Through those lessons, Harry begins to develop a crush on the popular and attractive Cho Chang. Juggling schoolwork, Umbridge's incessant and persistent efforts to land him in trouble and the defensive lessons, Harry begins to lose sleep as he constantly receives disturbing dreams about a dark corridor in the Ministry of Magic, followed by a burning desire. An important prophecy concerning Harry and Lord Voldemort
Lord Voldemort
is then revealed, and Harry discovers that he and Voldemort
Voldemort
have a painful connection, allowing Harry to view some of Voldemort's actions telepathically. In the novel's climax, Harry is tricked into seeing Sirius tortured and races to the Ministry of Magic. He and his friends face off against Voldemort's followers nicknamed Death Eatersat the Ministry of Magic. Although the timely arrival of members of the Order of the Phoenix saves the teenagers' lives, Sirius Black
Sirius Black
is killed in the conflict.

In the sixth book, _ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
_, Voldemort
Voldemort
begins waging open warfare. Harry and his friends are relatively protected from that danger at Hogwarts. They are subject to all the difficulties of adolescence – Harry eventually begins dating Ginny, Ron establishes a strong infatuation with fellow Hogwarts student Lavender Brown, and Hermione starts to develop romantic feelings towards Ron. Near the beginning of the novel, lacking his own book, Harry is given an old potions textbook filled with many annotations and recommendations signed by a mysterious writer titled; "the Half-Blood Prince." This book is a source of scholastic success and great recognition from their new potions master, Horace Slughorn
Horace Slughorn
, but because of the potency of the spells that are written in it, becomes a source of concern. With war drawing near, Harry takes private lessons with Dumbledore, who shows him various memories concerning the early life of Voldemort
Voldemort
in a device called a Pensieve. These reveal that in order to preserve his life, Voldemort
Voldemort
has split his soul into pieces, creating a series of Horcruxes – evil enchanted items hidden in various locations, one of which was the diary destroyed in the second book. On their way to collect a Horcrux, Draco, who has joined with the Death Eaters, attempts to attack Dumbledore, and the book culminates in the killing of Dumbledore by Professor Snape, the titular Half-Blood Prince.

_ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
_, the last original novel in the series, begins directly after the events of the sixth book. Lord Voldemort
Voldemort
has completed his ascension to power and gained control of the Ministry of Magic. Harry, Ron and Hermione drop out of school so that they can find and destroy Voldemort's remaining Horcruxes. To ensure their own safety as well as that of their family and friends, they are forced to isolate themselves. A ghoul pretends to be Ron ill with a contagious disease, Harry and the Dursleys separate, and Hermione wipes her parents' memories. As they search for the Horcruxes, the trio learns details about an ancient prophecy about the Deathly Hallows, three legendary items that when united under one Keeper, would supposedly grant the person the Master of Death. Harry discovers his handy Invisibility Cloak to be one of those items, and Voldemort
Voldemort
to be searching for another: the Elder Wand, the most powerful wand in history. At the end of the book, Harry and his friends learn about Dumbledore's past, as well as Snape's true motives – he had worked on Dumbledore's behalf since the murder of Harry's mother. Eventually, Snape is killed by Voldemort
Voldemort
out of paranoia.

The book culminates in the Battle of Hogwarts. Harry, Ron and Hermione, in conjunction with members of the Order of the Phoenix and many of the teachers and students, defend Hogwarts
Hogwarts
from Voldemort, his Death Eaters, and various dangerous magical creatures . Several major characters are killed in the first wave of the battle, including Remus Lupin and Fred Weasley, Ron's older brother. After learning that he himself is a Horcrux, Harry surrenders himself to Voldemort
Voldemort
in the Forbidden Forest, who casts a killing curse (Avada Kedavra) at him. The defenders of Hogwarts
Hogwarts
do not surrender after learning of Harry's presumed death and continue to fight on. Harry awakens and faces Voldemort, whose Horcruxes have all been destroyed. In the final battle, Voldemort's killing curse rebounds off Harry's defensive spell (Expelliarmus) killing Voldemort. Harry Potter
Harry Potter
marries and has children with Ginny and Hermione marries and has children with Ron.

An epilogue describes the lives of the surviving characters and the effects of Voldemort's death on the Wizarding World. It also introduces the children of all the characters.

SUPPLEMENTARY WORKS

_HARRY POTTER AND THE CURSED CHILD_

Main article: Harry Potter and the Cursed Child

_ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Cursed Child_ is a two-part West End stage play , and the official eighth _Harry Potter_ story. It was written by Jack Thorne and based on a story by author J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
, Thorne and director John Tiffany. The play opened on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre , London
London
, England
England
. The script was released on 31 July 2016. The story is set nineteen years after the ending of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows _ and follows Harry Potter
Harry Potter
, now a Ministry of Magic employee, and his youngest son Albus Severus Potter. This stage play was also released as a two-part play script on 31 July 2016. The play's official synopsis was released on 23 October 2015:

It was always difficult being Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and it isn’t much easier now that he is an overworked employee of the Ministry of Magic, a husband, and father of three school-age children.

While Harry grapples with a past that refuses to stay where it belongs, his youngest son Albus must struggle with the weight of a family legacy he never wanted. As past and present fuse ominously, both father and son learn the uncomfortable truth: sometimes, darkness comes from unexpected places.

IN-UNIVERSE BOOKS

See also: J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
§ Philanthropy

Rowling has expanded the Harry Potter universewith several short books produced for various charities. In 2001, she released _ Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them_ (a purported Hogwarts textbook) and _ Quidditch Through the Ages_ (a book Harry reads for fun). Proceeds from the sale of these two books benefited the charity Comic Relief
Comic Relief
. In 2007, Rowling composed seven handwritten copies of _ The Tales of Beedle the Bard_, a collection of fairy tales that is featured in the final novel, one of which was auctioned to raise money for the Children's High Level Group, a fund for mentally disabled children in poor countries. The book was published internationally on 4 December 2008. Rowling also wrote an 800-word prequel in 2008 as part of a fundraiser organised by the bookseller Waterstones
Waterstones
. All three of these books contain extra information about the wizarding world not included in the original novels.

In 2016, she released three new e-books: _Hogwarts: An Incomplete and Unreliable Guide _, _Short Stories from Hogwarts
Hogwarts
of Power, Politics and Pesky Poltergeists _ and _Short Stories from Hogwarts
Hogwarts
of Heroism, Hardship and Dangerous Hobbies _.

POTTERMORE WEBSITE

In 2011, Rowling launched a new website announcing an upcoming project called Pottermore. Pottermoreopened to the general public on 14 April 2012. Pottermoreallows users to be sorted, be chosen by their wand and play various minigames. The main purpose of the website was to allow the user to journey though the story with access to content not revealed by JK Rowling previously, with over 18,000 words of additional content.

In September 2015, the website was completely overhauled and most of the features were removed. The site has been redesigned and it mainly focuses on the information already available, rather than exploration.

STRUCTURE AND GENRE

The _Harry Potter_ novels are mainly directed at a young adult audience as opposed to an audience of middle grade readers, children, or adults. The novels fall within the genre of fantasy literature , and qualify as a type of fantasy called "urban fantasy ", "contemporary fantasy", or "low fantasy". They are mainly dramas, and maintain a fairly serious and dark tone throughout, though they do contain some notable instances of tragicomedy and black humour. In many respects, they are also examples of the _bildungsroman _, or coming of age novel, and contain elements of mystery , adventure, horror , thriller , and romance . The books are also, in the words of Stephen King
Stephen King
, "shrewd mystery tales", and each book is constructed in the manner of a Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
-style mystery adventure. The stories are told from a third person limited point of view with very few exceptions (such as the opening chapters of _Philosopher\'s Stone _, _Goblet of Fire _ and _Deathly Hallows _ and the first two chapters of _Half-Blood Prince _).

The series can be considered part of the British children's boarding school genre , which includes Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
's Stalky the writer prefers to let themes "grow organically", rather than sitting down and consciously attempting to impart such ideas to her readers. Along the same lines is the ever-present theme of adolescence, in whose depiction Rowling has been purposeful in acknowledging her characters' sexualities and not leaving Harry, as she put it, "stuck in a state of permanent pre-pubescence". Rowling has also been praised for her nuanced depiction of the ways in which death and violence affects youth, and humanity as a whole.

Rowling said that, to her, the moral significance of the tales seems "blindingly obvious". The key for her was the choice between what is right and what is easy, "because that … is how tyranny is started, with people being apathetic and taking the easy route and suddenly finding themselves in deep trouble."

ORIGINS

Main article: Harry Potter influences and analogues

In 1990, Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester
Manchester
to London when the idea for Harry suddenly "fell into her head". Rowling gives an account of the experience on her website saying:

"I had been writing almost continuously since the age of six but I had never been so excited about an idea before. I simply sat and thought, for four (delayed train) hours, and all the details bubbled up in my brain, and this scrawny, black-haired, bespectacled boy who did not know he was a wizard became more and more real to me."

Rowling completed _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher's Stone_ in 1995 and the manuscript was sent off to several prospective agents . The second agent she tried, Christopher Little, offered to represent her and sent the manuscript to Bloomsbury.

PUBLISHING HISTORY

The novelist, J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
The logo used in British, Australian, and Canadian editions before 2010. The font used is Cochin Bold .

After eight other publishers had rejected _Philosopher's Stone_, Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
offered Rowling a £2,500 advance for its publication. Despite Rowling's statement that she did not have any particular age group in mind when beginning to write the _Harry Potter_ books, the publishers initially targeted children aged nine to eleven. On the eve of publishing, Rowling was asked by her publishers to adopt a more gender-neutral pen name in order to appeal to the male members of this age group, fearing that they would not be interested in reading a novel they knew to be written by a woman. She elected to use J. K. Rowling (Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as her second name because she has no middle name .

_ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher's Stone_ was published by Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
, the publisher of all _Harry Potter_ books in the United Kingdom, on 26 June 1997. It was released in the United States on 1 September 1998 by Scholastic – the American publisher of the books – as _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Sorcerer's Stone_, after Rowling had received US$105,000 for the American rights – an unprecedented amount for a children's book by a then-unknown author. Fearing that American readers would not associate the word "philosopher" with a magical theme (although the Philosopher\'s Stone is alchemy-related), Scholastic insisted that the book be given the title _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Sorcerer's Stone_ for the American market.

The second book, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Chamber of Secrets_ was originally published in the UK on 2 July 1998 and in the US on 2 June 1999. _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Prisoner of Azkaban_ was then published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999 and in the US on 8 September 1999. _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire_ was published on 8 July 2000 at the same time by Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
and Scholastic . _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Order of the Phoenix_ is the longest book in the series at 766 pages in the UK version and 870 pages in the US version. It was published worldwide in English on 21 June 2003. _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Half-Blood Prince_ was published on 16 July 2005, and it sold 9 million copies in the first 24 hours of its worldwide release. The seventh and final novel, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows_, was published on 21 July 2007. The book sold 11 million copies in the first 24 hours of release, breaking down to 2.7 million copies in the UK and 8.3 million in the US.

TRANSLATIONS

Main article: Harry Potter in translation _ The Russian translation of The Deathly Hallows_ goes on sale in Moscow
Moscow
, 2007

The series has been translated into 67 languages, placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history. The books have seen translations to diverse languages such as Korean , Armenian , Ukrainian , Arabic , Urdu , Hindi , Bengali , Bulgarian , Welsh , Afrikaans
Afrikaans
, Albanian , Latvian and Vietnamese . The first volume has been translated into Latin
Latin
and even Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, making it the longest published work in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD. The second volume has also been translated into Latin.

Some of the translators hired to work on the books were well-known authors before their work on _Harry Potter_, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. The Turkish translation of books two to seven was undertaken by Sevin Okyay , a popular literary critic and cultural commentator. For reasons of secrecy, translation on a given book could only start after it had been released in English, leading to a lag of several months before the translations were available. This led to more and more copies of the English editions being sold to impatient fans in non-English speaking countries; for example, such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the best-seller list in France.

The United States editions were adapted into American English
American English
to make them more understandable to a young American audience.

COMPLETION OF THE SERIES

In December 2005, Rowling stated on her web site, "2006 will be the year when I write the final book in the _Harry Potter_ series." Updates then followed in her online diary chronicling the progress of _ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
_, with the release date of 21 July 2007. The book itself was finished on 11 January 2007 in the Balmoral Hotel
Balmoral Hotel
, Edinburgh, where she scrawled a message on the back of a bust of Hermes
Hermes
. It read: " J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
finished writing _Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows_ in this room (552) on 11 January 2007."

Rowling herself has stated that the last chapter of the final book (in fact, the epilogue) was completed "in something like 1990". In June 2006, Rowling, on an appearance on the British talk show _Richard "> "Platform 9¾" sign on London
London
King\'s Cross railway station

CULTURAL IMPACT

For more details on this topic, see Harry Potter fandom
Harry Potter fandom
.

Fans of the series were so eager for the latest instalment that bookstores around the world began holding events to coincide with the midnight release of the books, beginning with the 2000 publication of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire_. The events, commonly featuring mock sorting, games, face painting, and other live entertainment have achieved popularity with Potter fans and have been highly successful in attracting fans and selling books with nearly nine million of the 10.8 million initial print copies of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Half-Blood Prince_ sold in the first 24 hours.

The final book in the series, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows_ became the fastest selling book in history, moving 11 million units in the first twenty-four hours of release. The series has also gathered adult fans, leading to the release of two editions of each _Harry Potter_ book, identical in text but with one edition's cover artwork aimed at children and the other aimed at adults. Besides meeting online through blogs, podcasts , and fansites, _Harry Potter_ super-fans can also meet at _Harry Potter_ symposia .

The word _Muggle_ has spread beyond its _Harry Potter_ origins, becoming one of few pop culture words to land in the Oxford English Dictionary . The Harry Potter fandom
Harry Potter fandom
has embraced podcasts as a regular, often weekly, insight to the latest discussion in the fandom. Both MuggleCastand PotterCast have reached the top spot of iTunes podcast rankings and have been polled one of the top 50 favourite podcasts.

Some lessons identified in the series include diversity, acceptance, political tolerance, and equality. Surveys of over 1,000 college students in the United States show that those who read the books were significantly different than those who had not. Readers of the series were found to be more tolerant, more opposed to violence and torture, less authoritarian, and less cynical. Although it is not known if this is a cause-and-effect relationship, there is a clear correlation, and it seems that Harry Potter's cultural impact may be stronger than just a fandom bond.

At the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in 2009, StarKid Productionsperformed an original musical parodying the _Harry Potter_ series called _A Very Potter Musical _. The musical was awarded _ Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
_'s 10 Best Viral Videos of 2009.

Characters and elements from the series have inspired scientific names of several organisms, including the dinosaur _Dracorex hogwartsia _, the spider _ Eriovixia gryffindori_, the wasp _Ampulex dementor _, and the crab _ Harryplax severus_.

COMMERCIAL SUCCESS

See also: List of best-selling books _ Crowd outside a book store for the midnight release of Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Half-Blood Prince _.

The popularity of the _Harry Potter_ series has translated into substantial financial success for Rowling, her publishers, and other _Harry Potter_ related license holders. This success has made Rowling the first and thus far only billionaire author. The books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide and have also given rise to the popular film adaptations produced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
, all of which have been highly successful in their own right . The films have in turn spawned eight video games and have led to the licensing of more than 400 additional _Harry Potter_ products. The _Harry Potter_ brand has been estimated to be worth as much as $25 billion.

The great demand for Harry Potter
Harry Potter
books motivated the _New York Times_ to create a separate best-seller list for children's literature in 2000, just before the release of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire_. By 24 June 2000, Rowling's novels had been on the list for 79 straight weeks; the first three novels were each on the hardcover best-seller list. On 12 April 2007, Barnes & Noble
Barnes & Noble
declared that _Deathly Hallows_ had broken its pre-order record, with more than 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site. For the release of _Goblet of Fire_, 9,000 FedEx
FedEx
trucks were used with no other purpose than to deliver the book. Together, Amazon.com and Barnes in the United Kingdom more than two million copies were sold on the first day. The initial U.S. print run for _Deathly Hallows_ was 12 million copies, and more than a million were pre-ordered through Amazon and Barnes it seemed a lively kid's fantasy crossed with a "school novel", good fare for its age group, but stylistically ordinary, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited."

By contrast, author Fay Weldon, while admitting that the series is "not what the poets hoped for", nevertheless goes on to say, "but this is not poetry, it is readable, saleable, everyday, useful prose". The literary critic A. N. Wilson praised the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
series in _The Times _, stating: "There are not many writers who have JK's Dickensian ability to make us turn the pages, to weep – openly, with tears splashing – and a few pages later to laugh, at invariably good jokes ... We have lived through a decade in which we have followed the publication of the liveliest, funniest, scariest and most moving children's stories ever written". Charles Taylor of Salon.com
Salon.com
, who is primarily a movie critic, took issue with Byatt's criticisms in particular. While he conceded that she may have "a valid cultural point – a teeny one – about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art", he rejected her claims that the series is lacking in serious literary merit and that it owes its success merely to the childhood reassurances it offers. Taylor stressed the progressively darker tone of the books, shown by the murder of a classmate and close friend and the psychological wounds and social isolation each causes. Taylor also argued that _Philosopher's Stone_, said to be the most light-hearted of the seven published books, disrupts the childhood reassurances that Byatt claims spur the series' success: the book opens with news of a double murder , for example.

Stephen King
Stephen King
called the series "a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable", and declared "Rowling's punning, one-eyebrow-cocked sense of humor" to be "remarkable". However, he wrote that despite the story being "a good one", he is "a little tired of discovering Harry at home with his horrible aunt and uncle", the formulaic beginning of all seven books. King has also joked that "Rowling's never met an adverb she did not like!" He does however predict that Harry Potter
Harry Potter
"will indeed stand time's test and wind up on a shelf where only the best are kept; I think Harry will take his place with Alice , Huck , Frodo , and Dorothy and this is one series not just for the decade, but for the ages". Sameer Rahim of _The Daily Telegraph _ disagreed, saying "It depresses me to see 16 and 17 year-olds reading the series when they could be reading the great novels of childhood such as _ Oliver Twist
Oliver Twist
_ or _A House for Mr Biswas _. What that says about the adults who are fanatical fans I’m not sure – but I suspect in years to come people will make a link between our plump, comfortable, infantilising society and the popularity of Potter."

There is ongoing discussion regarding the extent to which the series was inspired by Tolkien
Tolkien
's _Lord of the Rings_ books.

SOCIAL IMPACT

Although _Time_ magazine named Rowling as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year award, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fandom , cultural comments on the series have been mixed. _ Washington Post
Washington Post
_ book critic Ron Charles opined in July 2007 that the large numbers of adults reading the _Potter_ series but few other books may represent a "bad case of cultural infantilism", and that the straightforward "good vs. evil" theme of the series is "childish". He also argued "through no fault of Rowling's", the cultural and marketing "hysteria" marked by the publication of the later books "trains children and adults to expect the roar of the coliseum, a mass-media experience that no other novel can possibly provide".

Librarian Nancy Knapp pointed out the books' potential to improve literacy by motivating children to read much more than they otherwise would. The seven-book series has a word count of 1,083,594 (US edition). Agreeing about the motivating effects, Diane Penrod also praised the books' blending of simple entertainment with "the qualities of highbrow literary fiction", but expressed concern about the distracting effect of the prolific merchandising that accompanies the book launches. However, the assumption that Harry Potter
Harry Potter
books have increased literacy among young people is "largely a folk legend." Research by the National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(NEA) has found no increase in reading among children coinciding with the Harry Potter publishing phenomenon, nor has the broader downward trend in reading among Americans been arrested during the rise in the popularity of the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
books. The research also found that children who read Harry Potter
Harry Potter
books were not more likely to go on to read outside the fantasy and mystery genres. NEA chairman Dana Gioiasaid the series, "got millions of kids to read a long and reasonably complex series of books. The trouble is that one Harry Potter
Harry Potter
novel every few years is not enough to reverse the decline in reading."

Jennifer Conn used Snape's and Quidditch
Quidditch
coach Madam Hooch's teaching methods as examples of what to avoid and what to emulate in clinical teaching, and Joyce Fields wrote that the books illustrate four of the five main topics in a typical first-year sociology class: "sociological concepts including culture, society, and socialisation ; stratification and social inequality ; social institutions ; and social theory ".

Jenny Sawyer wrote in _ Christian Science Monitor
Christian Science Monitor
_ on 25 July 2007 that the books represent a "disturbing trend in commercial storytelling and Western society" in that stories "moral center have all but vanished from much of today's pop culture ... after 10 years, 4,195 pages, and over 375 million copies, J. K. Rowling's towering achievement lacks the cornerstone of almost all great children's literature: the hero's moral journey". Harry Potter, Sawyer argues, neither faces a "moral struggle" nor undergoes any ethical growth, and is thus "no guide in circumstances in which right and wrong are anything less than black and white". In contrast Emily Griesinger described Harry's first passage through to Platform 9¾as an application of faith and hope, and his encounter with the Sorting Hat as the first of many in which Harry is shaped by the choices he makes. She also noted the "deeper magic" by which the self-sacrifice of Harry's mother protects the boy throughout the series, and which the power-hungry Voldemort
Voldemort
fails to understand.

In an 8 November 2002 _Slate _ article, Chris Suellentrop likened Potter to a "trust-fund kid whose success at school is largely attributable to the gifts his friends and relatives lavish upon him". Noting that in Rowling's fiction, magical ability potential is "something you are born to, not something you can achieve", Suellentrop wrote that Dumbledore's maxim that "It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities" is hypocritical, as "the school that Dumbledore runs values native gifts above all else". In a 12 August 2007 _New York Times_ review of _Deathly Hallows_, however, Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
praised Rowling for "unmooring" her "English school story" from literary precedents "bound up with dreams of wealth and class and snobbery", arguing that she had instead created "a world of youthful democracy and diversity".

In 2010, coinciding with the release of the film _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows Part 1,_ a series of articles were written about Private Harry Potter
Harry Potter
of the British army. This real-life Harry Potter was killed in the Arab Revolt near Hebron in 1939. His grave, located in the British cemetery in Ramla
Ramla
, Israel
Israel
, began to receive curious visitors leading the Ramla
Ramla
Municipality to list it on their website. The Daily Mail
Daily Mail
interviewed siblings of Harry Potter
Harry Potter
who stated, "We couldn't believe people visit his grave, but apparently they come from miles around to have their photo taken next to it."

In 2016, an article written by Diana C. Mutz compares the politics of Harry Potter
Harry Potter
to the 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign. She states that 3 themes throughout the books are widely predominant '1) the value of tolerance and respect for difference; 2) opposition to violence and punitiveness; and 3) the dangers of authoritarianism.' She suggests that these themes are also present in the presidential election and it may play a significant role in how Americans have responded to the campaign.

CONTROVERSIES

Main articles: Legal disputes over the Harry Potter series, Religious debates over the Harry Potter series, Politics of Harry Potter , and Tanya Grotter

The books have been the subject of a number of legal proceedings , stemming from various conflicts over copyright and trademark infringements. The popularity and high market value of the series has led Rowling, her publishers, and film distributor Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
to take legal measures to protect their copyright, which have included banning the sale of _Harry Potter_ imitations, targeting the owners of websites over the "Harry Potter" domain name , and suing author Nancy Stouffer to counter her accusations that Rowling had plagiarised her work. Various religious conservatives have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and religions such as Wicca
Wicca
and are therefore unsuitable for children, while a number of critics have criticised the books for promoting various political agendas.

The books also aroused controversies in the literary and publishing worlds. From 1997 to 1998, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher\'s Stone _ won almost all the UK awards judged by children, but none of the children's book awards judged by adults, and Sandra Beckett suggested the reason was intellectual snobbery towards books that were popular among children. In 1999, the winner of the Whitbread Book
Book
of the Year award children's division was entered for the first time on the shortlist for the main award, and one judge threatened to resign if _ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban_ was declared the overall winner; it finished second, very close behind the winner of the poetry prize, Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
's translation of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
epic _Beowulf _.

In 2000, shortly before the publication of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire _, the previous three _Harry Potter_ books topped the _New York Times_ fiction best-seller list and a third of the entries were children's books. The newspaper created a new children's section covering children's books, including both fiction and non-fiction, and initially counting only hardback sales. The move was supported by publishers and booksellers. In 2004, _The New York Times_ further split the children's list, which was still dominated by _Harry Potter_ books into sections for series and individual books, and removed the _Harry Potter_ books from the section for individual books. The split in 2000 attracted condemnation, praise and some comments that presented both benefits and disadvantages of the move. _Time_ suggested that, on the same principle, Billboard should have created a separate "mop-tops " list in 1964 when the Beatles
Beatles
held the top five places in its list, and Nielsen should have created a separate game-show list when _ Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
_ dominated the ratings .

ADAPTATIONS

FILMS

Main article: Harry Potter (film series)
Harry Potter (film series)
The locomotive that features as the " Hogwarts
Hogwarts
Express" in the film series.

In 1998, Rowling sold the film rights of the first four _Harry Potter_ books to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
for a reported £1 million ($1,982,900). Rowling demanded the principal cast be kept strictly British, nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of Irish actors such as the late Richard Harris as Dumbledore, and for casting of French and Eastern European actors in _ Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire_ where characters from the book are specified as such. After many directors including Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
, Terry Gilliam , Jonathan Demme , and Alan Parker
Alan Parker
were considered, Chris Columbus was appointed on 28 March 2000 as the director for _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher\'s Stone _ (titled "_ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Sorcerer's Stone_" in the United States), with Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
citing his work on other family films such as _ Home Alone
Home Alone
_ and _ Mrs. Doubtfire
Mrs. Doubtfire
_ and proven experience with directing children as influences for their decision.

After extensive casting , filming began in October 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and in London
London
itself, with production ending in July 2001. _Philosopher's Stone_ was released on 14 November 2001. Just three days after the film's release, production for _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Chamber of Secrets _, also directed by Columbus, began. Filming was completed in summer 2002, with the film being released on 15 November 2002. Daniel Radcliffe
Daniel Radcliffe
portrayed Harry Potter
Harry Potter
, doing so for all succeeding films in the franchise.

Columbus declined to direct _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Prisoner of Azkaban _, only acting as producer. Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
took over the job, and after shooting in 2003, the film was released on 4 June 2004. Due to the fourth film beginning its production before the third's release, Mike Newell was chosen as the director for _Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire _, released on 18 November 2005. Newell became the first British director of the series, with television director David Yates
David Yates
following suit after he was chosen to helm _Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix _. Production began in January 2006 and the film was released the following year in July 2007. After executives were "really delighted" with his work on the film, Yates was selected to direct _ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
_, which was released on 15 July 2009. Gringotts Wizarding Bank as seen in the film series

In March 2008, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
President and COO Alan F. Hornannounced that the final instalment in the series, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows _, would be released in two cinematic parts: _Part 1 _ on 19 November 2010 and _Part 2 _ on 15 July 2011. Production of both parts started in February 2009, with the final day of principal photography taking place on 12 June 2010.

Rowling had creative control on the film series, observing the filmmaking process of _Philosopher's Stone_ and serving as producer on the two-part _Deathly Hallows_, alongside David Heymanand David Barron . The _Harry Potter_ films have been top-rank box office hits, with all eight releases on the list of highest-grossing films worldwide . _Philosopher's Stone_ was the highest-grossing _Harry Potter_ film up until the release of the final instalment of the series, _Deathly Hallows_, while _Prisoner of Azkaban_ grossed the least. As well as being a financial success, the film series has also been a success among film critics.

Opinions of the films are generally divided among fans, with one group preferring the more faithful approach of the first two films, and another group preferring the more stylised character-driven approach of the later films. Rowling has been constantly supportive of all the films and evaluated _Deathly Hallows_ as her "favourite one" in the series. She wrote on her website of the changes in the book-to-film transition, "It is simply impossible to incorporate every one of my storylines into a film that has to be kept under four hours long. Obviously films have restrictions novels do not have, constraints of time and budget; I can create dazzling effects relying on nothing but the interaction of my own and my readers' imaginations".

At the 64th British Academy Film Awardsin February 2011, Rowling was joined by producers David Heymanand David Barron along with directors David Yates, Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
and Mike Newell in collecting the Michael Balcon Award for Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema on behalf of all the films in the series. Actors Rupert Grint
Rupert Grint
and Emma Watson
Emma Watson
, who play main characters Ron Weasley
Ron Weasley
and Hermione Granger
Hermione Granger
, were also in attendance.

Spin-off Prequels

A new series consisting of five films, beginning with _Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them _, will take place before the main series. The first film was released on 8 November 2016 and the next two are due to be released in 2018 and 2020. Rowling wrote the screenplay for the first instalment, marking her first foray into screenwriting.

GAMES

A number of other non-interactive media games and board games have been released such as _ Cluedo
Cluedo
Harry Potter
Harry Potter
Edition_, _ Scene It?Harry Potter_ and _ Lego Harry Potter_ models, which are influenced by the themes of both the novels and films.

There are thirteen _Harry Potter_ video games, eight corresponding with the films and books and five spin-offs. The film/book-based games are produced by Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
, as was _Harry Potter: Quidditch World Cup _, with the game version of the first entry in the series, _Philosopher\'s Stone _, being released in November 2001. _Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone_ went on to become one of the best-selling PlayStation
PlayStation
games ever. The video games were released to coincide with the films, containing scenery and details from the films as well as the tone and spirit of the books. Objectives usually occur in and around Hogwarts
Hogwarts
, along with various other magical areas. The story and design of the games follow the selected film's characterisation and plot; EA worked closely with Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
to include scenes from the films. The last game in the series, _Deathly Hallows_, was split, with _Part 1 _ released in November 2010 and _Part 2 _ debuting on consoles in July 2011. The two-part game forms the first entry to convey an intense theme of action and violence, with the gameplay revolving around a third-person shooter style format.

The spin-off games _Lego Harry Potter: Years 1–4 _ and _Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7 _ were developed by Traveller\'s Tales and published by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Interactive Entertainment . The spin-off games _ Book of Spells_ and _ Book of Potions_ were developed by SCE London
London
Studio and utilise the Wonderbook, an augmented reality book designed to be used in conjunction with the PlayStation
PlayStation
Move and PlayStation
PlayStation
Eye . The _Harry Potter_ universe is also featured in _ Lego Dimensions
Lego Dimensions
_, with the settings and side characters featured in the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
Adventure World, and Harry and Voldemort
Voldemort
as playable characters.

Titles in the series of _Harry Potter_ games YEAR TITLE PLATFORM(S) ACQUIRED LABEL(S)

CONSOLE COMPUTER HANDHELD

2001 _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher\'s Stone _

* PS1 * PS2 * Xbox
Xbox
* GameCube
GameCube

* Windows * Mac OS X
Mac OS X

* Game Boy Color * GBA

* PlayStation
PlayStation
_Greatest Hits _

_Lego Creator: Harry Potter
Harry Potter
_ N/A

* Windows

N/A N/A

2002 _Lego Creator: Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
_ N/A

* Windows

N/A N/A

_ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
_

* PS1 * PS2 * Xbox * GameCube

* Windows * Mac OS X

* Game Boy Color * GBA

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 _Greatest Hits_ * Xbox
Xbox
_Platinum Family Hits _ * GameCube
GameCube
_Player\'s Choice _

2003 _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
Quidditch
Quidditch
World Cup _

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 * Xbox * GameCube

* Windows

* Game Boy Advance

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 _Greatest Hits_ * Xbox
Xbox
_Platinum Family Hits_

2004 _ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 * Xbox * GameCube

* Windows

* Game Boy Advance

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 _Greatest Hits_ * Xbox
Xbox
_Platinum Family Hits_ * GameCube
GameCube
_Player's Choice_

2005 _ Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 * Xbox * GameCube

* Windows

* Game Boy Advance * NDS * PSP

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 _Greatest Hits_

2007 _ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 * PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii
Wii

* Windows * Mac OS X

* Game Boy Advance * NDS * PSP

N/A

2009 _ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
2 * PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii

* Windows * Mac OS X

* NDS * PSP * Mobile Game
Mobile Game

N/A

2010 _Lego Harry Potter: Years 1–4 _

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii

* Windows * Mac OS X

* NDS * PSP

N/A

_ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
– Part 1 _

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii

* Windows

* NDS

N/A

2011 _ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
– Part 2 _

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii

* Windows

* NDS

N/A

_Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7 _

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3 * Xbox
Xbox
360 * Wii

* Windows * Mac OS X

* NDS * PSP * 3DS
3DS
* PS Vita

N/A

_ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
for Kinect
Kinect
_

* Xbox
Xbox
360

N/A N/A N/A

2012 _ Book of Spells_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3

N/A N/A N/A

2013 _ Book of Potions_

* PlayStation
PlayStation
3

N/A N/A N/A

AUDIOBOOKS

All seven _Harry Potter_ books have been released in unabridged audiobook versions, with Stephen Fry
Stephen Fry
reading the UK editions and Jim Dale voicing the series for the American editions.

STAGE PRODUCTION

Main article: Harry Potter and the Cursed Child

On 20 December 2013, J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
announced that she was working on a Harry Potter–based play for which she would be one of the producers. British theatre producers Sonia Friedmanand Colin Callender will be the co-producers.

On 26 June 2015, on the anniversary of the debut of the first book, Rowling revealed via Twitter that the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
stage play would be called _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and The Cursed Child_. The Production is expected to open in the summer of 2016 at London's Palace Theatre, London
London
. The first four months of tickets for the June–September performances were sold out within several hours upon release. On 10 February 2016, it was announced via the Pottermorewebsite, that the script would be released in book form, the day after the play's world premiere, making this the 8th book in the series, with events set nineteen years after the closing chapter of _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Deathly Hallows _.

ATTRACTIONS

THE WIZARDING WORLD OF HARRY POTTER

Main article: The Wizarding World of Harry Potter Hogwarts Castle as depicted in the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, located in Universal Orlando Resort's Island of Adventure

After the success of the films and books, Universal and Warner Brothers announced they would create _The Wizarding World of Harry Potter_, a new _Harry Potter_-themed expansion to the Islands of Adventure theme park at Universal Orlando Resort
Universal Orlando Resort
in Florida. The land officially opened to the public on 18 June 2010. It includes a re-creation of Hogsmeadeand several rides. The flagship attraction is _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Forbidden Journey _, which exists within a re-creation of Hogwarts
Hogwarts
School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Other rides include _ Dragon Challenge
Dragon Challenge
_, a pair of inverted roller coasters , and _ Flight of the Hippogriff_, a family roller coaster .

Four years later, on 8 July 2014, Universal opened a _Harry Potter_-themed area at the Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Florida
theme park. It includes a re-creation of Diagon Alleyand connecting alleys and a small section of Muggle
Muggle
London
London
. The flagship attraction is _Harry Potter and the Escape from Gringotts _ roller coaster ride. Universal also added a completely functioning recreation of the Hogwarts
Hogwarts
Express connecting Kings Cross Station at Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Florida
to the Hogsmeadestation at Islands of Adventure. Both Hogsmeadeand Diagon Alley contain many shops and restaurants from the book series, including Weasley's Wizard Wheezes and The Leaky Cauldron.

On 15 July 2014, _The Wizarding World of Harry Potter_ opened at the Universal Studios Japan
Universal Studios Japan
theme park in Osaka
Osaka
, Japan. It includes the village of Hogsmeade, _ Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Forbidden Journey_ ride, and _Flight of the Hippogriff_ roller coaster.

On 7 April 2016, _The Wizarding World of Harry Potter_ opened at the Universal Studios Hollywood
Universal Studios Hollywood
theme park near Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, California
California
.

UNITED KINGDOM

In March 2011, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
announced plans to build a tourist attraction in the United Kingdom to showcase the _Harry Potter_ film series. Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Studio Tour London
London
is a behind-the-scenes walking tour featuring authentic sets, costumes and props from the film series. The attraction, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Studio Tour London
London
- The Making of Harry Potter
Harry Potter
, is located at Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Studios, Leavesden , where all eight of the _Harry Potter_ films were made. Warner Bros. constructed two new sound stages to house and showcase the famous sets from each of the British-made productions, following a £100 million investment. It opened to the public in March 2012.

REFERENCES

* ^ " Harry Potter and the Cursed Childto be eighth book". _BBC News_. * ^ Peter Svensson (27 March 2012). " Harry Potter
Harry Potter
breaks e-book lockdown". Yahoo. Retrieved 29 July 2013. * ^ Allsobrook, Dr. Marian (18 June 2003). "Potter\'s place in the literary canon". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 15 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Rowling \'makes £5 every second\'". British Broadcasting Corporation. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. * ^ TIME staff (31 July 2013). "Because It\'s His Birthday: Harry Potter, By the Numbers". Time. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. * ^ Cain, Sian (2016-02-10). "New Harry Potter
Harry Potter
book from JK Rowling coming out in July: the play script". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2016-12-22. * ^ _A_ _B_ Meyer, Katie (6 April 2016). "Harry Potter\'s $25 Billion Magic Spell". Time . Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.

* ^ Sources that refer to the many genres, cultural meanings and references of the series include:

* Fry, Stephen (10 December 2005). "Living with Harry Potter". BBC Radio 4. Archived from the original on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2005. * Jensen, Jeff (7 September 2000). "Why J.K. Rowling waited to read _Harry Potter_ to her daughter". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved 19 August 2015. * Nancy Carpentier Brown (2007). "The Last Chapter" (PDF). Our Sunday Visitor. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2009. * J. K. Rowling. " J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling
at the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Book
Book
Festival". Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2006.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Greig, Geordie (11 January 2006). "\'There would be so much to tell her...\'". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lizo Mzimba (28 July 2008). "Interview with Steve Kloves and J.K. Rowling". Quick Quotes Quill. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. * ^ Lemmerman, Kristin (14 July 2000). "Review: Gladly drinking from Rowling\'s \'Goblet of Fire\'". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "A Muggle\'s guide to Harry Potter". BBC
BBC
News. 28 May 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2008. * ^ Hajela, Deepti (14 July 2005). "Plot summaries for the first five Potter books". SouthFlorida.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2008. * ^ Foster, Julie (October 2001). "Potter books: Wicked witchcraft?". Koinonia House. Retrieved 15 May 2010.

* ^ *The years are first established by Nearly Headless Nick
Nearly Headless Nick
's deathday cake in _Chamber of Secrets_, which indicates that Harry's second year takes place from 1992–93. Rowling, J. K. (1998). "The Deathday Party". _ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
_. Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
. ISBN 0747538492 .

* The years are also established by the death date of Harry's parents, given in _Deathly Hallows._ Rowling, J. K. (2007). "Godric's Hollow". _ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
_. Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
. ISBN 1551929767 .

* ^ Farndale, Nigel (15 July 2007). " Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the parallel universe". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. Retrieved 28 September 2008.

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Memmott, Carol (19 July 2007). "The Harry Potter stories so far: A quick CliffsNotes review". _USA Today_. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ "J K Rowling at the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Book
Book
Festival". J.K. Rowling.com. 15 August 2004. Archived from the original on 23 August 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008. * ^ Maguire, Gregory (5 September 1999). " Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Prisoner of Azkaban". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ King, Stephen (23 July 2000). " Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Goblet of Fire". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ Leonard, John (13 July 2003). "\' Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Order of the Phoenix\'". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ A Whited, Lana (2004). _The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon_. University of Missouri Press. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-8262-1549-9 . * ^ Kakutani, Michiko (16 July 2005). " Harry Potter
Harry Potter
Works His Magic Again in a Far Darker Tale". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 28 September 2008. * ^ "Cursed Child is the ‘eighth Potter story’". _Pottermore_. Retrieved 2016-12-22. * ^ * ^ "About The Show". Harrypottertheplay.com. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015. * ^ Atkinson, Simon (19 July 2007). "How Rowling conjured up millions". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 7 September 2008. * ^ " Comic Relief
Comic Relief
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