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Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(May 26, 1880 – September 17, 1956) was one of the first psychologists to bring psychology into the advertising world, as well as a pioneer in applied psychology.[1] Biography[edit] Hollingworth was born on May 26, 1880 in De Witt, Nebraska. Hollingworth graduated from high school at age 16, but lacking both the necessary two years of college preparatory work and the funds for university Hollingworth applied for a teaching certificate instead of pursuing a university education. After teaching for two years Hollingworth enrolled in preparatory school. As a result of these educational delays Hollingworth was 23 when he finally enrolled as a freshman at the University of Nebraska. Although Hollingworth wished to study philosophy or psychology at graduate school he received no offers for an assistantship and instead found himself as the principal of a high school. Fortunately, Hollingworth received an offer of an assistantship from James McKeen Cattell at Columbia University
Columbia University
within a few months of his taking on the position. In 1908 Hollingworth’s fiancé, Leta Stetter Hollingworth, who up until now had been living in Nebraska, joined him in New York where the two were married. The following year he received his doctorate from Columbia, having completed his dissertation on the accuracy of reaching.[2] Following his graduation Hollingworth took an instructor’s position at Barnard College, teaching psychology and logic.[2] Short on funds, Hollingworth took extra jobs wherever he could, including proctoring exams and delivering a series of lectures to the New York Men’s Advertising League on the psychology of advertising. In 1911 Hollingworth received a job offer that alleviated his financial concerns, and allowed his wife to enroll in graduate school.[2][3] The Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
Company, facing a lawsuit from the federal government under the Pure Food and Drug Act, approached Hollingworth (after James McKeen Cattell and several other psychologists turned them down)[4] about investigating the psychological effects of caffeine on humans. Aware of the stigma associated with applied work, as well as possible concerns about the scientific integrity of research funded by a corporation, Hollingworth included several conditions in his contract with Coca-Cola. Specifically, Hollingworth stated that Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
could not use the results of his research in its advertisements, nor could Hollingworth’s name or that of Columbia University
Columbia University
be used in these ads. Additionally, Hollingworth was free to publish the results of his research regardless of the outcome of the study. Furthermore, to reduce any questions about the integrity of his research Hollingworth designed his three caffeine studies to include blind and double-blind conditions. The scope and methodology employed in these studies had never before been seen applied to psychological research.[2][3] These studies generated a huge amount of data which, because of Hollingworth’s “catastrophobia,” had to be duplicated following each night’s analysis and housed in a separate location. After completing his studies Hollingworth traveled to Chattanooga to testify at the Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
trial. Here he presented the results of his studies where he had found no deleterious effects on motor or mental performance. Although Hollingworth’s testimony was well received, and the case against Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
was ultimately dismissed, the dismissal was not a result of his testimony. Following Hollingworth’s testimony at the trial, and the favourable media coverage that accompanied it, he received an incredible number of requests for further applied work.[2][3] During World War I
World War I
Hollingworth was asked by the Surgeon General’s Office to administer psychological services to shell-shocked soldiers who returned from the war. From his observations of these men Hollingworth developed a theory of functional neurosis, which he published in 1920 in one of the first books on clinical psychology, The Psychology of Functional Neurosis.[2] In 1927 Hollingworth was elected president of the American Psychological Association.[2][3] Hollingworth was also a prolific writer, publishing what essentially amounted to a book a year between 1926 and 1935. Although Hollingworth wrote his autobiography in 1940 it was never published. In the late 1930s Hollingway returned to applied research as a favor to a friend, investigating the reasons why people chew gum.[2] Hollingworth spent most of his career doing applied research in what, at that time, was termed business psychology, and would be better characterized today as industrial psychology. Although he was a pioneer in the fields of industrial and applied psychology, Hollingworth had no particular passion for this kind of research. Rather, Hollingworth’s career took the course it did because the financial rewards offered by applied research appealed to a man struggling to make a living (Benjamin, 1996; Benjamin, Rogers & Rosenbaum, 1991). He died on September 17, 1956 in Montrose, New York.[1] References[edit]

^ a b "Prof. Harry L. Hollingworth Dies at 76. Headed Barnard Psychology Department". New York Times. September 18, 1956.  ^ a b c d e f g h Benjamin, L. T. (1996). Harry Hollingworth: Portrait of a generalist. In G. A. Kimble, C. A. Boneau, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.) Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 2, pp.191-135). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association ^ a b c d Benjamin, L. T., Rogers, A. M., & Rosenbaum, A. (1991). Coca-Cola, caffeine, and mental deficiency: Harry Hollingworth and the Chattanooga trial of 1911. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 27, 42-55. ^ Applied Psychology: The Legacy of Functionalism. (2008). In D. P. Schultz & S. E. Schultz (Authors), A history of modern psychology (9th ed., pp. 220-221). Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth.

External links[edit]

Works by Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
at Internet Archive

v t e

Presidents of the American Psychological Association

1892–1900

G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1892) George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd
(1893) William James
William James
(1894) James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
(1895) George Stuart Fullerton (1896) James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(1897) Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1898) John Dewey
John Dewey
(1899) Joseph Jastrow
Joseph Jastrow
(1900)

1901–1925

Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce
(1901) Edmund Sanford (1902) William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan
(1903) William James
William James
(1904) Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1905) James Rowland Angell
James Rowland Angell
(1906) Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907) George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton
(1908) Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd
(1909) Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
(1910) Carl Seashore
Carl Seashore
(1911) Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike
(1912) Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren
(1913) Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth
(1914) John B. Watson
John B. Watson
(1915) Raymond Dodge (1916) Robert Yerkes
Robert Yerkes
(1917) John Wallace Baird (1918) Walter Dill Scott (1919) Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz
(1920) Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1921) Knight Dunlap (1922) Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman
(1923) G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1924) I. Madison Bentley (1925)

1926–1950

Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(1927) Edwin Boring
Edwin Boring
(1928) Karl Lashley (1929) Herbert Langfeld (1930) Walter Samuel Hunter (1931) Walter Richard Miles (1932) Louis Leon Thurstone (1933) Joseph Peterson (1934) Albert Poffenberger (1935) Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull
(1936) Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman
(1937) John Dashiell (1938) Gordon Allport (1939) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1940) Herbert Woodrow (1941) Calvin Perry Stone (1942) John Edward Anderson (1943) Gardner Murphy
Gardner Murphy
(1944) Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie
(1945) Henry Garrett (1946) Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
(1947) Donald Marquis (1948) Ernest Hilgard (1949) J. P. Guilford (1950)

1951–1975

Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears
(1951) J. McVicker Hunt (1952) Laurance F. Shaffer (1953) Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954) E. Lowell Kelly (1955) Theodore Newcomb (1956) Lee Cronbach (1957) Harry Harlow
Harry Harlow
(1958) Wolfgang Köhler (1959) Donald O. Hebb (1960) Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller
(1961) Paul E. Meehl (1962) Charles E. Osgood (1963) Quinn McNemar (1964) Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1965) Nicholas Hobbs (1966) Gardner Lindzey (1967) Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
(1968) George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(1969) George Albee (1970) Kenneth B. Clark (1971) Anne Anastasi (1972) Leona E. Tyler (1973) Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell
(1975)

1976–2000

Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
(1980) John J. Conger (1981) William Bevan (1982) Max Siegel (1983) Janet Taylor Spence (1984) Robert Perloff (1985) Logan Wright (1986) Bonnie Strickland (1987) Raymond D. Fowler (1988) Joseph Matarazzo (1989) Stanley Graham (1990) Charles Spielberger (1991) Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992) Frank Farley (1993) Ronald E. Fox (1994) Robert J. Resnick (1995) Dorothy Cantor (1996) Norman Abeles (1997) Martin Seligman
Martin Seligman
(1998) Richard Suinn (1999) Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)

2001–Present

Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo
(2002) Robert Sternberg (2003) Diane F. Halpern (2004) Ronald F. Levant (2005) Gerald Koocher (2006) Sharon Brehm (2007) Alan E. Kazdin (2008) James H. Bray (2009) Carol D. Goodheart (2010) Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011) Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012) Donald N. Bersoff (2013) Nadine Kaslow
Nadine Kaslow
(2014) Barry S. Anton (2015) Susan H. McDaniel (2016) Antonio Puente (2017) Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 112365491 LCCN: n92056608 ISNI: 0000 0001 1005 4342 GND: 1042408246 SELIBR: 319101 SUDOC: 132613921 BNF: cb167483552 (data) BIBSYS: 90937767 SN

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