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Sir
Sir
Harold Walter Kroto FRS[1][3] (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939 – 30 April 2016), known as Harry Kroto, was an English chemist. He shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley
Richard Smalley
for their discovery of fullerenes. He was the recipient of many other honors and awards. Kroto held many positions in academia throughout his life, most notably the Francis Eppes
Francis Eppes
Professor of Chemistry
Chemistry
at the Florida State University, which he joined in 2004. Prior to this, he spent a large part of his career at the University of Sussex, where he held an emeritus professorship.[4] Kroto promoted science education and was a critic of religious faith.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Education and academic career

2.1 Education 2.2 Research
Research
at the University of Sussex 2.3 Discovery of buckminsterfullerene 2.4 Research
Research
at Florida State University 2.5 Educational outreach and public service

3 Personal life

3.1 Personal beliefs 3.2 Graphic design 3.3 Death and reactions

4 Honours and awards

4.1 Major awards 4.2 Honorary degrees

5 References 6 External links

Early years[edit] Kroto was born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, to Edith and Heinz Krotoschiner,[2][5] with his name being of Silesian origin.[6] His father's family came from Bojanowo, Poland, and his mother's from Berlin. Both of his parents were born in Berlin and fled to Great Britain in the 1930s as refugees from Nazi Germany; his father was Jewish. Harry was raised in Bolton
Bolton
while the British authorities interned his father on the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
as an enemy alien during World War II[7] and attended Bolton
Bolton
School, where he was a contemporary of the actor Ian McKellen. In 1955, Harold's father shortened the family name to Kroto.[2] As a child, he became fascinated by a Meccano
Meccano
set.[8] Kroto credited Meccano, as well as his aiding his father in the latter's balloon factory after World War II — amongst other things — with developing skills useful in scientific research.[6][7] He developed an interest in chemistry, physics, and mathematics in secondary school, and because his sixth form chemistry teacher ( Harry Heaney – who subsequently became a university professor) felt that the University of Sheffield had the best chemistry department in the United Kingdom, he went to Sheffield.[citation needed] Although raised Jewish, Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
stated that religion never made any sense to him.[6] He was a humanist who claimed to have three religions: Amnesty Internationalism, atheism, and humour.[9][10][11] He was a distinguished supporter of the British Humanist Association.[12] In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.[13] In 2015, Kroto signed the Mainau Declaration
Mainau Declaration
2015 on Climate Change on the final day of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. The declaration was signed by a total of 76 Nobel Laureates and handed to then-President of the French Republic, François Hollande, as part of the successful COP21 climate summit in Paris.[14] Education and academic career[edit] Education[edit] Kroto was educated at Bolton
Bolton
School and went to the University of Sheffield in 1958, where he obtained a first-class honours BSc degree in Chemistry
Chemistry
(1961) and a PhD in Molecular Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
(1964).[2] During his time at Sheffield he also was the art editor of "Arrows" – the University student magazine, played tennis for the University team (reaching the UAU finals twice) and was President of the Student Athletics Council (1963–64). Among other things such as making the first phosphaalkenes (compounds with carbon phosphorus double bonds), his doctoral studies included unpublished research on carbon suboxide, O=C=C=C=O, and this led to a general interest in molecules containing chains of carbon atoms with numerous multiple bonds. He started his work with an interest in organic chemistry, but when he learned about spectroscopy it inclined him towards quantum chemistry; he later developed an interest in astrochemistry.[2] After obtaining his PhD, Kroto spent two-years in a postdoctoral position at the National Research
Research
Council in Ottawa, Canada carrying out further work in molecular spectroscopy, and also spent the subsequent year at Bell Laboratories
Bell Laboratories
in New Jersey (1966–1967) carrying out Raman studies of liquid phase interactions and worked on quantum chemistry.[2] Research
Research
at the University of Sussex[edit] In 1967, Kroto began teaching and research at the University of Sussex in England. During his time at Sussex from 1967 to 1985, he carried out research mainly focused on the spectroscopic studies of new and novel unstable and semi-stable species. This work resulted in the birth of the various fields of new chemistry involving carbon multiply bonded to second and third row elements e.g. S, Se and P. A particularly important breakthrough (with Sussex colleague John Nixon) was the creation of several new phosphorus species detected by microwave spectroscopy. This work resulted in the birth of the field(s) of phosphaalkene and phosphaalkyne chemistry. These species contain carbon double and triple bonded to phosphorus (C=P and C≡P).[15] In 1975, he became a full professor of Chemistry. This coincided with laboratory microwave measurements with Sussex colleague David Walton on long linear carbon chain molecules, leading to radio astronomy observations with Canadian astronomers revealing the surprising fact that these unusual carbonaceous species existed in relatively large abundances in interstellar space as well as the outer atmospheres of certain stars – the carbon-rich red giants.[16][17] Discovery of buckminsterfullerene[edit]

Buckminsterfullerene, C60

In 1985, on the basis of the Sussex studies and the stellar discoveries, laboratory experiments (with co-workers James R. Heath, Sean C. O’Brien, Yuan Liu, Robert Curl
Robert Curl
and Richard Smalley
Richard Smalley
at Rice University) which simulated the chemical reactions in the atmospheres of the red giant stars demonstrated that stable C60 molecules could form spontaneously from a condensing carbon vapour. The co-investigators directed lasers at graphite and examined the results.[18][19][20] The C60 molecule is a molecule with the same symmetry pattern as a football, consisting of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons of carbon atoms.[21] Kroto named the molecule buckminsterfullerene, after Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
who had conceived of the geodesic domes, as the dome concept had provided a clue to the likely structure of the new species.[22] In 1985, the C60 discovery caused Kroto to shift the focus of his research from spectroscopy in order to probe the consequences of the C60 structural concept (and prove it correct) and to exploit the implications for chemistry and material science.[23][24] This research is significant for the discovery of a new allotrope of carbon known as a fullerene. Other allotropes of carbon include graphite, diamond and graphene. Harry Kroto's 1985 paper entitled "C60: Buckminsterfullerine", published with colleagues J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry
Chemistry
of the American Chemical Society, presented to Rice University in 2015.[25][26] The discovery of fullerenes was recognized in 2010 by the designation of a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
at the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology at Rice University
Rice University
in Houston, Texas.[19] Research
Research
at Florida State University[edit] In 2004, Kroto left the University of Sussex
University of Sussex
to take up a new position as Francis Eppes
Francis Eppes
Professor of Chemistry
Chemistry
at Florida State University.[27] At FSU he carried out fundamental research on: Carbon vapour with Professor Alan Marshall;[28][29] Open framework condensed phase systems with strategically important electrical and magnetic behaviour with Professors Naresh Dalal (FSU) and Tony Cheetham (Cambridge);[30] and the mechanism of formation and properties of nano-structured systems.[31][32][33] In addition, he participated in research initiatives at FSU that probed the astrochemistry of fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar/circumstellar space, as well as their relevance to stardust.[34][35][36] Educational outreach and public service[edit] In 1995, he jointly set up the Vega Science Trust, a UK educational charity that created high quality science films including lectures and interviews with Nobel Laureates, discussion programmes, careers and teaching resources for TV and Internet Broadcast. Vega produced over 280 programmes, that streamed for free from the Vega website which acted as a TV science channel. The trust closed in 2012.[37]

Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto at CSICon
CSICon
2011

In 2009, Kroto spearheaded the development of a second science education initiative, Geoset.[38] Short for the Global Educational Outreach for Science, Engineering and Technology, GEOSET is an ever-growing online cache of recorded teaching modules that are freely downloadable to educators and the public. The program aims to increase knowledge of the sciences by creating a global repository of educational videos and presentations from leading universities and institutions.[39] In 2003, prior to the Blair/Bush invasion of Iraq on the pretext that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, Kroto initiated and organised the publication of a letter to be signed by a dozen UK Nobel Laureates and published in the Times. It was composed by his friend the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate the late Sir
Sir
Joseph Rotblat and published in The Times on 15 February 2003.[40] He wrote a set of articles, mostly opinion pieces, from 2002–2003 for the Times Higher Education Supplement, a weekly UK publication.[41][42] From 2002–2004, Kroto served as President of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of Chemistry.[43] In 2004, he was appointed to the Francis Eppes Professorship in the chemistry department at Florida State University, carrying out research in nanoscience and nanotechnology.[44] He spoke at Auburn University
Auburn University
on 29 April 2010, and at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University
Rice University
with Robert Curl on 13 October 2010.[45] In October 2010 Kroto participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students had the opportunity to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize–winning scientist.[46] He spoke at Mahatma Gandhi University, at Kottayam, in Kerala, India in January 2011, where he was an 'Erudite' special invited lecturer of the Government of Kerala, from 5 to 11 January 2011.[47] Kroto spoke at CSICon
CSICon
2011,[48] a convention "dedicated to scientific inquiry and critical thinking" organized by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry in association with Skeptical Inquirer
Skeptical Inquirer
magazine and the Center for Inquiry.[49] He also delivered the IPhO 2012 lecture at the International Physics
Physics
Olympiad held in Estonia.[50] In 2014, Kroto spoke at the Starmus Festival
Starmus Festival
in the Canary Islands, delivering a lecture about his life in science, chemistry, and design.[51] Personal life[edit] In 1963, he married Margaret Henrietta Hunter, also a student of the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
at the time. The couple had two sons: Stephen and David. Throughout his entire life, Kroto was a lover of film, theatre, art, and music and published his own artwork.[52] Personal beliefs[edit] Kroto was a "devout atheist"[6] who thought that beliefs in immortality derive from lack of the courage to accept human mortality.[2] He was a patron of the British Humanist Association.[53] He was a supporter of Amnesty International.[54] He referred to his view that religious dogma causes people to accept unethical or inhumane actions: "The only mistake Bernie Madoff made was to promise returns in this life."[55] He held that scientists had a responsibility to work for the benefit of the entire species.[56] On 15 September 2010, Kroto, along with 54 other public figures, signed an open letter published in The Guardian, stating their opposition to Pope Benedict XVI's state visit to the UK.[57] Kroto was an early Signatory of Asteroid Day.[58][59] In 2008, Kroto was critical of Michael Reiss for directing the teaching of creationism alongside evolution.[60] Kroto praised the increase of organized online information as an "Educational Revolution" and named it as the "GooYouWiki" world referring to Google, YouTube
YouTube
and.[61] One of Kroto's favourite quotes was: "I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings." said by Albert Einstein,[62] Graphic design[edit] The discovery of buckminsterfullerene caused Kroto to postpone his dream of setting up an art and graphic design studio – he had been doing graphics semi-professionally for years. However, Kroto's graphic design work resulted in numerous posters, letterheads, logos, book/journal covers, medal design, etc. He produced artwork after receiving graphic awards in the Sunday Times Book Jacket Design[63] competition (1964) and the Moet Hennesy/Louis Vuitton Science pour l'Art Prize (1994).[63] Other notable graphical works include the design of the Nobel UK Stamp for Chemistry[64] (2001) and features at the Royal Academy (London) Summer Exhibition (2004). Death and reactions[edit] Kroto died on 30 April 2016 in Lewes, East Sussex
East Sussex
from complications of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at the age of 76. He was surrounded by family and close friends.[65][66][65][67][68][69][70] Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins
wrote a memorial for chemist Kroto where he mentioned Kroto's "passionate hatred of religion."[71] The Wall Street Journal described him as "(spending much of his later life) jetting around the world to extol scientific education in a world he saw as blinded by religion."[72] Slate's Zack Kopplin related a story about how Kroto gave him advice and support to fight Louisiana’s creationism law, a law that allows public school science teachers to attack evolution and how Kroto defended the scientific findings of global warming.[73] In an obituary published in the journal Nature, Robert Curl
Robert Curl
and James R. Heath described Kroto as having an:

“ impish sense of humour similar to that of the British comedy group Monty Python.[4] ”

Honours and awards[edit] Kroto won numerous awards, individually and with others: Major awards[edit]

Tilden Lecturer of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of Chemistry, 1981–82[74] Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1990[75][1] International Prize for New Materials American Physical Society, 1992 (with Robert Curl
Robert Curl
and Richard Smalley)[74] Italgas Prize for Innovation in Chemistry, 1992[74] Royal Society
Royal Society
of Chemistry
Chemistry
Longstaff Medal, 1993[74] Hewlett Packard Europhysics Prize, 1994 (with Wolfgang Kraetschmer, Don Huffman and Richard Smalley)[74] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry, 1996 (shared with Robert Curl
Robert Curl
and Richard Smalley) Carbon Medal, American Carbon Society Medal for Achievement in Carbon Science, 1997 (shared with Robert Curl
Robert Curl
and Richard Smalley)[76] Blackett Lectureship (Royal Society), 1999[75] Faraday Award and Lecture (Royal Society), 2001[77] Dalton Medal (Manchester Lit and Phil), 1998[78] Erasmus Medal of Academia Europaea, 2002[79] Copley Medal of the Royal Society, 2002[75] Order of Cherubini (Torino), 2005 Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007 Kavli Lecturer, 2007[80] National Historic Chemical Landmark, American Chemical Society, 2010.[19] Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award, Division of History of Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 2015[25][26]

Kroto was made a Knight Bachelor
Knight Bachelor
in the 1996 New Year Honours list.[81] The University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
North Campus contains two buildings named after Kroto: The Kroto Innovation Centre and the Kroto Research Institute.[82][83] Honorary degrees[edit]

Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)[74] University of Stockholm (Sweden)[74] University of Limburg (now Hasselt University) (Belgium)[74] University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
(UK)[74] University of Kingston (UK)[74] University of Sussex
University of Sussex
(UK) University of Helsinki (Finland) University of Nottingham (UK) Yokohama City University (Japan) University of Sheffield-Hallam (UK) University of Aberdeen (Scotland) University of Leicester (UK)[84] University of Aveiro (Portugal) University of Bielefeld (Germany) University of Hull (UK)[85] Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)[86] Hong Kong City University (HK China) Gustavus Adolphus College (Minnesota, US) University College London (UK)[87] University of Patras (Greece) University of Dalhousie (Halifax, NovaScotia, Canada) University of Strathclyde (Scotland) University of Manchester (UK) Kraków Mining University (Poland) University of Durham (UK) Queens University Belfast (NI) University of Surrey (UK) Polytechnico di Torino (Italy) University of Chemical Technology – Beijing (China) University of Liverpool (UK) Florida Southern College (US) Keio University (Japan) University of Chiba (Japan) University of Bolton
Bolton
(UK)[88] University of Hartford (US) University of Tel Aviv (Israel) University of Poitiers (France) Universidad Complutense de Madrid Naresuan University (Thailand) Vietnam National University (Hanoi) Edinburgh University (UK)[89] University of Primorska (Slovenia)

Returned due to closure of Chemistry
Chemistry
Departments

Hertfordshire University[90] Exeter University[91]

References[edit]

^ a b c " Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ a b c d e f g " Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto – Nobel Autobiography".  ^ Legon, Anthony C. (2017). " Sir
Sir
Harold Walter Kroto. 7 October 1939 — 30 April 2016". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society: rsbm20170003. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2017.0003. ISSN 0080-4606.  ^ a b Heath, James R.; Curl, Robert F. (2016). "Harry Kroto (1939–2016) Discoverer of new forms of carbon". Nature. 533 (7604): 470–470. Bibcode:2016Natur.533..470H. doi:10.1038/533470a. PMID 27225112.  ^ Harold Walter Kroto Biography – life, family, parents, name, wife, school, mother, young, born, college, time, year, Studied Chemistry
Chemistry
in College. Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 25 December 2011. ^ a b c d " Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
– Autobiography". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ a b "Harold Kroto, Chemist who helped illuminate molecules, dies at 76"], New York Times, 5 May 2016, pg. B14 ^ "A Round Peg in a Square World". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 23 August 2014.  ^ "Nobel Laureate talk Inspiration, Education, Science – and Snoopy".  ^ "The Science Studio with Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto" (PDF).  ^ " Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
– quotes".  ^ "Distinguished supporters". British Humanist Association. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ "Humanism and Its Aspirations: Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations: Humanist Manifesto III, a Successor to the Humanist Manifesto of 1933. American Humanist Association. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ "Mainau Declaration". www.mainaudeclaration.org. Retrieved 2018-01-11.  ^ "The detection of unstable molecules by microwave spectroscopy: phospha-alkenes". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (13): 513. 1976. doi:10.1039/C39760000513.  ^ "Detection of the Heavy Interstellar Molecule
Molecule
Cyanodiacetylene". The Astrophysical Journal. 205: L173. 1976. Bibcode:1976ApJ...205L.173A. doi:10.1086/182117.  ^ "Harold Kroto: University of Sussex". University of Sussex. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ Kroto, H. W.; Heath, J. R.; O'Brien, S. C.; Curl, R. F.; Smalley, R. E. (14 November 1985). "C60: Buckminsterfullerene". Nature. 318 (6042): 162–163. Bibcode:1985Natur.318..162K. doi:10.1038/318162a0.  ^ a b c "Discovery of Fullerenes
Fullerenes
National Historic Chemical Landmark". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ "Richard E. Smalley, Robert F. Curl, Jr., and Harold W. Kroto". Science History Institute. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ "Architects of the Microcosmos".  ^ "C60 – the Celestial Sphere that Fell to Earth".  ^ David, William I. F.; Ibberson, Richard M.; Matthewman, Judy C.; Prassides, Kosmas; Dennis, T. John S.; Hare, Jonathan P.; Kroto, Harold W.; Taylor, Roger; Walton, David R. M. (1991). "Crystal structure and bonding of ordered C60". Nature. 353 (6340): 147–149. Bibcode:1991Natur.353..147D. doi:10.1038/353147a0.  ^ " Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto - Biographical". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 3 May 2016.  ^ a b "2015 Awardees". illinois.edu. School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ a b "Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award" (PDF). illinois.edu. School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ " Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto FSU Profile".  ^ "Tiny buckyball grown around metal atom".  ^ "Buckyballs grow by gobbling up carbon".  ^ Jain, P; Ramachandran, V; Clark, RJ; Zhou, HD; Toby, BH; Dalal, NS; Kroto, HW; Cheetham, AK (2009). "Multiferroic Behavior Associated with an Order−Disorder Hydrogen Bonding Transition in Metal−Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with the Perovskite ABX3 Architecture". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 131: 13625–13627. doi:10.1021/ja904156s. PMID 19725496.  ^ "Closed Network Growth of Fullerenes". Nature Communications. 3 (5): 855. 2012. Bibcode:2012NatCo...3E.855D. doi:10.1038/ncomms1853.  ^ "Boron vapour trail leads to heterofullerenes".  ^ Dunk, PW; Mulet-Gas, M; Nakanishi, Y; Kaiser, NK; Rodríguez-Fortea, A; Shinohara, H; Poblet, JM; Marshall, AG; Kroto, HW. "Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer". Nature Communications. 5: 5844. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E5844D. doi:10.1038/ncomms6844. PMID 25524825.  ^ Dunk, PW; Adjizian, JJ; Kaiser, NK; Quinn, JP; Blakney, GT; Ewels, CP; Marshall, AG; Kroto, HW (2013). "Metallofullerene and Fullerene Formation from Condensing Carbon Gas under Conditions of Stellar Outflows and Implication to Stardust". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110: 18081–18086. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11018081D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315928110. PMC 3831496 . PMID 24145444.  ^ "Sodium aids metallofullerene formation in stellar outflows". PNAS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Supernova Chemistry". PNAS Science Session Podcast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ " Vega Science Trust
Vega Science Trust
to Close". The Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "GEOSET".  ^ "5 days of opening minds (2013)".  ^ "Nobel laureates against the war". The Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.  ^ "Harry Kroto". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^ "Abstracts of Kroto's Times Higher Education Articles". Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^ RSC Presidents 1980 to Present Day. Rsc.org. Retrieved 25 December 2011. ^ "FSU Profile".  ^ James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy
James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy
Rice University
Rice University
Events Civic Scientist Lecture – Robert F. Curl Jr., Ph.D., and Sir
Sir
Harry W. Kroto, Ph.D Archived 14 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Bakerinstitute.org (13 October 2010). Retrieved 25 December 2011. ^ "Lunch with a Laureate". Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-09. . usasciencefestival.org ^ Erudite. Mgu.ac.in. Retrieved 25 December 2011. ^ "SCIcon 2011 Speakers". Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.  ^ "CSIcon Official Site". Retrieved 12 April 2012.  ^ "UTTV".  ^ " Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto and David Eicher join Starmus Festival
Starmus Festival
Board". STARMUS Festival. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ "Professor Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto FRS". British Humanist Association. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Harry W. Kroto quotes". Goodreads. Retrieved 31 August 2014.  ^ AC Grayling. "The curse of religion". The Guardian.  ^ "Think About It: Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Winner Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto Throws Down the Gauntlet". Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^ "Letters: Harsh judgments on the pope and religion". The Guardian. London. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ " Asteroid Day
Asteroid Day
tries to save life as we know it". The Observer. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.  ^ " Sir
Sir
Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
Official page on Asteroid Day". Asteroid Day.  ^ Kroto, Harry (28 September 2008). "Blinded by a divine light". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Ray, Barry (16 October 2012). "FSU professor, Nobel laureate Kroto to lead discussion, 'The GooYouWiki World and the Educational Revolution'". FSU. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Ou, Yangguang (1 February 2011). "A Peek into the Mind of a Nobel Laureate: An Exclusive Interview with Sir
Sir
Harry Kroto". Journal of Young Investigators. Florida State University. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ a b "Welcome to the Kroto Lab". University of Sussex. Retrieved 2 May 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ "Stamp Photos".  ^ a b Davis, Nicola (2 May 2016). " Sir
Sir
Harry Kroto, Nobel prize-winning chemist, dies at 76". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2016.  ^ Nicholas St. Fluer (4 May 2016). "Harold Kroto, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Winning Chemist, Is Dead at 76". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ Cox, Hazel (5 May 2016). " Sir
Sir
Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2016.  ^ Turner, Kristy (10 May 2016). "The education of Harry Kroto". Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Stoye, Emma (3 May 2016). "Nobel prize winner and buckyball discoverer Harry Kroto
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dies". Chemistry
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World. Royal Society
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of Chemistry. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Ghosh, Pallab (4 May 2016). "Tributes for Nobel prize chemist Harry Kroto". BBC. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Dawkins, Richard (2 May 2016). "Harry Kroto". Richard Dawkins Foundation. Retrieved 10 May 2016.  ^ Hagerty, James R. (6 May 2016). " Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
Helped Spur Wave of Research
Research
in Nanotechnology: 1939-2016". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Kopplin, Zack (5 May 2016). "Lessons Learned From Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto". Slate. Retrieved 11 May 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jackson, Mark J.; Ahmed, Waqar (2007). Surface Engineered Surgical Tools and Medical Devices. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 587. ISBN 9780387270289.  ^ a b c "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16.  ^ "Medal of Achievement in Carbon Science and Technology". The Carbon Society. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Kroto wins Faraday Award". University of Sussex. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "About us". The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Erasmus Medal Winners". The Academia Europaea. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Science Society Kavli Lecturers". The Kavli Foundation. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Supplement, 30th December 1995". The London Gazette. 29 December 1995. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ "Kroto Research
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Institute". sheffield.ac.uk. The University of Sheffield. Retrieved March 6, 2017.  ^ "North Campus". sheffield.ac.uk. The University of Sheffield. Retrieved March 6, 2017.  ^ "Packed Programme Of Events For University Of Leicester`s 80th Anniversary". University of Leicester. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Honorary Graduates - F to R". University of Hull. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Honorary Graduates 1991-2005". Manchester Metropolitan University. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Honorary Graduates of UCL". University College London. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Public Art students set to honour Sir
Sir
Harry Kroto". University of Bolton. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Professor Sir
Sir
Harold Walter Kroto Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "Kroto protests cutbacks".  ^ "Nobel prize winner joins Exeter closure protest". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harry Kroto.

Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
personal website Sir
Sir
Harold W. Kroto at Florida State University About Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
at University of Sheffield Videos from Vega Science Trust Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto - Biographical from NobelPrize.org "Richard E. Smalley, Robert F. Curl, Jr., and Harold W. Kroto". Science History Institute. 

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1990

Fellows

Roger Angel Michael Ashburner David Bohm David A. Brown Malcolm H. Chisholm Robin Jon Hawes Clark Peter Clarricoats John G. Collier Simon Conway Morris Andrew C. Crawford Leslie Dutton Robert Fettiplace Erwin Gabathuler Nicholas C. Handy Hugh Allen Oliver Hill Jonathan Hodgkin Eric Jakeman George Jellicoe Louise Johnson Vaughan Jones Carole Jordan John Knott Harry Kroto Steven V. Ley Lew Mander Michael E. McIntyre Derek W. Moore Colin James Pennycuick John Albert Raven David J. Read Man Mohan Sharma Allan Snyder George R. Stark Azim Surani Bob Vaughan Herman Waldmann William Lionel Wilkinson Robert Hughes Williams Alan Williams Greg Winter Semir Zeki

Foreign

Edward Norton Lorenz Yasutomi Nishizuka Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard E. O. Wilson Bengt I. Samuelsson Lyman Spitzer 

v t e

Copley Medallists (2001–present)

Jacques Miller (2001) John Pople (2002) John Gurdon
John Gurdon
(2003) Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
(2004) Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2005) Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(2006) Robert May (2007) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
(2008) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(2009) David Cox / Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
(2010) Dan McKenzie (2011) John E. Walker (2012) Andre Geim
Andre Geim
(2013) Alec Jeffreys
Alec Jeffreys
(2014) Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2015) Richard Henderson (2016) Andrew Wiles
Andrew Wiles
(2017)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry

1901–1925

1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1926–1950

1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder

1951–1975

1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog

1976–2000

1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001–present

2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

1996 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Robert F. Curl Jr. (United States) Harold W. Kroto (United Kingdom) Richard E. Smalley (United States)

Literature

Wisława Szymborska
Wisława Szymborska
(Poland)

Peace

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
(East Timor) José Ramos-Horta
José Ramos-Horta
(East Timor)

Physics

David Morris Lee (United States) Douglas D. Osheroff (United States) Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert Coleman Richardson
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
(Australia) Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
(Switzerland)

Economic Sciences

James Mirrlees (United Kingdom) William Vickrey
William Vickrey
(Canada/United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Royal Society
Royal Society
of Chemistry

Membership

Fellowship

Fellows Hon. Fellows

Awards

Applied Catalysis Award Beilby Medal and Prize Centenary Prize Charles Rees Award Chartered Chemist Chartered Scientist Corday-Morgan Prizes De Gennes Prize Faraday Lectureship Prize Green Chemistry
Chemistry
Award Harrison-Meldola Memorial Prizes

Edward Harrison Memorial Prize Meldola Medal

Hickinbottom Award John B Goodenough Award Lord Lewis Prize Ludwig Mond Award Materials for Industry - Derek Birchall Award Nyholm Prize for Education Perkin Prize for Organic Chemistry Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science Sir
Sir
George Stokes Award Tilden Prize

Publications

Chemistry
Chemistry
World ChemSpider CrystEngCommunity Education in Chemistry Issues in Environmental Science
Environmental Science
and Technology The Merck Index

Journals (peer reviewed)

Analyst Analytical Abstracts Analytical Methods Annual Reports on the Progress of Chemistry

A B C

Catalysis Science & Technology Catalysts and Catalysed Reactions Chemical Communications Chemical Science Chemical Society
Chemical Society
Reviews Proceedings of the Chemical Society Chemistry
Chemistry
Education Research
Research
and Practice CrystEngComm Dalton Transactions Energy and Environmental Science Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts Faraday Discussions Green Chemistry Integrative Biology ...of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry ...of Materials Chemistry

A B C

...of the Chemical Society

A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical B: Physical Organic C: Organic D: Chemical Communications Abstracts Chemical Communications Faraday Transactions Faraday Transactions 1 Faraday Transactions 2 Perkin Transactions 1 Perkin Transactions 2 Transactions

...of the Royal Institute of Chemistry Jubilee of the Chemical Society Lab on a Chip Materials Horizons MedChemComm Memoirs and Proceedings of the Chemical Society Memoirs of the Chemical Society
Chemical Society
of London Metallomics Methods in Organic Synthesis Molecular BioSystems Nanoscale Natural Product Reports Natural Product Updates New Journal of Chemistry Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Perkin Transactions Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences PhysChemComm Physical Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemical Physics Polymer Chemistry Proc. Chemical Society, London RSC Advances Soft Matter

Presidents

Ewart Jones John Cadogan Richard Norman Jack Lewis John Mason Ward Rex Richards Charles Rees John Howard Purnell Edward William Abel Anthony Ledwith Steven Ley Sir
Sir
Harold Kroto Simon Campbell James Feast David Garner David Phillips Lesley Yellowlees Dominic Tildesley John Holman

Formed from

Chemical Society Faraday Society Royal Institute of Chemistry Society for Analytical Chemistry

Other

Art collection Blue plaques Burlington House

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 92002898 LCCN: n92009796 ISNI: 0000 0001 1451 8749 SELIBR: 394819 SUDOC: 032622821 BNF: cb12361762x (data) BIBSYS: 9067

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