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Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(born Harold George Bellanfanti Jr.; March 1, 1927) is an American singer, songwriter, actor, and social activist. One of the most successful Jamaican-American pop stars in history, he was dubbed the " King
King
of Calypso" for popularizing the Caribbean
Caribbean
musical style (originating in Trinidad & Tobago) with an international audience in the 1950s. His breakthrough album Calypso (1956) is the first million-selling LP by a single artist.[1] Belafonte is perhaps best known for singing "The Banana Boat Song", with its signature lyric "Day-O". He has recorded in many genres, including blues, folk, gospel, show tunes, and American standards. He has also starred in several films, most notably in Otto Preminger's hit musical Carmen Jones (1954), Island in the Sun (1957), and Robert Wise's Odds Against Tomorrow (1959). Belafonte was an early supporter of the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
in the 1950s and 1960s, and one of Martin Luther King
King
Jr.'s confidants. Throughout his career, he has been an advocate for political and humanitarian causes, such as the anti-apartheid movement and USA for Africa. Since 1987, he has been a UNICEF
UNICEF
Goodwill Ambassador. In recent years, he has been a vocal critic of the policies of the George W. Bush presidential administrations. Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
now acts as the American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union
celebrity ambassador for juvenile justice issues.[2] Belafonte has won three Grammy Awards, including a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, an Emmy
Emmy
Award,[3] and a Tony Award. In 1989, he received the Kennedy Center Honors. He was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1994. In 2014, he received the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award at the Academy's 6th Annual Governors Awards.[4] In March 2014, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Berklee College of Music
Berklee College of Music
in Boston.[5]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Music career

2.1 Calypso 2.2 Middle career 2.3 Later recordings and other activities

3 Film career 4 Personal life 5 Political and humanitarian activism

5.1 Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
activist 5.2 Humanitarian activist 5.3 Political activist 5.4 Opposition to the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration 5.5 Obama administration 5.6 NYC Pride 5.7 2016 presidential election

6 Discography 7 Filmography 8 Television work 9 Concert videos 10 Stage work 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life[edit] Belafonte was born Harold George Bellanfanti Jr.[6] at Lying-in Hospital on March 1, 1927, in Harlem, New York, the son of Melvine (née Love), a housekeeper of Jamaican descent, and Harold George Bellanfanti Sr., a Martiniquan who worked as a chef.[7][8][9][10][11][12] His mother was born in Jamaica, the child of a Scottish white mother and a black father. His father also was born in Jamaica, the child of a black mother and Dutch Jewish father of Sephardi
Sephardi
origins. Belafonte has described his grandfather, whom he never met, as “a white Dutch Jew who drifted over to the islands after chasing gold and diamonds, with no luck at all”.[13][14] From 1932 to 1940, he lived with one of his grandmothers in her native country of Jamaica. When he returned to New York City, he attended George Washington High School[15] after which he joined the Navy and served during World War II.[10] In the 1940s, he was working as a janitor's assistant in NYC when a tenant gave him, as a gratuity, two tickets to see the American Negro Theater. He fell in love with the art form and also met Sidney Poitier. The financially struggling pair regularly purchased a single seat to local plays, trading places in between acts, after informing the other about the progression of the play.[16] At the end of the 1940s, he took classes in acting at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School
The New School
in New York with the influential German director Erwin Piscator
Erwin Piscator
alongside Marlon Brando, Tony Curtis, Walter Matthau, Bea Arthur, and Sidney Poitier, while performing with the American Negro Theatre. He subsequently received a Tony Award
Tony Award
for his participation in the Broadway revue John Murray Anderson's Almanac. Harry Belefonte served in the United States Nave during World War II. Music career[edit]

Belafonte in John Murray Anderson's Almanac
John Murray Anderson's Almanac
on Broadway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1954

Belafonte started his career in music as a club singer in New York to pay for his acting classes. The first time he appeared in front of an audience, he was backed by the Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker
band, which included Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker
himself, Max Roach
Max Roach
and Miles Davis, among others. At first, he was a pop singer, launching his recording career on the Roost label in 1949, but later he developed a keen interest in folk music, learning material through the Library of Congress' American folk songs archives. With guitarist and friend Millard Thomas, Belafonte soon made his debut at the legendary jazz club The Village Vanguard. In 1952, he received a contract with RCA Victor. Calypso[edit] His first widely released single, which went on to become his "signature" song with audience participation in virtually all his live performances, was "Matilda", recorded April 27, 1953. His breakthrough album Calypso (1956) became the first LP in the world "to sell over 1 million copies within a year", Belafonte said on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's The Link program on August 7, 2012. He added that it was also the first million-selling album ever in England. The album is number four on Billboard's "Top 100 Album" list for having spent 31 weeks at number 1, 58 weeks in the top ten, and 99 weeks on the U.S. charts. The album introduced American audiences to calypso music (which had originated in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
in the early 20th century), and Belafonte was dubbed the " King
King
of Calypso", a title he wore with reservations since he had no claims to any Calypso Monarch titles. One of the songs included in the album is the now famous "Banana Boat Song" (listed as "Day O" on the original release), which reached number five on the pop charts, and featured its signature lyric "Day-O".[17] His other smash hit was "Jump in the Line". Many of the compositions recorded for Calypso, including "Banana Boat Song" and " Jamaica
Jamaica
Farewell", gave songwriting credit to Irving Burgie. Middle career[edit]

With Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
on the NBC
NBC
special An Evening with Julie Andrews and Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1969)

While primarily known for calypso, Belafonte has recorded in many different genres, including blues, folk, gospel, show tunes, and American standards. His second-most popular hit, which came immediately after "The Banana Boat Song", was the comedic tune "Mama Look at Bubu", also known as "Mama Look a Boo-Boo" (originally recorded by Lord Melody
Lord Melody
in 1955[18]), in which he sings humorously about misbehaving and disrespectful children. It reached number eleven on the pop chart. In 1959, he starred in Tonight With Belafonte, a nationally televised special that featured Odetta, who sang "Water Boy" and who performed a duet with Belafonte of "There's a Hole in My Bucket" that hit the national charts in 1961.[19] Belafonte was the first African American to win an Emmy, for Revlon Revue: Tonight with Belafonte (1959).[3] Belafonte recorded for RCA Victor
RCA Victor
from 1953 to 1974. Two live albums, both recorded at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
in 1959 and 1960, enjoyed critical and commercial success. From his 1959 album, "Hava Nagila" became part of his regular routine and one of his signature songs.[20] He was one of many entertainers recruited by Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
to perform at the inaugural gala of President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in 1961. That same year he released his second calypso album, Jump Up Calypso, which went on to become another million seller. During the 1960s he introduced several artists to American audiences, most notably South African singer Miriam Makeba
Miriam Makeba
and Greek singer Nana Mouskouri. His album Midnight Special
Special
(1962) included a young harmonica player named Bob Dylan. As The Beatles
The Beatles
and other stars from Britain began to dominate the U.S. pop charts, Belafonte's commercial success diminished; 1964's Belafonte at The Greek Theatre was his last album to appear in Billboard's Top 40. His last hit single, "A Strange Song", was released in 1967 and peaked at number 5 on the adult contemporary music charts. Belafonte has received Grammy Awards
Grammy Awards
for the albums Swing Dat Hammer
Swing Dat Hammer
(1960) and An Evening with Belafonte/Makeba
An Evening with Belafonte/Makeba
(1965). The latter album dealt with the political plight of black South Africans under apartheid. He earned six Gold Records.[21] During the 1960s, he appeared on TV specials alongside such artists as Julie Andrews, Petula Clark, Lena Horne, and Nana Mouskouri. In 1967, Belafonte was the first non-classical artist to perform at the prestigious Saratoga Performing Arts Center
Saratoga Performing Arts Center
(SPAC) in Upstate New York, soon to be followed by concerts there by The Doors, The 5th Dimension, The Who, and Janis Joplin. From February 5 to 9, 1968, Belafonte guest hosted The Tonight Show substituting for Johnny Carson. Among his interview guests were Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and Sen. Robert F. Kennedy.[22] Later recordings and other activities[edit]

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Belafonte's recording activity slowed after he left RCA in the mid-1970s. RCA released his fifth and final Calypso album, Calypso Carnival in 1971. From the mid-1970s to early 1980s, Belafonte spent the greater part of his time touring Japan, Europe, Cuba
Cuba
and elsewhere. In 1977, he released the album Turn the World Around on the Columbia Records
Columbia Records
label. The album, with a strong focus on world music, was never issued in the United States. He subsequently was a guest star on a memorable episode of The Muppet Show
The Muppet Show
in 1978, in which he performed his signature song "Day-O" on television for the first time. However, the episode is best known for Belafonte's rendition of the spiritual song "Turn the World Around", from the album of the same name, which he performed with specially made Muppets that resembled African tribal masks. It became one of the series' most famous performances. It was reportedly Jim Henson's favorite episode, and Belafonte reprised the song at Henson's memorial in 1990. "Turn the World Around" was also included in the 2005 official hymnal supplement of the Unitarian Universalist Association, Singing the Journey.[23] His involvement in USA for Africa
USA for Africa
during the mid-1980s resulted in renewed interest in his music, culminating in a record deal with EMI. He subsequently released his first album of original material in over a decade, Paradise in Gazankulu, in 1988. The album contains ten protest songs against the South African former Apartheid
Apartheid
policy and is his last studio album. In the same year Belafonte, as UNICEF
UNICEF
Goodwill Ambassador, attended a symposium in Harare, Zimbabwe, to focus attention on child survival and development in Southern African countries. As part of the symposium, he performed a concert for UNICEF. A Kodak
Kodak
video crew filmed the concert, which was released as a 60-minute concert video titled "Global Carnival". It features many of the songs from the album Paradise in Gazankulu and some of his classic hits. Also in 1988, Tim Burton
Tim Burton
used "The Banana Boat Song" and "Jump in the Line" in his movie Beetlejuice.[citation needed] Following a lengthy recording hiatus, An Evening with Harry Belafonte and Friends, a soundtrack and video of a televised concert, were released in 1997 by Island Records. The Long Road to Freedom: An Anthology of Black Music, a huge multi-artist project recorded by RCA during the 1960s and 1970s, was finally released by the label in 2001. Belafonte went on the Today Show to promote the album on September 11, 2001, and was interviewed by Katie Couric
Katie Couric
just minutes before the first plane hit the World Trade Center.[24] The album was nominated for the 2002 Grammy Awards
Grammy Awards
for Best Boxed Recording Package, for Best Album Notes, and for Best Historical Album.[citation needed] Belafonte received the Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
in 1989. He was awarded the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
in 1994 and he won a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2000. He performed sold-out concerts globally through the 1950s to the 2000s. Owing to illness, he was forced to cancel a reunion tour with Nana Mouskouri
Nana Mouskouri
planned for the spring and summer of 2003 following a tour in Europe. His last concert was a benefit concert for the Atlanta Opera
Atlanta Opera
on October 25, 2003. In a 2007 interview, he stated that he had since retired from performing.[25] In 2017 Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
released When Colors Come Together, an anthology of Belafonte's music for Sony Legends produced by his son David who wrote a remake of Island In The Sun, arranged by longtime Belafonte musical director Richard Cummings featuring Harry Belafonte's grand-children Sarafina and Amadeus and a children's choir. Film career[edit]

Belafonte at the 2011 Berlin Film Festival

Belafonte has starred in several films. His first film role was in Bright Road
Bright Road
(1953), in which he appeared alongside Dorothy Dandridge. The two subsequently starred in Otto Preminger's hit musical Carmen Jones (1954). Ironically, Belafonte's singing in the film was dubbed by an opera singer, as Belafonte's own singing voice was seen as unsuitable for the role. Using his star clout, Belafonte was subsequently able to realize several then-controversial film roles. In 1957's Island in the Sun, there are hints of an affair between Belafonte's character and the character played by Joan Fontaine. The film also starred James Mason, Dandridge, Joan Collins, Michael Rennie, and John Justin. In 1959, he starred in and produced Robert Wise's Odds Against Tomorrow, in which he plays a bank robber uncomfortably teamed with a racist partner (Robert Ryan). He also co-starred with Inger Stevens
Inger Stevens
in The World, the Flesh and the Devil. Belafonte was offered the role of Porgy in Preminger's Porgy and Bess, where he would have once again starred opposite Dandridge, but he refused the role because he objected to its racial stereotyping. Dissatisfied with the film roles available to him, he returned to music during the 1960s. In the early 1970s, Belafonte appeared in more films among which are two with Poitier: Buck and the Preacher (1972) and Uptown Saturday Night
Uptown Saturday Night
(1974). In 1984, Belafonte produced and scored the musical film Beat Street, dealing with the rise of hip-hop culture. Together with Arthur Baker, he produced the gold-certified soundtrack of the same name. Belafonte next starred in a major film again in the mid-1990s, appearing with John Travolta
John Travolta
in the race-reverse drama White Man's Burden (1995); and in Robert Altman's jazz age drama Kansas City (1996), the latter of which garnered him the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor. He also starred as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in the TV drama Swing Vote (1999). In 2006, Belafonte appeared in Bobby, Emilio Estevez's ensemble drama about the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy; he played Nelson, a friend of an employee of the Ambassador Hotel (Anthony Hopkins).[citation needed] Personal life[edit]

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Belafonte and Marguerite Byrd were married from 1948 to 1957. They have two daughters: Adrienne and Shari. Adrienne and her daughter Rachel Blue founded the Anir Foundation/Experience, focused on humanitarian work in southern Africa.[26] Shari is a photographer, model, singer, and actress and is married to actor Sam Behrens. Belafonte had an affair with actress Joan Collins
Joan Collins
during the filming of Island in the Sun.[27] On March 8, 1957, Belafonte married his second wife Julie Robinson, a former dancer with the Katherine Dunham Company who was of Jewish descent.[28] They had two children, David and Gina. David, the only son of Harry Belafonte, is a former model and actor and is an Emmy-winning and Grammy nominated music producer and the executive director of the family-held company Belafonte Enterprises Inc. As a music producer, David has been involved in most of Belafonte's albums and tours and productions. He is married to model and singer Malena Belafonte who toured with Mr. Belafonte. Gina Belafonte is a TV and film actress and worked with her father as coach and producer on more than six films. Gina helped found The Gathering For Justice, an intergenerational, intercultural non-profit organization working to reintroduce nonviolence to stop child incarceration. After 47 years of marriage,[29] Belafonte and Robinson divorced. In April 2008, Belafonte married photographer Pamela Frank.[30] Belafonte has 5 grand children, Rachel and Brian through his children with Marguerite Byrd and Maria, Sarafina, and Amadeus through his children with Julie Robinson. In October 1998, Belafonte contributed a letter to Liv Ullmann's book Letter to My Grandchild.[31]. On January 29, 2013, Belafonte was the Keynote Speaker and 2013 Honoree for the MLK Celebration Series at the Rhode Island School of Design. Belafonte used his career and experiences with Dr. King
King
to speak on the role of artists as activists.[32] Belafonte was inducted as an honorary member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity on January 11, 2014.[33] Political and humanitarian activism[edit] Belafonte's political beliefs were greatly inspired by the singer, actor and Communist activist Paul Robeson, who mentored him. Robeson opposed not only racial prejudice in the United States but also western colonialism in Africa. Belafonte's success did not protect him from criticism of his communist sympathies or from racial discrimination, particularly in the American South. He refused to perform there from 1954 until 1961. In 1960, he appeared in a campaign commercial for Democratic Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.[34] Kennedy later named Belafonte cultural advisor to the Peace Corps. Belafonte gave the keynote address at the ACLU of Northern California's annual Bill of Rights Day Celebration In December 2007 and was awarded the Chief Justice Earl Warren
Earl Warren
Civil Liberties Award. The 2011 Sundance Film Festival
Sundance Film Festival
featured the documentary film Sing Your Song, a biographical film focusing on Belafonte's contribution to and his leadership in the civil rights movement in America and his endeavours to promote social justice globally.[35] In 2011, Belafonte's memoir My Song was published by Knopf Books. Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
activist[edit]

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Belafonte (center) at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C with Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(left) and Charlton Heston

Belafonte supported the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
in the 1950s and 1960s and was one of Martin Luther King
King
Jr.'s confidants. He provided for King's family since King
King
made only $8,000 a year as a preacher. Like many other civil rights activists, Belafonte was blacklisted during the McCarthy era. During the 1963 Birmingham Campaign, he bailed King out of Birmingham City Jail and raised thousands of dollars to release other civil rights protesters. He financed the 1961 Freedom Rides, supported voter registration drives, and helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington. During the Mississippi
Mississippi
Freedom Summer" of 1964, Belafonte bankrolled the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, flying to Mississippi that August with Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
and $60,000 in cash and entertaining crowds in Greenwood. In 1968, Belafonte appeared on a Petula Clark primetime television special on NBC. In the middle of a duet of On the Path of Glory, Clark smiled and briefly touched Belafonte's arm,[36] which prompted complaints from Doyle Lott, the advertising manager of the show's sponsor, Plymouth Motors.[37] Lott wanted to retape the segment,[38] but Clark, who had ownership of the special, told NBC that the performance would be shown intact or she would not allow it to be aired at all. Newspapers reported the controversy,[39][40] Lott was relieved of his responsibilities,[41] and when the special aired, it attracted high ratings. Belafonte appeared on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
on September 29, 1968, performing a controversial "Mardi Gras" number intercut with footage from the 1968 Democratic National Convention
1968 Democratic National Convention
riots. CBS censors deleted the segment. The full unedited content were broadcast in 1993 as part of a complete Smothers Brothers
Smothers Brothers
Hour syndication package. Humanitarian activist[edit] In 1985, he helped organize the Grammy Award-winning song "We Are the World", a multi-artist effort to raise funds for Africa. He performed in the Live Aid
Live Aid
concert that same year. In 1987, he received an appointment to UNICEF
UNICEF
as a goodwill ambassador. Following his appointment, Belafonte traveled to Dakar, Senegal, where he served as chairman of the International Symposium of Artists and Intellectuals for African Children. He also helped to raise funds—alongside more than 20 other artists—in the largest concert ever held in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1994, he went on a mission to Rwanda
Rwanda
and launched a media campaign to raise awareness of the needs of Rwandan children. In 2001, he went to South Africa
Africa
to support the campaign against HIV/AIDS. In 2002, Africare
Africare
awarded him the Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award for his efforts to assist Africa. In 2004, Belafonte went to Kenya
Kenya
to stress the importance of educating children in the region. Belafonte has been involved in prostate cancer advocacy since 1996, when he was diagnosed and successfully treated for the disease.[42] On June 27, 2006, Belafonte was the recipient of the BET Humanitarian Award at the 2006 BET Awards. He was named one of nine 2006 Impact Award recipients by AARP
AARP
The Magazine.[43] On October 19, 2007, Belafonte represented UNICEF
UNICEF
on Norwegian television to support the annual telethon (TV Aksjonen) in support of that charity and helped raise a world record of $10 per inhabitant of Norway. Belafonte was also an ambassador for the Bahamas.[citation needed] He is on the board of directors of the Advancement Project.[44] He also serves on the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Political activist[edit] Belafonte has been a longtime critic of U.S. foreign policy. He began making controversial political statements on this subject in the early 1980s. He has at various times made statements opposing the U.S. embargo on Cuba; praising Soviet peace initiatives; attacking the U.S. invasion of Grenada; praising the Abraham Lincoln Brigade; honoring Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
and praising Fidel Castro.[45] Belafonte is additionally known for his visit to Cuba
Cuba
which helped ensure hip-hop's place in Cuban society. According to Geoffrey Baker's article "Hip hop, Revolucion! Nationalizing Rap in Cuba", in 1999, Belafonte met with representatives of the rap community immediately before meeting with Fidel Castro. This meeting resulted in Castro’s personal approval of, and hence the government’s involvement in, the incorporation of rap into his country's culture.[46] In a 2003 interview, Belafonte reflected upon this meeting’s influence:

Belafonte speaking at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C

“When I went back to Havana a couple years later, the people in the hip-hop community came to see me and we hung out for a bit. They thanked me profusely and I said, 'Why?' and they said, 'Because your little conversation with Fidel and the Minister of Culture on hip-hop led to there being a special division within the ministry and we've got our own studio'."[47] Belafonte was active in the anti-apartheid movement. He was the Master of Ceremonies at a reception honoring African National Congress President Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
at Roosevelt House, Hunter College, in New York City. The reception was held by the American Committee on Africa (ACOA) and The Africa
Africa
Fund.[48] He is a current board member of the Trans Africa
Africa
Forum and the Institute for Policy Studies.[49] Opposition to the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration[edit] Belafonte achieved widespread attention for his political views in 2002 when he began making a series of comments about President George W. Bush, his administration and the Iraq War. During an interview with Ted Leitner
Ted Leitner
for San Diego's 760 KFMB, in October 2002, Belafonte referred to a quote made by Malcolm X.[50] Belafonte said:

There is an old saying, in the days of slavery. There were those slaves who lived on the plantation, and there were those slaves who lived in the house. You got the privilege of living in the house if you served the master, do exactly the way the master intended to have you serve him. That gave you privilege. Colin Powell
Colin Powell
is committed to come into the house of the master, as long as he would serve the master, according to the master's purpose. And when Colin Powell
Colin Powell
dares to suggest something other than what the master wants to hear, he will be turned back out to pasture. And you don't hear much from those who live in the pasture.

Belafonte used the quote to characterize former United States Secretaries of State Colin Powell
Colin Powell
and Condoleezza Rice, both African Americans. Powell and Rice both responded, with Powell calling the remarks "unfortunate"[51] and Rice saying: "I don't need Harry Belafonte to tell me what it means to be black."[52]

Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival
61st Berlin International Film Festival
in February 2011

The comment was brought up again in an interview with Amy Goodman
Amy Goodman
for Democracy Now!
Democracy Now!
in 2006.[53] In January 2006, Belafonte led a delegation of activists including actor Danny Glover
Danny Glover
and activist/professor Cornel West
Cornel West
to meet with President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez. In 2005, Chávez, an outspoken Bush critic, initiated a program to provide cheaper heating oil for poor people in several areas of the United States. Belafonte supported this initiative.[54] He was quoted as saying, during the meeting with Chávez, "No matter what the greatest tyrant in the world, the greatest terrorist in the world, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
says, we're here to tell you: Not hundreds, not thousands, but millions of the American people support your revolution."[55] Belafonte and Glover met again with Chávez in 2006.[56] The comment ignited a great deal of controversy. Hillary Clinton refused to acknowledge Belafonte's presence at an awards ceremony that featured both of them.[57] AARP, which had just named him one of its 10 Impact Award honorees 2006, released this statement following the remarks: " AARP
AARP
does not condone the manner and tone which he has chosen and finds his comments completely unacceptable."[58] During a Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Day speech at Duke University in 2006, Belafonte compared the American government to the hijackers of the September 11 attacks, saying: "What is the difference between that terrorist and other terrorists?" [59] In response to criticism about his remarks Belafonte asked, "What do you call Bush when the war he put us in to date has killed almost as many Americans as died on 9/11 and the number of Americans wounded in war is almost triple? [...] By most definitions Bush can be considered a terrorist." When he was asked about his expectation of criticism for his remarks on the war in Iraq, Belafonte responded: "Bring it on. Dissent
Dissent
is central to any democracy."[60] In another interview, Belafonte remarked that while his comments may have been "hasty", nevertheless he felt the Bush administration suffered from "arrogance wedded to ignorance" and its policies around the world were "morally bankrupt".[61] In January 2006, in a speech to the annual meeting of the Arts Presenters Members Conference, Belafonte referred to "the new Gestapo
Gestapo
of Homeland Security" saying, "You can be arrested and have no right to counsel!"[62] During the Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Day speech at Duke University
Duke University
in January 2006, Belafonte said that if he could choose his epitaph it would be, "Harry Belafonte, Patriot."[63] In 2004, he was awarded the Domestic Human Rights Award in San Francisco by Global Exchange. Obama administration[edit] In 2011, he commented on the Obama administration and the role of popular opinion in shaping its policies. "I think [Obama] plays the game that he plays because he sees no threat from evidencing concerns for the poor."[64] On December 9, 2012, in an interview with Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
on MSNBC, Belafonte expressed dismay that many political leaders in the United States continue to oppose the policies of President Obama even after his re-election: "The only thing left for Barack Obama to do is to work like a third-world dictator and just put all of these guys in jail. You’re violating the American desire."[65] On February 1, 2013, Belafonte received the NAACP's Spingarn Medal, and in the televised ceremony, he counted Constance L. Rice
Constance L. Rice
among those previous recipients of the award whom he regarded highly for speaking up "to remedy the ills of the nation".[66] NYC Pride[edit] In 2013, he was named a Grand Marshal of the New York City
New York City
Pride Parade, alongside Edie Windsor and Earl Fowlkes.[67] 2016 presidential election[edit] In 2016, Belafonte endorsed Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
for the Democratic Primary, saying "I think he represents opportunity, I think he represents a moral imperative, I think he represents a certain kind of truth that's not often evidenced in the course of politics".[68] Belafonte was an honorary co-chair of the Women's March on Washington, which took place on January 21, 2017, the day after the inauguration of Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as President.[69] Discography[edit] Further information: Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
discography Belafonte has released 30 studio albums and eight live albums, and has achieved critical and commercial success. Filmography[edit]

Belafonte with wife Pamela in April 2011

Bright Road
Bright Road
(1953) Carmen Jones (1954) Island in the Sun (1957) The Heart of Show Business (1957) (short subject) The World, the Flesh and the Devil (1959) Odds Against Tomorrow
Odds Against Tomorrow
(1959) King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970) (documentary) (narrator) The Angel Levine (1970) Buck and the Preacher (1972) Uptown Saturday Night
Uptown Saturday Night
(1974) Fundi: The Story of Ella Baker
Ella Baker
(1981) (documentary) A veces miro mi vida (1982) Drei Lieder (1983) (short subject) Sag nein (1983) (documentary) Der Schönste Traum (1984) (documentary) We Shall Overcome (1989) (documentary) (narrator) The Player (1992) (Cameo) Ready to Wear (1994) (Cameo) Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream (1995) White Man's Burden (1995) Jazz '34 (1996) Kansas City (1996) Scandalize My Name: Stories from the Blacklist (1998) (documentary) Fidel (2001) (documentary) XXI Century (2003) (documentary) Conakry Kas (2003) (documentary) Ladders (2004) (documentary) (narrator) Mo & Me (2006) (documentary) Bobby (2006) Motherland (2009) (documentary) Sing Your Song
Sing Your Song
(2011) (documentary) Hava Nagila: The Movie (2013) (documentary)

Television work[edit]

Sugar Hill Times (1949–1950) The Steve Allen Show
The Steve Allen Show
(1958) [70] Tonight With Belafonte (1959) 1963 Round Table (1963) Petula (1968) The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
(1968) "The Tonight Show" (1968) A World in Music (1969) Harry & Lena, For The Love Of Life (1969) A World in Love (1970) The Flip Wilson Show
The Flip Wilson Show
(1973) Free to Be… You and Me
Free to Be… You and Me
(1974) The Muppet Show
The Muppet Show
(1978) Grambling's White Tiger (1981) Don't Stop The Carnival (1985) After Dark (1989) (extended appearance on political discussion programme, more here) An Evening With Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
And Friends (1997) Swing Vote (1999) PB&J Otter "The Ice Moose" (1999) Tanner on Tanner (2004) That's What I'm Talking About (2006) (miniseries) When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts (2006) (miniseries) Speakeasy, interviewing Carlos Santana
Carlos Santana
(2015)[71]

Concert videos[edit]

En Gränslös Kväll På Operan (1966) Don't Stop The Carnival (1985) Global Carnival (1988) An Evening With Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
And Friends (1997)

Stage work[edit]

John Murray Anderson's Almanac
John Murray Anderson's Almanac
(1953) 3 for Tonight (1955) Moonbirds (1959) (producer) Belafonte at the Palace (1959) Asinamali! (1987) (producer)

See also[edit]

List of peace activists

References[edit]

^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
- Calypso". AllMusic (All Media Network). Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "ACLU Ambassadors - Harry Belafonte". aclu.olrg (American Civil Liberties Union). Retrieved 2015-01-05.  ^ a b "Awards search for Harry Belafonte". Emmys. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ Sinha-Roy, Piya (August 28, 2014). "Belafonte, Miyazaki to receive Academy's Governors Awards". Reuters. Retrieved August 28, 2014.  ^ https://www.aclu.org/issues/aclu-ambassador-project?redirect=ambassadors ^ "Life in Harlem". Sing Your Song. S2BN Belafonte Productions. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ Genia Fogelson (1996). Harry Belafonte. Holloway House Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 0-87067-772-1.  ^ Hardy, Phil; Dave Laing (1990). The Faber Companion to Twentieth Century Music. Faber. p. 54. ISBN 0-571-16848-5.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Biography (1927-)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ a b The African American Registry Harry Belafonte, an entertainer of truth Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Calypso Artists: Harry Belafonte". Web.archive.org. 2009-02-08. Archived from the original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Fogelson, Genia (September 1, 1996). "Harry Belafonte". ISBN 978-0-87067-772-4.  ^ Belafonte, Harry (2012). My Song: A Memoir of Art, Race, and Defiance. Canongate Books. ISBN 9780857865885. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ Mottram, James (27 May 2012). "Interview: Harry Belafonte, singer". The Scotsman. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ Arenson, Karen W. "Commencements; Belafonte Lauds Diversity Of Baruch College Class", The New York Times, June 2, 2000. Retrieved April 16, 2008. "(He said that he had not gotten past the first year at George Washington High School, and that the only college degrees he had were honorary ones.)" ^ Belafonte, Harry (2011-10-12). "Harry Belafonte: Out Of Struggle, A Beautiful Voice". NPR. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 18 – Blowin' in the Wind: Pop discovers folk music. [Part 1] : UNT Digital Library]". Pop Chronicles. Retrieved 2013-11-04.  ^ https://www.discogs.com/Lord-Melody-Caribbean-All-Stars-Band-The-Bo-Bo-Man-Saxophone-Limbo/release/4459202 ^ "Odetta". WordPress. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ Grossman, Roberta (2011). "Video – What does Hava Nagila mean?".  ^ "Searchable Database - Search: Belafonte Makeba". RIAA. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "MLK Appears on "Tonight" Show with Harry Belafonte". The Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. 1968-02-02. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "Song Information". UUA. April 9, 2012. Archived from the original on October 12, 2010. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ " NBC
NBC
Sept. 11, 2001 8:31 am - 9:12 am". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2016-01-10.  ^ "kostenloses PR und Pressemitteilungen". Pr-inside.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ "Anir Experience". Anir Foundation. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Hill, Erin (October 14, 2013). " Joan Collins
Joan Collins
Shares Steamy Details of Affairs with Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
and Warren Beatty". Parade.  ^ Bloom, Nate (November 17, 2011). "Jewish Stars 11/18". Cleveland Jewish News. His second wife, dancer Julie Robinson, to whom he was married from 1958-2004, is Jewish. They had a daughter Gina, 50, and a son David, 54  ^ Mottran, James (27 May 2012). "Interview: Harry Belafonte, singer". The Scottsman.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Fast Facts". CNN. July 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ Ullmann, Liv (October 1998). Letter to My Grandchild. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-728-3.  ^ "2013 MLK Series Keynote Address – Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
'Artist as Activist'". RISD. January 29, 2013.  ^ Brown, DeNeen L. (January 12, 2014). " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
challenges Phi Beta Sigma to join movement to stop oppression of women". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-01-14.  ^ "Commercials - 1960 - Harry Belafonte". The Living Room Candidate. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Macdonald, Moira. "Movies 'Sing Your Song' recounts Harry Belafonte's life". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
with Petula Clark
Petula Clark
– On The Path Of Glory on YouTube ^ "Tempest in TV Tube Is Sparked by Touch". Spokane Daily Chronicle. AP. 5 March 1968. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ "Bellafonte Hollers; Chrysler Says Everything's All Right". The Dispatch. Lexington, North Carolina. UPI. 7 March 1968. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ "Chrysler Rejects Charges Of Discrimination In Show". The Morning Record. Meriden–Wallingford, Connecticut. AP. 7 March 1968. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ "Belafonte says apologies can't change heart, color". The Afro American. 16 March 1968. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ "Belafonte Ire Brings Penalty: Chrysler Official Apologizes To Star". Toledo Blade. AP. 11 March 1968. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
and prostate cancer". Phoenix5.org. 1997-04-21. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "Feel Great. Save Money. Have Fun". AARP
AARP
The Magazine. 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "Advancement Project". Advancement Project. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "FrontPage Magazine - Harry's Hatreds". Frontpagemag.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ Baker, Geoffrey. 2005. " Hip hop
Hip hop
Revolucion! Nationalizing Rap in Cuba." Ethnomusicology 49, no. 3: 368–402. ^ Sandra Levinson An exclusive interview with Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on Cuba. Cuba
Cuba
Now, 10/25/03. ^ "Reception Honoring Oliver R. Tambo, President, The African National Congress (South Africa)". African Activist Archive. Matrix. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Institute for Policy Studies: Trustees". Ips-dc.org. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ Baker, Brent. "Belafonte Calls Powell Bush's "House Slave"". Media Research Center. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Belafonte won't back down from Powell slave reference". CNN. October 14, 2002. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2010.  ^ "Powell, Rice Accused of Toeing the Line". Fox News. October 22, 2002.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on Bush, Iraq, Hurricane Katrina and Having His Conversations with Martin Luther King
King
Wiretapped by the FBI". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ "Venezuela plans to expand program to provide cheap heating oil to US poor". Taipei Times. 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "Belafonte calls Bush 'greatest terrorist' - World news - Americas NBC
NBC
News". MSNBC. 2006-01-08. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ "Chavez Repeats 'Devil' Comment at Harlem
Harlem
Event". Fox News. September 21, 2006.  ^ "Article". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on February 18, 2007.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Comments" (Press release). AARP.org. 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on Bush, Iraq, Hurricane Katrina and Having His Conversations with Martin Luther King
King
Wiretapped by the FBI". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ Williams, Brad (September 13, 2006). "Audience applauds Belafonte". The Daily Beacon. 35.953545;-83.925853: University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ "POLITICS-US: Belafonte on Thinking Outside the Ballot Box". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2013.  ^ "Belafonte Blasts 'Gestapo' Security". Fox News. January 23, 2006.  ^ Goodman, Amy. "Sing Your Song: Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on Art & Politics, Civil Rights & His Critique of President Obama". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ " Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on Obama: "He Plays the Game that He Plays Because He Sees No Threat from Evidencing Concerns for the Poor"". Democracy Now!. January 26, 2011.  ^ Francis, Marquise (December 14, 2012). "Harry Belafonte: Obama should 'work like a third world dictator'". The Grio. MSNBC. Retrieved June 20, 2013.  ^ " NAACP
NAACP
Image Awards Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Speaks on Gun Control in Acceptance Speech Feb 1, 2013". YouTube. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2013-02-19.  ^ "NYC Pride Press Release" (PDF).  ^ Bernie 2016 (2016-02-11), Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Endorses Bernie Sanders for President, retrieved 2016-02-11  ^ Aneja, Arpita (January 21, 2017). "Gloria Steinem Harry Belafonte March on Washington
March on Washington
VIDEO". Time. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ cast ( Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
and the Belafonte Singers; Johnny Carson; Martha Raye). The Steve Allen Show
The Steve Allen Show
Season 4 Episode 9. ^ Grow, Kory (January 8, 2015). "Roger Waters, John Mellencamp Choose Interviewers for 'Speakeasy' TV Show". speak-easy.tv. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Sharlet, Jeff (2013). "Voice and Hammer". Virginia Quarterly Review (Fall 2013): 24–41. Retrieved 4 October 2013.  Wise, James. Stars in Blue: Movie Actors in America's Sea Services. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 1557509379 OCLC 36824724 Smith, Judith. Becoming Belafonte: Black Artist, Public Radical. University of Texas Press, 2014. 0292729146, 9780292729148

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Harry Belafonte

SNCC Digital Gateway: Harry Belafonte, Documentary website created by the SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University, telling the story of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
& grassroots organizing from the inside-out Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
on IMDb Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
discography Appearances on C-SPAN

v t e

Harry Belafonte

Discography

Studio albums

Mark Twain and Other Folk Favorites
Mark Twain and Other Folk Favorites
(1954) Belafonte (1956) Calypso (1956) An Evening with Belafonte (1957) Belafonte Sings of the Caribbean
Caribbean
(1957) To Wish You a Merry Christmas (1958) Belafonte Sings the Blues
Blues
(1958) Love Is a Gentle Thing
Love Is a Gentle Thing
(1959) My Lord What a Mornin' (1959) Swing Dat Hammer
Swing Dat Hammer
(1960) Jump Up Calypso (1961) Midnight Special
Special
(1962) The Many Moods of Belafonte
The Many Moods of Belafonte
(1962) Streets I Have Walked (1963) Ballads, Blues
Blues
and Boasters (1964) In My Quiet Room
In My Quiet Room
(1966) Calypso in Brass
Calypso in Brass
(1966) Belafonte on Campus (1967) Belafonte Sings of Love (1968) Homeward Bound (1970) Belafonte by Request (1970) The Warm Touch (1971) Calypso Carnival (1971) Play Me (1973) Turn the World Around (1977) Loving You Is Where I Belong (1981) Paradise in Gazankulu (1988)

Live albums

Belafonte at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
(1959) Belafonte Returns to Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
(1960) Belafonte at The Greek Theatre (1964) En Gränslös Kväll På Operan (1966) Belafonte...Live! (1972) Belafonte Concert in Japan
Belafonte Concert in Japan
(1974) Belafonte '89 (1989) An Evening with Harry Belafonte and Friends (1997)

Compilations

Very Best of Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(2001) The Long Road to Freedom: An Anthology of Black Music (2001) The Essential Harry Belafonte (2005)

Collaborations

Porgy and Bess (1959) An Evening with Belafonte/Makeba
An Evening with Belafonte/Makeba
(1965) An Evening with Belafonte/Mouskouri (1966) Harry & Lena: For the Love of Life (1970) "We Are the World" (1985)

Related articles

Shari Belafonte (daughter) March on Washington Mississippi
Mississippi
Freedom Summer

Awards for Harry Belafonte

v t e

Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award

Y. Frank Freeman (1956) Samuel Goldwyn (1957) Bob Hope (1959) Sol Lesser (1960) George Seaton (1961) Steve Broidy (1962) Edmond L. DePatie (1965) George Bagnall (1966) Gregory Peck (1967) Martha Raye (1968) George Jessel (1969) Frank Sinatra (1970) Rosalind Russell (1972) Lew Wasserman (1973) Arthur B. Krim (1974) Jules C. Stein (1975) Charlton Heston (1977) Leo Jaffe (1978) Robert Benjamin (1979) Danny Kaye (1981) Walter Mirisch (1982) M. J. Frankovich (1983) David L. Wolper (1984) Charles "Buddy" Rogers (1985) Howard W. Koch (1989) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
/ Elizabeth Taylor (1992) Paul Newman (1993) Quincy Jones (1994) Arthur Hiller (2001) Roger Mayer (2005) Sherry Lansing (2007) Jerry Lewis (2009) Oprah Winfrey (2011) Jeffrey Katzenberg (2012) Angelina Jolie (2013) Harry Belafonte (2014) Debbie Reynolds (2015)

v t e

Primetime Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program

Perry Como
Perry Como
/ Dinah Shore
Dinah Shore
(1959) Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1960) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1961) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
(1962) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
(1963) Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
(1964) Art Carney
Art Carney
(1967) Art Carney
Art Carney
/ Pat Paulsen
Pat Paulsen
(1968) Arte Johnson
Arte Johnson
/ Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
(1969) Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
(1971) Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
(1972) Tim Conway
Tim Conway
(1973) Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
/ Brenda Vaccaro
Brenda Vaccaro
(1974) Jack Albertson
Jack Albertson
/ Cloris Leachman
Cloris Leachman
(1975) Chevy Chase
Chevy Chase
/ Vicki Lawrence
Vicki Lawrence
(1976) Tim Conway
Tim Conway
/ Rita Moreno
Rita Moreno
(1977) Tim Conway
Tim Conway
/ Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
(1978) Sarah Vaughan
Sarah Vaughan
(1981) Nell Carter
Nell Carter
/ André De Shields
André De Shields
(1982) Leontyne Price
Leontyne Price
(1983) Cloris Leachman
Cloris Leachman
(1984) George Hearn (1985) Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
(1986) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1987) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1988) Linda Ronstadt
Linda Ronstadt
(1989) Tracey Ullman
Tracey Ullman
(1990) Billy Crystal
Billy Crystal
(1991) Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1992) Dana Carvey (1993) Tracey Ullman
Tracey Ullman
(1994) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1995) Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(1996) Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1997) Billy Crystal
Billy Crystal
(1998) John Leguizamo
John Leguizamo
(1999) Eddie Izzard
Eddie Izzard
(2000) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2001) Sting (2002) Wayne Brady
Wayne Brady
(2003) Elaine Stritch
Elaine Stritch
(2004) Hugh Jackman
Hugh Jackman
(2005) Barry Manilow
Barry Manilow
(2006) Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(2007) Don Rickles
Don Rickles
(2008)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1980s)

1980

Leonard Bernstein James Cagney Agnes de Mille Lynn Fontanne Leontyne Price

1981

Count Basie Cary Grant Helen Hayes Jerome Robbins Rudolf Serkin

1982

George Abbott Lillian Gish Benny Goodman Gene Kelly Eugene Ormandy

1983

Katherine Dunham Elia Kazan Frank Sinatra James Stewart Virgil Thomson

1984

Lena Horne Danny Kaye Gian Carlo Menotti Arthur Miller Isaac Stern

1985

Merce Cunningham Irene Dunne Bob Hope Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
& Frederick Loewe Beverly Sills

1986

Lucille Ball Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
& Jessica Tandy Yehudi Menuhin Antony Tudor Ray Charles

1987

Perry Como Bette Davis Sammy Davis Jr. Nathan Milstein Alwin Nikolais

1988

Alvin Ailey George Burns Myrna Loy Alexander Schneider Roger L. Stevens

1989

Harry Belafonte Claudette Colbert Alexandra Danilova Mary Martin William Schuman

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Performance by a Featured Actor
Actor
in a Musical

David Wayne
David Wayne
(1947) Myron McCormick
Myron McCormick
(1950) Russell Nype (1951) Yul Brynner
Yul Brynner
(1952) Hiram Sherman
Hiram Sherman
(1953) Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1954) Cyril Ritchard
Cyril Ritchard
(1955) Russ Brown (1956) Sydney Chaplin (1957) David Burns (1958) Russell Nype (1959) Tom Bosley
Tom Bosley
(1960) Dick Van Dyke
Dick Van Dyke
(1961) Charles Nelson Reilly
Charles Nelson Reilly
(1962) David Burns (1963) Jack Cassidy
Jack Cassidy
(1964) Victor Spinetti
Victor Spinetti
(1965) Frankie Michaels (1966) Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1967) Hiram Sherman
Hiram Sherman
(1968) Ron Holgate (1969) René Auberjonois
René Auberjonois
(1970) Keene Curtis (1971) Larry Blyden
Larry Blyden
(1972) George S. Irving (1973) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1974) Ted Ross
Ted Ross
(1975) Sammy Williams (1976) Lenny Baker (1977) Kevin Kline
Kevin Kline
(1978) Henderson Forsythe (1979) Mandy Patinkin
Mandy Patinkin
(1980) Hinton Battle (1981) Cleavant Derricks (1982) Charles Coles (1983) Hinton Battle (1984) Ron Richardson
Ron Richardson
(1985) Michael Rupert (1986) Michael Maguire (1987) Bill McCutcheon (1988) Scott Wise (1989) Michael Jeter
Michael Jeter
(1990) Hinton Battle (1991) Scott Waara (1992) Anthony Crivello (1993) Jarrod Emick (1994) George Hearn (1995) Wilson Jermaine Heredia (1996) Chuck Cooper (1997) Ron Rifkin
Ron Rifkin
(1998) Roger Bart (1999) Boyd Gaines
Boyd Gaines
(2000) Gary Beach (2001) Shuler Hensley
Shuler Hensley
(2002) Dick Latessa
Dick Latessa
(2003) Michael Cerveris
Michael Cerveris
(2004) Dan Fogler
Dan Fogler
(2005) Christian Hoff
Christian Hoff
(2006) John Gallagher Jr.
John Gallagher Jr.
(2007) Boyd Gaines
Boyd Gaines
(2008) Gregory Jbara
Gregory Jbara
(2009) Levi Kreis (2010) John Larroquette
John Larroquette
(2011) Michael McGrath (2012) Gabriel Ebert (2013) James Monroe Iglehart (2014) Christian Borle
Christian Borle
(2015) Daveed Diggs (2016) Gavin Creel
Gavin Creel
(2017)

v t e

Billboard Year-End number one albums

1956–1975

1956: Calypso – Harry Belafonte 1957: Music from My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady
– Original Cast 1958: Music from My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady
– Original Cast 1959: The Music from Peter Gunn
The Music from Peter Gunn
– Henry Mancini 1960: Music from The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
– Original Cast 1961: Camelot – Original Cast 1962: West Side Story – Soundtrack 1963: West Side Story – Soundtrack 1964: Music from Hello, Dolly! – Original Cast 1965: Music from Mary Poppins – Soundtrack 1966: Whipped Cream & Other Delights – Herb Alpert
Herb Alpert
& the Tijuana Brass 1967: More of the Monkees
More of the Monkees
– The Monkees 1968: Are You Experienced
Are You Experienced
– The Jimi Hendrix Experience 1969: In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida – Iron Butterfly 1970: Bridge over Troubled Water
Bridge over Troubled Water
– Simon & Garfunkel 1971: Jesus Christ Superstar – Soundtrack 1972: Harvest – Neil Young 1973: The World Is a Ghetto
The World Is a Ghetto
– War 1974: Goodbye Yellow Brick Road
Goodbye Yellow Brick Road
– Elton John 1975: Greatest Hits – Elton John

1976–2000

1976: Frampton Comes Alive!
Frampton Comes Alive!
– Peter Frampton 1977: Rumours – Fleetwood Mac 1978: Saturday Night Fever – Soundtrack 1979: 52nd Street – Billy Joel 1980: The Wall
The Wall
– Pink Floyd 1981: Hi Infidelity
Hi Infidelity
– REO Speedwagon 1982: Asia – Asia 1983: Thriller – Michael Jackson 1984: Thriller – Michael Jackson 1985: Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
– Bruce Springsteen 1986: Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
– Whitney Houston 1987: Slippery When Wet
Slippery When Wet
– Bon Jovi 1988: Faith – George Michael 1989: Don't Be Cruel – Bobby Brown 1990: Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814
Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814
– Janet Jackson 1991: Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
– Mariah Carey 1992: Ropin' the Wind
Ropin' the Wind
– Garth Brooks 1993: The Bodyguard – Soundtrack 1994: The Sign – Ace of Base 1995: Cracked Rear View
Cracked Rear View
– Hootie & the Blowfish 1996: Jagged Little Pill
Jagged Little Pill
– Alanis Morissette 1997: Spice – Spice Girls 1998: Titanic: Music from the Motion Picture – James Horner 1999: Millennium – Backstreet Boys 2000: No Strings Attached – NSYNC

2001–present

2001: 1 – The Beatles 2002: The Eminem Show
The Eminem Show
– Eminem 2003: Get Rich or Die Tryin'
Get Rich or Die Tryin'
– 50 Cent 2004: Confessions – Usher 2005: The Massacre
The Massacre
– 50 Cent 2006: Some Hearts
Some Hearts
– Carrie Underwood 2007: Daughtry – Daughtry 2008: As I Am
As I Am
– Alicia Keys 2009: Fearless – Taylor Swift 2010: I Dreamed a Dream – Susan Boyle 2011: 21 – Adele 2012: 21 – Adele 2013: The 20/20 Experience
The 20/20 Experience
– Justin Timberlake 2014: Frozen – Soundtrack 2015: 1989 – Taylor Swift 2016: 25 – Adele 2017: Damn – Kendrick Lamar

v t e

People who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards

listed by duration and year of completion

Competitive EGOTs

Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1945–1962) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1932–1976) Rita Moreno
Rita Moreno
(1961–1977) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1961–1991) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953–1994) Marvin Hamlisch
Marvin Hamlisch
(1973–1995) Jonathan Tunick (1977–1997) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(1967–2001) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1964–2001) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1985–2002) Scott Rudin (1984–2012) Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
(2004–2014)

Honorary recipients

Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1963–1970) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1965–1990) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
(1969–2011) Alan Menken
Alan Menken
(1989–2012) Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1953–2014) Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
(1964–2016)

Book:EGOT winners

v t e

Civil rights movement

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

1954–1959

Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins

1960–1963

Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides

attacks

Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement

1964–1968

Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King
King
assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council

Activists

Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Martin Luther King
King
Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg

Influences

Nonviolence

Padayatra

Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune

Related

Jim Crow laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington
March on Washington
Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King
King
Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights Memorial

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

Authority control

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