Harriet Martineau (/ˈmɑːrtənˌoʊ/; 12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876)
was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the
first female sociologist.
Martineau wrote many books and a multitude of essays from a
sociological, holistic, religious, domestic, and perhaps most
controversially, feminine perspective; she also translated various
works by Auguste Comte. She earned enough to support herself
entirely by her writing, a rare feat for a woman in the Victorian
The young Princess Victoria enjoyed reading Martineau's publications.
She invited Martineau to her coronation in 1838 — an event which
Martineau described, in great and amusing detail, to her many
readers. Martineau said of her own approach to writing: "when
one studies a society, one must focus on all its aspects, including
key political, religious, and social institutions". She believed a
thorough societal analysis was necessary to understand women's status
under men. The novelist
Margaret Oliphant said "as a
born lecturer and politician [Martineau] was less distinctively
affected by her sex than perhaps any other, male or female, of her
1 Early life
London and the United States
3 Newcastle and Tynemouth
Ambleside – views on religion, philosophical atheism, and Darwin
5 Economics and social sciences
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
The house in which
Harriet Martineau was born.
The sixth of eight children,
Harriet Martineau was born in Norwich,
England, where her father Thomas was a textile manufacturer. A highly
respected Unitarian, he was also deacon of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich
from 1797. Harriet's mother was the daughter of a sugar refiner and
Martineau family was of French
Huguenot ancestry and professed
Unitarian views. Her uncles included the surgeon Philip Meadows
Martineau (1752–1829), whom she had enjoyed visiting at his nearby
estate, Bracondale Lodge, and businessman and benefactor Peter
Finch Martineau. Martineau was closest to her brother James, who
became a philosopher and clergyman in the tradition of the English
Dissenters. According to the writer Diana Postlethwaite, Harriet's
relationship with her mother was strained and lacking affection, which
contributed to views expressed in her later writing. Martineau
claimed her mother abandoned her to a wet nurse.
Her ideas on domesticity and the "natural faculty for housewifery", as
described in her book Household Education (1848), stemmed from her
lack of nurture growing up. Although their relationship was better in
adulthood, Harriet saw her mother as the antithesis of the warm and
nurturing qualities which she knew to be necessary for girls at an
early age. Her mother urged all her children to be well read, but at
the same time opposed female pedantics "with a sharp eye for feminine
propriety and good manners. Her daughters could never be seen in
public with a pen in their hand." Her mother strictly enforced proper
feminine behaviour, pushing her daughter to "hold a sewing needle" as
well as the (hidden) pen.
Martineau began losing her senses of taste and smell at a young age,
becoming increasingly deaf and having to use an ear trumpet. It was
the beginning of many health problems in her life. In 1821 she began
to write anonymously for the Monthly Repository, a Unitarian
periodical, and in 1823 she published Devotional Exercises and
Addresses, Prayers and Hymns.
In 1829, the family's textile business failed. Martineau, then 27
years old, stepped out of the traditional roles of feminine propriety
to earn a living for her family. Along with her needlework, she began
selling her articles to the Monthly Repository, earning accolades,
including three essay prizes from the Unitarian Association. Her
regular work with the Repository helped establish her as a reliable
and popular freelance writer.
In Martineau's Autobiography, she reflects on her success as a writer
and her father's business failure, which she describes as "one of the
best things that ever happened to us". She described how she could
then "truly live instead of vegetate". Her reflection emphasizes
her experience with financial responsibility in her life while she
writes "[her] fusion of literary and economic narratives".
Her first commissioned book, Illustrations of Political Economy,
was a fictional tutorial intended to help the general public
understand the ideas of Adam Smith. Illustrations was published in
February 1832 in an edition of just 1500 copies, since the publisher
assumed it would not sell well. Yet it very quickly became highly
successful, and would steadily out-sell the work of Charles Dickens.
Illustrations was her first work to receive widespread acclaim, and
its success served to spread the free-market ideas of
Adam Smith and
others throughout the British Empire. Martineau then agreed to compose
a series of similar monthly stories over a period of two years, the
work being hastened by having her brother James also work on the
series with her.
The subsequent works offered fictional tutorials on a range of
political economists such as James Mill, Bentham and Ricardo, the
latter especially forming her view of rent law. Martineau relied on
Malthus to form her view of the tendency of human population to exceed
its means of subsistence. However, in stories such as "Weal and Woe in
Garvelock", she promoted the idea of population control through what
Malthus referred to as "voluntary checks" such as voluntary chastity
and delayed marriages.
London and the United States
In the Victorian era, most social institutions and norms were strongly
shaped by gender, or the perception of what was appropriate for men
versus for women. Writing was no exception; non-fiction works about
social, economic and political issues were dominated by men, while
limited areas, such as romance fiction, and topics dealing with
domesticity were considered to be appropriate for women authors.
Despite these gendered expectations in the literary world, Martineau
strongly expressed her opinions on a variety of topics.
In 1832 Martineau moved to London. Among her acquaintances were: Henry
Hallam, Harriet Taylor, Alexander Maconochie, Henry Hart Milman,
Thomas Malthus, Monckton Milnes, Sydney Smith, John Stuart Mill,
George Eliot, Edward Bulwer-Lytton,
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sarah
Austin, and Charles Lyell, as well as
Jane Welsh Carlyle
Jane Welsh Carlyle and Thomas
Carlyle. She met
Florence Nightingale and
Charlotte Brontë later on
in her literary career.
Until 1834 Martineau was occupied with her brother James on the
political economy series, as well as a supplemental series of Poor
Laws and Paupers Illustrated and Illustrations of Taxation which was
intended to directly influence government policy. About the same time,
she published four stories expressing support of the Whig Poor Law
reforms. These tales (direct, lucid, written without any appearance of
effort, and yet practically effective) display the characteristics of
their author's style.
Tory paternalists reacted by calling her a
Malthusian "who deprecates charity and provision for the poor", while
Radicals opposed her to the same degree. Whig high society fêted
In May 1834 Charles Darwin, on his expedition to the Galapagos
Islands, received a letter from his sisters saying that Martineau was
"now a great Lion in London, much patronized by Ld. Brougham who has
set her to write stories on the poor Laws" and recommending Poor Laws
and Paupers Illustrated in pamphlet-sized parts. They added that their
brother Erasmus "knows her & is a very great admirer & every
body reads her little books & if you have a dull hour you can, and
then throw them overboard, that they may not take up your precious
In 1834, after completing the economic series,
Harriet Martineau paid
a long visit to the United States during which she visited a great
many people, some little known, others as famous as James Madison, the
former US president, at his home at Montpelier. She also met
numerous abolitionists in Boston and studied the emerging schools for
the education of girls. Her support of abolitionism, then widely
unpopular across the U.S., caused controversy, which her publication,
soon after her return, of Society in America (1837) and How to Observe
Morals and Manners (1838), only fuelled. The two books are considered
significant contributions to the then-emerging field of
In Society in America, Martineau angrily criticised the state of
women's education. She wrote,
The intellect of women is confined by an unjustifiable restriction
of... education... As women have none of the objects in life for which
an enlarged education is considered requisite, the education is not
given... The choice is to either be 'ill-educated, passive, and
subservient, or well-educated, vigorous, and free only upon
The publication of Harriet Martineau's Illustrations of Political
Economy found public success. So much success that, "by 1834, the
monthly sales . . . had reached 10,000, several times that of many
Dicken's novels, which at 2,000 or 2,000 per month were considered
Her article "The Martyr Age of the United States" (1839), in the
Westminster Review, introduced English readers to the struggles of the
abolitionists in America several years after Britain had abolished
In October 1836, soon after returning from the voyage of the Beagle,
Charles Darwin went to
London to stay with his brother Erasmus. He
found him spending his days "driving out Miss Martineau", who had
returned from her trip to the United States. Charles wrote to his
Our only protection from so admirable a sister-in-law is in her
working him too hard." He commented, "She already takes him to task
about his idleness — She is going some day to explain to him her
notions about marriage — Perfect equality of rights is part of her
doctrine. I much doubt whether it will be equality in practice.
The Darwins shared Martineau's Unitarian background and Whig politics,
but their father Robert was concerned that, as a potential
daughter-in-law, she was too extreme in her politics. Charles noted
that his father was upset by a piece in the
Westminster Review calling
for the radicals to break with the Whigs and give working men the vote
"before he knew it was not [Martineau's], and wasted a good deal of
indignation, and even now can hardly believe it is not hers". In
early December 1836
Charles Darwin called on Martineau and may have
discussed the social and natural worlds she was writing about in her
book Society in America, including the "grandeur and beauty" of the
"process of world making" she had seen at Niagara Falls. He
remarked in a letter,
She was very agreeable and managed to talk on a most wonderful number
of subjects, considering the limited time. I was astonished to find
how little ugly she is, but as it appears to me, she is overwhelmed
with her own projects, her own thoughts and own abilities. Erasmus
palliated all this, by maintaining one ought not to look at her as a
In April 1838 Charles wrote to his older sister Susan that
Erasmus has been with her noon, morning, and night: — if her
character was not as secure, as a mountain in the polar regions she
certainly would lose it. — Lyell called there the other day &
there was a beautiful rose on the table, & she coolly showed it to
him & said 'Erasmus Darwin' gave me that. — How fortunate it is,
she is so very plain; otherwise I should be frightened: She is a
Martineau wrote Deerbrook (1838), a three-volume novel published after
her American books. She portrayed a failed love affair between a
physician and his sister-in-law. It was considered her most successful
novel. She also wrote The Hour and the Man: An Historical Romance
(1839), a three-volume novel about the Haitian slave leader Toussaint
L'Ouverture, who contributed to the island nation's gaining
independence in 1804.
Newcastle and Tynemouth
Anne Whitney, Harriet Martineau, 1882, Davis Museum, Wellesley College
In 1839, during a visit to Continental Europe, Martineau was diagnosed
with a uterine tumour. She several times visited her brother-in-law,
Thomas Michael Greenhow, who was a celebrated doctor in Newcastle upon
Tyne, to try to alleviate her symptoms. On the last occasion she
stayed for six months in the Greenhow family house at 28 Eldon Square.
Immobile and confined to a couch, she was cared for by her mother
until purchasing a house and hiring a nurse to aid her.
She next moved downriver to Tynemouth, where she stayed at Mrs
Halliday's boarding-house, 57 Front Street, for nearly five years from
16 March 1840. The establishment is still open as a guest house today,
now named the "Martineau Guest House" in her honour.
The critic Diana Postlethwaite wrote of this period for Martineau:
Being homebound is a major part of the process of becoming feminine.
In this interior setting she (Martineau) is taught the home arts of
working, serving, and cleaning, as well as the rehearsals for the role
of mothering. She sees her mother... doing these things. They define
femininity for her.
Her illness caused her to literally enact the social constraints of
women during this time.
Martineau wrote at least three books during her illness, and a
historical plaque marks this house. A book of short stories for
children, The Playfellow, was published in 1841. In 1844 she
published both Crofton Boys, a children's novel, and Life in the
Sickroom: Essays by an Invalid, an autobiographical reflection on
invalidism. She wrote Household Education (1848), the handbook on
the "proper" way to raise and educate children. Lastly, she began
working on her autobiography. Completed much later, it included some
hundred pages on this period. Notable visitors included Richard Cobden
and Thomas and Jane Carlyle.
Life in the Sickroom is considered to be one of Martineau's most
under-rated works. It upset evangelical readers as they "thought it
dangerous in 'its supposition of self-reliance'". This series of
essays embraced traditional womanhood. Martineau dedicated it to
Elizabeth Barrett, as it was "an outpouring of feeling to an idealized
female alter ego, both professional writer and professional invalid-
and utterly unlike the women in her own family". Written during a kind
of public break from her mother, this book was Martineau's
proclamation of independence.
At the same time, Martineau turned the traditional patient/doctor
relationship on its head by asserting control over her space even in
sickness. The sickroom was her space. Life in the Sickroom explained
how to regain control even in illness. Alarmed that a woman was
suggesting such a position in the power dynamic, critics suggested
that, as she was an invalid, her mind must also be sick and the work
was not to be taken seriously. British and Foreign Medical Review
dismissed Martineau's piece on the same basis as the critics: an ill
person cannot write a healthy work. They thought it was unheard of for
a woman to suggest being in a position of control, especially in
sickness. Instead, the Review recommended that patients follow
"unconditional submission" to the advice of doctors. They
disagreed with the idea that Martineau might hold any sort of
"authority to Britain's invalids".
Expecting to remain an invalid for the rest of her life, Martineau
delighted in the new freedom of views using her telescope. Across the
Tyne was the sandy beach ″where there are frequent wrecks—too
interesting to an invalid... and above the rocks, a spreading heath,
where I watch troops of boys flying their kites; lovers and friends
taking their breezy walks on Sundays..." She expressed a lyrical
view of Tynemouth:
When I look forth in the morning, the whole land may be sheeted with
glistening snow, while the myrtle-green sea tumbles... there is none
of the deadness of winter in the landscape; no leafless trees, no
locking up with ice; and the air comes in through my open upper sash,
but sun-warmed. The robins twitter and hop in my flower-boxes... and
at night, what a heaven! What an expanse of stars above, appearing
more steadfast, the more the Northern Lights dart and quiver![citation
During her illness, she for a second time declined a pension on the
civil list, fearing to compromise her political independence. After
publication of her letter on the subject, some of her friends raised a
small annuity for her soon after.
In 1844 Martineau underwent a course of mesmerism, returning to health
after a few months. There was national interest in mesmerism at this
time. Also known as 'animal magnetism', it can be defined as a
"loosely grouped set of practices in which one person influenced
another through a variety of personal actions, or through the direct
influence of one mind on another mind.
Mesmerism was designed to make
invisible forces augment the mental powers of the mesmeric
object." She eventually published an account of her case in
sixteen Letters on Mesmerism, which caused much discussion. Her work
led to friction with "the natural prejudices of a surgeon and a
surgeon's wife" (her brother-in-law and sister, Elizabeth Greenhow,
Ambleside – views on religion, philosophical atheism, and
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Harriet Martineau, 1861, by Camille Silvy
In 1845 she left
Ambleside in the Lake District, where
she designed herself and oversaw the construction of the house called
The Knoll, Ambleside, where she spent the greater part of her later
life. In 1845 she published three volumes of Forest and Game Law
Tales. In 1846, she resided with her elderly mother, Elizabeth, in
Birmingham for some time, following which she then toured Egypt,
Syria with some friends. On her return she published
Eastern Life, Present and Past (1848), in which she reports a
breakthrough realization standing on a prominence looking out across
the Nile and desert to the tombs of the dead, where "the deceased
crossed the living valley and river" to "the caves of the death
region" where Osiris the supreme judge "is to give the sign of
acceptance or condemnation" (Eastern Life, Present and Past, Complete
in One Volume, Philadelphia, 1848, p. 48). Her summary: "the
mortuary ideas of the primitive Egyptians, and through them, of the
civilized world at large, have been originated by the everlasting
conflict of the Nile and the Desert".
This epiphany changed the course of her life. Eastern Life
expressed her concept that, as humanity passed through one after
another of the world's historic religions, the conception of the deity
and of divine government became at each step more and more abstract
and indefinite. She believed the ultimate goal to be philosophic
atheism, but did not explicitly say so in the book. She described
ancient tombs, "the black pall of oblivion" set against the paschal
"puppet show" in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and noted that
Christian beliefs in reward and punishment were based on and similar
to heathen superstitions. Describing an ancient Egyptian tomb, she
wrote, "How like ours were his life and death!... Compare him with a
retired naval officer made country gentleman in our day, and in how
much less do they differ than agree!" The book's "infidel tendency"
was too much for the publisher John Murray, who rejected it.
Martineau's biographer, Florence Fenwick Miller, wrote that "all her
best moral and intellectual faculties were exerted, and their action
becomes visible, at one page or another" of this work.
Martineau wrote Household Education in 1848, lamenting the state of
women's education. She believed women had a natural inclination to
motherhood and believed domestic work went hand in hand with academia
for a proper, well-rounded education. She stated, "I go further than
most persons... in desiring thorough practice in domestic occupations,
from an early age, for young girls". She proposed that freedom and
rationality, rather than command and obedience, are the most effectual
instruments of education.
Her interest in schemes of instruction led her to start a series of
lectures, addressed at first to the school children of Ambleside, but
afterward extended to their parents at the request of the adults. The
subjects were sanitary principles and practice, the histories of
England and North America, and the scenes of her Eastern travels. At
the request of the publisher Charles Knight, in 1849 she wrote The
History of the Thirty Years' Peace, 1816–1846, an excellent popular
history from the point of view of a "philosophical Radical". Martineau
spanned a wide variety of subject matter in her writing and did so
with more assertiveness than was expected of women at the time. She
has been described as having an "essentially masculine nature". It
was commonly thought that a "progressive" woman, in being progressive,
was improperly emulating the qualities of a man.
Martineau's work included a widely used guide book to the Lake
District, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, published in 1855 and
in its 4th edition by 1876. This served as the definitive
guidebook for the area for 25 years, effectively replacing the earlier
guide by William Wordsworth, and continued in common usage until the
publication of Baddeley's Thorough Guide to the English Lake District
Martineau in her later years, painted by George Richmond
Martineau edited a volume of Letters on the Laws of Man's Nature and
Development, published in March 1851. Its epistolary form is based on
correspondence between her and the self-styled scientist Henry G.
Atkinson. She expounded the doctrine of philosophical atheism, which
she thought the tendency of human belief . She did not deny a first
cause but declared it unknowable. She and Atkinson thought they
affirmed man's moral obligation. Atkinson was a zealous exponent of
mesmerism. The prominence given to the topics of mesmerism and
clairvoyance heightened the general disapproval of the book. Literary
London was outraged by its mesmeric evolutionary atheism, and the book
caused a lasting division between Martineau, her beloved brother,
James who had become a Unitarian cleric, and some of her friends.
From 1852 to 1866, she contributed regularly to the Daily News,
writing sometimes six leaders a week. She wrote over 1600 articles for
the paper in total. It also published her Letters from Ireland,
written during a visit to that country in the summer of 1852. For many
years she was a contributor to the Westminster Review; in 1854 she was
among financial supporters who prevented its closing down.
Martineau believed she was psychosomatic; this medical belief of the
times related the uterus to emotions and hysteria. She had symptoms of
hysteria in her loss of taste and smell. Her partial deafness
throughout life may have contributed to her problems. Various people,
including the maid, her brother, and Spencer T. Hall (a notable
mesmerist) performed mesmerism on her. Some historians attribute her
apparent recovery from symptoms to a shift in the positioning of her
tumor so that it no longer obstructed other organs. As the physical
improvements were the first signs of healing she had in five years and
happened at the same time of her first mesmeric treatment, Martineau
confidentially credited mesmerism with her "cure".
She continued her political activism during the late 1850s and 1860s.
She supported the Married Women's Property Bill and in 1856 signed a
petition for it organised by Barbara Bodichon. She also pushed for
licensed prostitution and laws that addressed the customers rather
than the women. She supported women's suffrage and signed Bodichon's
petition in its favour in 1866.
In the early part of 1855, Martineau was suffering from heart disease.
She began to write her autobiography, as she expected her life to end.
Completing the book rapidly in three months, she postponed its
publication until after her death, and lived another two decades. It
was published posthumously in 1877.
When Darwin's book
The Origin of Species
The Origin of Species was published in 1859, his
brother Erasmus sent a copy to his old flame Harriet Martineau. At age
58, she was still reviewing from her home in the Lake District. From
her "snow landscape", Martineau sent her thanks, adding that she had
the quality & conduct of your brother's mind, but it is an
unspeakable satisfaction to see here the full manifestation of its
earnestness & simplicity, its sagacity, its industry, & the
patient power by which it has collected such a mass of facts, to
transmute them by such sagacious treatment into such portentous
knowledge. I should much like to know how large a proportion of our
scientific men believe he has found a sound road.
Martineau supported Darwin's theory because it was not based in
theology. Martineau strove for secularism stating, "In the present
state of the religious world, Secularism ought to flourish. What an
amount of sin and woe might and would then be extinguished." She
wrote to her fellow
Malthusian (and atheist) George Holyoake
enthusing, "What a book it is! – overthrowing (if true) revealed
Religion on the one hand, & Natural (as far as Final Causes &
Design are concerned) on the other. The range & mass of knowledge
take away one's breath." To Fanny Wedgwood (the wife of Hensleigh
Wedgwood) she wrote,
I rather regret that C.D. went out of his way two or three times to
speak of "The Creator" in the popular sense of the First Cause.... His
subject is the "Origin of Species" & not the origin of
Organisation; & it seems a needless mischief to have opened the
latter speculation at all – There now! I have delivered my mind.
Economics and social sciences
Harriet Martineau propounds political economic theories in
Illustrations of Political Economy. She is seen as a frontrunner who
merges fiction and economy in a time period when "fiction claimed
authority over emotional knowledge, while economics claimed authority
over empirical knowledge". Moreover, Martineau's text sets the
stage for women to enter into economics. For example, Dalley Lana
explains that "by bringing the topic of domestic economy to bear on
political economy, Martineau places women more centrally within
economic theory and practice. In this context, women – as readers of
the Illustrations and as characters with the tales – are not only
rendered a part of larger-scale economics but also (because of their
participation) encourage to learn the principles of political
As early as 1831, Martineau wrote on the subject "Political Economy"
(as the field of economics was then known). Her goal was to popularise
and illustrate the principles of laissez faire capitalism, though she
made no claim to original theorising.
Martineau's reflections on Society in America, published in 1837, are
prime examples of her sociological methods. Her ideas in this field
were set out in her 1838 book How to Observe Morals and Manners. She
believed that some very general social laws influence the life of any
society, including the principle of progress, the emergence of science
as the most advanced product of human intellectual endeavour, and the
significance of population dynamics and the natural physical
Auguste Comte coined the name sociology and published a rambling
exposition under the title of Cours de Philosophie Positive in 1839.
Martineau undertook a translation that was published in two volumes in
1853 as The Positive Philosophy of
Auguste Comte (freely translated
and condensed by Harriet Martineau). It was a remarkable achievement,
and a successful one; Comte recommended her volumes to his students
instead of his own. Some writers regard Martineau as the first female
sociologist. Her introduction of Comte to the English-speaking world
and the elements of sociological perspective in her original writings
support her credit as a sociologist.
Harriet Martineau's name on the lower section of the Reformers
memorial, Kensal Green Cemetery
Harriet Martineau died of bronchitis at "The Knoll" on 27 June
1876. She was buried alongside her mother in Key Hill Cemetery,
Hockley, Birmingham. The following April, at Bracondale, her cousin's
estate, much of Martineau's extensive art collection was sold at
Her name is listed on the east face of the Reformers Memorial in
Kensal Green cemetery
Kensal Green cemetery in London.
She left an autobiographical sketch to be published by the Daily News,
in which she wrote:
Her original power was nothing more than was due to earnestness and
intellectual clearness within a certain range. With small imaginative
and suggestive powers, and therefore nothing approaching to genius,
she could see clearly what she did see, and give a clear expression to
what she had to say. In short, she could popularize while she could
neither discover nor invent.
In 1877 her autobiography was published. It was rare for a woman to
publish such a work, let alone one secular in nature. Her book was
regarded as dispassionate, "philosophic to the core" in its perceived
masculinity, and a work of necessitarianism. She deeply explored
childhood experiences and memories, expressing feelings of having been
deprived of her mother's affection, as well as strong devotion to her
brother James Martineau, a theologian.
Anthony Giddens and Simon Griffiths argue that Martineau is a
neglected founder of sociology and that she remains important today.
She taught that study of the society must include all its aspects,
including key political, religious and social institutions, and she
insisted on the need to include the lives of women. She was the first
sociologist to study such issues as marriage, children, religious
life, and race relations. Finally, she called on sociologists to do
more than just observe, but also work to benefit the society.
In February 2014, it was reported that London's National Portrait
Gallery held several portraits of Harriet, whose great nephew, Francis
Martineau Lupton, was the great–great–grandfather of Catherine,
Duchess of Cambridge, the gallery's patron. Harriet was close to
her niece Frances Lupton, who worked to open up educational
opportunities for women.
A large number of letters of
Harriet Martineau are held in the
University of Birmingham's
Illustrations of taxation; 5 volumes; Charles Fox, 1834
Illustrations of Political Economy; 9 volumes; Charles Fox, 1834
Miscellanies; 2 volumes; Hilliard, Gray and Co., 1836
Society in America; 3 volumes; Saunders and Otley, 1837; (reissued by
Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00373-5);
Retrospect of Western Travel; Saunders and Otley, 1838, (Project
Gutenberg Volume 1, Volume 2)
How to Observe Morals and Manners; Charles Knight and Co, 1838; Google
Books, Project Gutenberg
Deerbrook; London, 1839; Project Gutenberg
The Hour and the Man: An Historical Romance, 1839, Project Gutenberg
The Crofton Boys. A Tale; Charles Knight, 1841; Project Gutenberg
Life in the Sickroom, 1844
The Billow and the Rock, 1846
Household Education, 1848, Project Gutenberg
Eastern Life. Present and Past; 3 volumes; Edward Moxon, 1848
The History of the Thirty Years' Peace, A.D. 1816–1846 (1849)
Feats on the Fiord. A Tale of Norway; Routledge, Warne, &
Routledge, 1865, Project Gutenberg
Harriet Martineau's Autobiography. With Memorials by Maria Weston
Chapman; 2 volumes; Smith, Elder & Co, 1877; Liberty Fund.
A Complete Guide to the English Lakes; John Garnett 1855 and later
Atkinson, H.G. & Martineau, H.; Letters on the Laws of Man's
Nature and Development; Chapman, 1851 (reissued by Cambridge
University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00415-2)
Comte, A; Martineau, H. (tr.); The Positive Philosophy of Auguste
Comte; 2 volumes; Chapman, 1853 (reissued by Cambridge University
Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00118-2)
Logan, D. A., ed. (2007). The Collected Letters of Harriet Martineau.
London: Pickering and Chatto. ISBN 978-1-85196-804-6.
History of feminism
List of suffragists and suffragettes
List of sociologists
^ Hill, Michael R. (2002) Harriet Martineau: Theoretical and
Methodological Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-94528-3
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Postlethwaite, Diana (Spring 1989).
Mesmerism in the Life of Harriet Martineau". Signs.
University of Chicago Press. 14 (3): 583–609. doi:10.1086/494525.
^ Martineau, Harriet (1877). Harriet Martineau's Autobiography. 3.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 79–80. Retrieved 10 February
2013. How delighted the Princess Victoria was with my 'Series'
^ Wilson, Christopher. "The Benefits of a feminist in the Family". The
Benefits of a Feminist in the Family. Retrieved 10 February
^ a b c d http://spartacus-educational.com/Wmartineau.htm
^ Martineau, Harriet (2007). Peterson, Linda H., ed. Autobiography.
Broadview Press. p. 49. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
^ Ronalds, B.F. (February 2018). "
Peter Finch Martineau and his Son".
The Martineau Society Newsletter. 41: 10–19.
^ Martineau, Harriet. From "Autobiography" The Norton Anthology of
English Literature Eighth Edition Volume E: The Victorian Age. Ed.
Stephen Greenblatt. New York: Norton, 2006. 1589–92.
^ a b Dalley, Lana L. "On Martineau's Illustrations of Political
Economy, 1832–34". BRANCH: Britain, Representation. Retrieved 30
^ Full text at The Online Library of Liberty
^ Logan, Deborah Anne (2002). The Hour and the Woman: Harriet
Martineau's Somewhat Remarkable Life. Dekalb, Illinois: Northern
Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-297-4.
^ a b Bell, H.I. (1932). "Letters of Harriet Martineau". The British
Museum Quarterley. 7 (1): 21–22. JSTOR 4421387.
^ "Letter 224; Darwin, C. S. to Darwin, C. R., 28 Oct ". Darwin
Correspondence Project. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
^ McCoy, Drew R. The Last of the Fathers:
James Madison and the
Republican Legacy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989), p. 252
Westminster Review (1837)
^ Freedgood, Elaine (1995). "Banishing panic:
Harriet Martineau and
the popularization of political economy". Victorian Studies. 39 (1):
33–53. JSTOR 3829415.
^ Harriet Martineau, "The Martyr Age of the United States", 1839,
Internet Archive. Retrieved 19 May 2012
^ "Letter 321; Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., (9 Nov 1836)". Darwin
Correspondence Project. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ a b Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 205
^ "Letter 325; Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., (7 Dec 1836)". Darwin
Correspondence Project. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ "Letter 407; Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, S. E., (1 Apr 1838)". Darwin
Correspondence Project. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ "Martineau Guest House". Retrieved 9 May 2017.
^ Life in the Sickroom: Essays by an Invalid (2 ed.). London: Edward
Moxon. 1844. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Internet Archive.
^ a b c d e Winter, Alison (September 1995). "
Harriet Martineau and
the Reform of the Invalid in Victorian England". The Historical
Journal. 38 (3): 597–616. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00019993.
Ambleside she made two interesting contributions to The Zoist:
A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their
Applications to Human Welfare, relating to mesmerism: the first, a
letter (dated 19 August 1850) describing her mesmeric treatment of one
of her cows: "Mesmeric Cure of a Cow", Vol. 8, No. 31 (October
1850), pp. 300–03; and the second, also a letter (dated 23
October 1850), describing the angry visit of the veterinarian who had
previously tried (in vain) to treat her dangerously ill cow (which was
now quite well), on his hearing the news of its recovery: "Distressing
effects in a Doctor upon the removal of a Disease from a Cow with
Mesmerism", Vol. 8, No. 32 (January 1851), pp. 333–37.
^ H. Peterson, Linda. Autobiography – Harriet Martineau. Broadview
Press 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2013. Harriet visited Birmingham to see
her mother, Elizabeth, in 1846. At that time, Harriet's brother,
Robert, was Mayor of Birmingham.
^ Relph, Lyn Paul (November 2012). Our Experience, Ourselves.
Lulu.com. pp. 211–213. ISBN 9781300350941. Retrieved 11
^ Fenwick 1884, p. 109
^ a b Martineau, Harriet (nd). A Complete Guide to the English Lakes.
Windermere: John Garnett – via Archive.org.
^ reviewed in the Westmorland Gazette, Saturday 8 July 1871,
p. 3, column 1
^ Poovey, Mary (1995). Making a Social Body: British Cultural
Formation 1830–1864. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
^ a b Anthony Giddens; Simon Griffiths (2006). Sociology. Polity.
^ "The Late Miss Harriet Martineau". What the World Says. The San
Francisco News Letter and California Advertiser. 21 April 1877.
Retrieved 4 October 2014.
Harriet Martineau (1877). Maria Weston Chapman, ed. Harriet
Martineau's Autobiography:. p. 572.
^ Furness, Hannah (11 February 2014). "Duchess of Cambridge visits
National Portrait Gallery, home to little-known Middleton family
paintings". The Daily Telegraph. p. 3. Retrieved 14 March
^ Edited by Elisabeth Sanders Arbuckle,
Harriet Martineau (1 January
1983). "Harriet Martineau's Letters to Fanny Wedgwood". Stanford
University Press. p. 150. Retrieved 15 May 2015. (May 1857) My
(H. Martineau) niece, Mrs (Frances) Lupton and her husband came for
two days CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Harriet Martineau (1884, "Eminent Women Series").
Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph,
the Penguin Group. ISBN 0-14-013192-2.
Riedesel, Paul L. "Who Was Harriet Martineau?", Journal of the History
of Sociology, vol. 3, 1981. pp. 63–80.
Webb RK. Harriet Martineau, a radical Victorian, Heinemann, London
Weiner, Gaby. "Harriet Martineau: A reassessment (1802–1876)", in
Spender, Dale (ed.) Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women
Thinkers, Pantheon 1983, pp. 60–74 ISBN 0-394-53438-7
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Martineau,
Harriet". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
Chapman Maria Weston, Autobiography, with Memorials (1877). Virago,
Conway, Brian and Hill, Michael R. (2009)
Harriet Martineau and
Ireland. In: Social Thought on Ireland in the Nineteenth Century.
University College Dublin Press, Dublin, pp. 47–66.
Logan, Deborah Anna (2002). The Hour and the Woman: Harriet
Martineau's "Somewhat Remarkable" Life. Northern Illinois University
Press. ISBN 0-87580-297-4.
David, Deeirdre (1989). Intellectual Women and Victorian Patriarchy:
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, George Eliot. Cornell
Univ Pr. ISBN 0-8014-9414-1.
Rees, Joan. Women on the Nile: Writings of Harriet Martineau, Florence
Nightingale, and Amelia Edwards. Rubicon Press: 1995, 2008.
Sanders, Valerie (1986). Reason Over Passion:
Harriet Martineau and
the Victorian Novel. New York: St. Martin's Pr.
Dzelzainis, Ella and Kaplan, Cora (eds.) Harriet Martineau:
Authorship, Society, and Empire (Manchester University Press, 2011);
263 pages; essays on her views of race, empire, and history, including
the 1857 Indian Mutiny and the Atlantic slave trade.
Dalley, Lana L. “On Martineau’s Illustrations of Political
Economy, 1832–34.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and
Nineteenth-Century History. Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension
of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. Web. Essay on
Martineau's burgeoning career as a writer, which demarcates a time
period economical upheaval.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Harriet Martineau
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Auguste Comte / freely translated and
condensed by Harriet Martineau, Cornell University Library Historical
"Archival material relating to Harriet Martineau". UK National
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Harriet Martineau Papers, The Bancroft Library
Harriet Martineau are held at
The Women's Library
The Women's Library at the
Library of the
London School of Economics, ref 7HRM
Retrospect of Western Travel by Harriet Martineau, 1838
Harriet Martineau, spartacus-educational.com
"Martineau, Harriet". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American
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