The Info List - Harold Godwinson

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Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
(c. 1022 – 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. Harold reigned from 6 January 1066[1] until his death at the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
on 14 October, fighting the Norman invaders led by William the Conqueror during the Norman conquest of England. His death marked the end of Anglo-Saxon rule over England. Harold was a powerful earl and member of a prominent Anglo-Saxon family with ties to Cnut the Great. Upon the death of his brother-in-law King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
on 5 January 1066, the Witenagemot
convened and chose Harold to succeed; he was crowned in Westminster Abbey. In late September, he successfully repelled an invasion by rival claimant Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
of Norway before marching his army back south to meet William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
at Hastings
two weeks later.


1 Family background 2 Powerful nobleman

2.1 Harold in northern France

3 Reign as King 4 Battle of Hastings 5 Death 6 Burial and legacy 7 Marriages and children

7.1 Family tree

8 Notes 9 Citations 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Family background[edit] See also: Ancestry of the Godwins Harold was a son of Godwin (c. 1001–1053), the powerful Earl of Wessex, and of Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, whose brother Ulf the Earl
Ulf the Earl
was married to Estrith (c. 1015/1016), the daughter of King Sweyn Forkbeard[2] (died 1014) and sister of King Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
of England and Denmark. Ulf and Estrith's son would become King Sweyn II of Denmark[3] in 1047. Godwin was the son of Wulfnoth, probably a thegn and a native of Sussex. Godwin began his political career by supporting King Edmund Ironside
Edmund Ironside
(reigned April to November 1016), but switched to supporting King Cnut by 1018, when Cnut named him Earl of Wessex.[4] Godwin remained an earl throughout the remainder of Cnut's reign, one of only two earls to survive to the end of that reign.[5] On Cnut's death in 1035, Godwin originally supported Harthacnut instead of Cnut's initial successor Harold Harefoot, but managed to switch sides in 1037—although not without becoming involved in the 1036 murder of Alfred Aetheling, half-brother of Harthacnut
and younger brother of the later King Edward the Confessor.[6] When Harold Harefoot died in 1040, Harthacnut
became King of England and Godwin's power was imperiled by his earlier involvement in Alfred's murder, but an oath and large gift secured the new king's favour for Godwin.[7] Harthacnut's death in 1042 probably involved Godwin in a role as kingmaker, helping to secure the English throne for Edward the Confessor. In 1045 Godwin reached the height of his power when the new king married Godwin's daughter Edith.[8] Godwin and Gytha had several children—six sons: Sweyn, Harold, Tostig, Gyrth, Leofwine and Wulfnoth; and three daughters: Edith of Wessex
(originally named Gytha but renamed Ealdgyth (or Edith) when she married King Edward the Confessor), Gunhild and Ælfgifu. The birthdates of the children are unknown, but Harold was the second son, Sweyn being the eldest.[9] Harold was aged about 25 in 1045, which makes his birth year around 1020.[10] Powerful nobleman[edit] Edith married Edward on 23 January 1045 and, around that time, Harold became Earl of East Anglia. Harold is called "earl" when he appears as a witness in a will that may date to 1044; but, by 1045, Harold regularly appears as an earl in documents. One reason for his appointment to East Anglia may have been a need to defend against the threat from King Magnus the Good of Norway. It is possible that Harold led some of the ships from his earldom that were sent to Sandwich in 1045 against Magnus.[11] Sweyn, Harold's elder brother, had been named an earl in 1043.[12] It was also around the time that Harold was named an earl that he began a relationship with Edith, who appears to have been the heiress to lands in Cambridgeshire, Suffolk and Essex, lands in Harold's new earldom.[13] The relationship was a form of marriage that was not blessed or sanctioned by the Church, known as more Danico, or "in the Danish manner", and was accepted by most laypeople in England at the time. Any children of such a union were considered legitimate. Harold probably entered the relationship in part to secure support in his new earldom.[14] Harold's elder brother Sweyn was exiled in 1047 after abducting the abbess of Leominster. Sweyn's lands were divided between Harold and a cousin, Beorn.[15] In 1049, Harold was in command of a ship or ships that were sent with a fleet to aid the German Emperor Henry III against Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, who was in revolt against Henry. During this campaign, Sweyn returned to England and attempted to secure a pardon from the king, but Harold and Beorn refused to return any of their lands, and Sweyn, after leaving the royal court, took Beorn hostage and later killed him.[16] When in 1051 Earl Godwin was sent into exile, Harold accompanied his father and helped him to regain his position a year later. Then Godwin died in 1053, and Harold succeeded him as Earl of Wessex
(the southern third of England). This arguably made him the most powerful figure in England after the king.[17] Harold also became Earl of Hereford
Earl of Hereford
in 1058, and replaced his late father as the focus of opposition to growing Norman influence in England under the restored monarchy (1042–66) of Edward the Confessor, who had spent more than 25 years in exile in Normandy. He led a series of successful campaigns (1062–63) against Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd, the ruler of Wales. This conflict ended with Gruffydd's defeat and death in 1063.[18] Harold in northern France[edit]

HAROLD SACRAMENTUM FECIT VVILLELMO DUCI ("Harold made an oath to Duke William"). (Bayeux Tapestry) This scene is stated in the previous scene on the Tapestry to have taken place at Bagia (Bayeux, probably in Bayeux Cathedral). It shows Harold touching two altars with the enthroned Duke looking on, and is central to the Norman Invasion of England.

In 1064, Harold apparently was shipwrecked at Ponthieu. There is much speculation about this voyage. The earliest post-conquest Norman chroniclers report that King Edward had previously sent Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, to appoint as his heir Edward's maternal kinsman, William of Normandy, and that at this later date Harold was sent to swear fealty.[19] Scholars disagree as to the reliability of this story. William, at least, seems to have believed he had been offered the succession, but there must have been some confusion either on William's part or perhaps by both men, since the English succession was neither inherited nor determined by the reigning monarch. Instead the Witenagemot, the assembly of the kingdom's leading notables, would convene after a king's death to select a successor. Other acts of Edward are inconsistent with his having made such a promise, such as his efforts to return his nephew Edward the Exile, son of King Edmund Ironside, from Hungary in 1057.[a] Later Norman chroniclers suggest alternative explanations for Harold's journey: that he was seeking the release of members of his family who had been held hostage since Godwin's exile in 1051, or even that he had simply been travelling along the English coast on a hunting and fishing expedition and had been driven across the Channel by an unexpected storm. There is general agreement that he left from Bosham, and was blown off course, landing at Ponthieu. He was captured by Guy I, Count of Ponthieu, and was then taken as a hostage to the count's castle at Beaurain,[20] 24.5 km (15.2 mi) up the River Canche
from its mouth at what is now Le Touquet. Duke William arrived soon afterward and ordered Guy to turn Harold over to him.[21] Harold then apparently accompanied William to battle against William's enemy, Conan II, Duke of Brittany. While crossing into Brittany
past the fortified abbey of Mont Saint-Michel, Harold is recorded as rescuing two of William's soldiers from quicksand. They pursued Conan from Dol-de-Bretagne
to Rennes, and finally to Dinan, where he surrendered the fortress's keys at the point of a lance. William presented Harold with weapons and arms, knighting him. The Bayeux Tapestry, and other Norman sources, then record that Harold swore an oath on sacred relics to William to support his claim to the English throne. After Edward's death, the Normans
were quick to point out that in accepting the crown of England, Harold had broken this alleged oath.[citation needed] The chronicler Orderic Vitalis
Orderic Vitalis
wrote of Harold that he "was distinguished by his great size and strength of body, his polished manners, his firmness of mind and command of words, by a ready wit and a variety of excellent qualities. But what availed so many valuable gifts, when good faith, the foundation of all virtues, was wanting?"[22] Due to a doubling of taxation by Tostig in 1065 that threatened to plunge England into civil war, Harold supported Northumbrian rebels against his brother, Tostig, and replaced him with Morcar. This strengthened his acceptability as Edward's successor, but fatally split his own family, driving Tostig into alliance with King Harald Hardrada ("Hard Ruler") of Norway.[citation needed] Reign as King[edit]

HIC RESIDET HAROLD REX ANGLORUM. STIGANT ARCHIEP(I)S(COPUS). "Here sits Harold King of the English. Archbishop Stigand". Scene immediately after crowning of Harold by (according to the Norman tradition) Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
(d. 1072). Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry.

At the end of 1065 King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
fell into a coma without clarifying his preference for the succession. He died on 5 January 1066, according to the Vita Ædwardi Regis, but not before briefly regaining consciousness and commending his widow and the kingdom to Harold's "protection". The intent of this charge remains ambiguous, as is the Bayeux Tapestry, which simply depicts Edward pointing at a man thought to represent Harold.[b] When the Witan
convened the next day they selected Harold to succeed,[c] and his coronation followed on 6 January, most likely held in Westminster Abbey; though no evidence from the time survives to confirm this.[24] Although later Norman sources point to the suddenness of this coronation, the reason may have been that all the nobles of the land were present at Westminster for the feast of Epiphany, and not because of any usurpation of the throne on Harold's part. In early January 1066, hearing of Harold's coronation, Duke William II of Normandy
began plans to invade England, building 700 warships and transports at Dives-sur-Mer
on the Normandy
coast. Initially, William could not get support for the invasion but, claiming that Harold had sworn on sacred relics to support his claim to the throne after having been shipwrecked at Ponthieu, William received the Church's blessing and nobles flocked to his cause. In anticipation of the invasion, Harold assembled his troops on the Isle of Wight, but the invasion fleet remained in port for almost seven months, perhaps due to unfavourable winds. On 8 September, with provisions running out, Harold disbanded his army and returned to London. On the same day Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
of Norway, who also claimed the English crown[d] joined Tostig and invaded, landing his fleet at the mouth of the Tyne.

Coin of King Harold Godwinson

The invading forces of Hardrada and Tostig defeated the English earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria
at the Battle of Fulford near York
on 20 September 1066. Harold led his army north on a forced march from London, reached Yorkshire in four days, and caught Hardrada by surprise. On 25 September, in the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harold defeated Hardrada and Tostig, who were both killed. According to Snorri Sturluson, before the battle a single man rode up alone to Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
and Tostig. He gave no name, but spoke to Tostig, offering the return of his earldom if he would turn against Hardrada. Tostig asked what his brother Harold would be willing to give Hardrada for his trouble. The rider replied "Seven feet of English ground, as he is taller than other men." Then he rode back to the Saxon host. Hardrada was impressed by the rider's boldness, and asked Tostig who he was. Tostig replied that the rider was Harold Godwinson himself.[25] According to Henry of Huntingdon, Harold said "Six feet of ground or as much more as he needs, as he is taller than most men." Battle of Hastings[edit] Main article: Battle of Hastings

Gyrth and his brother's death at the Battle of Hastings, scene 52 of the Bayeux Tapestry. HIC CECIDERUNT LEWINE ET GYRD FRATRES HAROLDI REGIS (Here have fallen dead Leofwine and Gyrth, brothers of King Harold)

On 12 September 1066 William's fleet sailed from Normandy.[e] Several ships sank in storms, which forced the fleet to take shelter at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme
and to wait for the wind to change. On 27 September the Norman fleet set sail for England, arriving the following day at Pevensey
on the coast of East Sussex. Harold's army marched 241 miles (386 kilometres) to intercept William, who had landed perhaps 7,000 men in Sussex, southern England. Harold established his army in hastily built earthworks near Hastings. The two armies clashed at the Battle of Hastings, at Senlac Hill
Senlac Hill
(near the present town of Battle) close by Hastings
on 14 October, where after nine hours of hard fighting, Harold was killed and his forces defeated. His brothers Gyrth and Leofwine were also killed in the battle, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.[26][non-primary source needed] Death[edit] The notion that Harold died by an arrow to the eye is a popular belief today, but this historical legend is subject to much scholarly debate. A Norman account of the battle, Carmen de Hastingae Proelio ("Song of the Battle of Hastings"), said to have been written shortly after the battle by Guy, Bishop of Amiens, says that Harold was killed by four knights, probably including Duke William, and his body dismembered. Twelfth-century Anglo-Norman histories, such as William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum Anglorum and Henry of Huntingdon's Historia Anglorum recount that Harold died by an arrow wound to his head. An earlier source, Amatus of Montecassino's L'Ystoire de li Normant ("History of the Normans"), written only twenty years after the battle of Hastings, contains a report of Harold being shot in the eye with an arrow, but this may be an early fourteenth-century addition.[27] Later accounts reflect one or both of these two versions.

Harold's death depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, reflecting the tradition that Harold was killed by an arrow in the eye. The annotation above states Harold Rex Interfectus Est, "Harold the King was killed".

A figure in the panel of the Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry
with the inscription "Harold Rex Interfectus Est" ("Harold the King is killed") is depicted gripping an arrow that has struck his eye, but some historians have questioned whether this man is intended to be Harold or if Harold is intended as the next figure lying to the right almost supine, being mutilated beneath a horse's hooves. Etchings made of the Tapestry in the 1730s show the standing figure with differing objects. Benoît's 1729 sketch shows only a dotted line indicating stitch marks without any indication of fletching, whereas all other arrows in the Tapestry are fletched. Bernard de Montfaucon's 1730 engraving has a solid line resembling a spear being held overhand matching the manner of the figure to the left. Stothard's 1819 water-colour drawing has, for the first time, a fletched arrow in the figure's eye. Although not apparent in the earlier depictions, the Tapestry today has stitch marks indicating the fallen figure once had an arrow in its eye. It has been proposed that the second figure once had an arrow added by over-enthusiastic nineteenth-century restorers that was later unstitched.[28] Many believe this, as the name "Harold" is above the figure with an arrow in his eye. This has been disputed by examining other examples from the Tapestry where the visual centre of a scene, not the location of the inscription, identifies named figures.[29] Further evidence is that an arrow volley would be fired before the Norman cavalry charge. A further suggestion is that both accounts are accurate, and that Harold suffered first the eye wound, then the mutilation, and the Tapestry is depicting both in sequence.[30] Burial and legacy[edit]

The spot where Harold died, which became the site of Battle Abbey.

The account of the contemporary chronicler William of Poitiers, states that the body of Harold was given to William Malet for burial:

The two brothers of the King were found near him and Harold himself, stripped of all badges of honour, could not be identified by his face but only by certain marks on his body. His corpse was brought into the Duke's camp, and William gave it for burial to William, surnamed Malet, and not to Harold's mother, who offered for the body of her beloved son its weight in gold. For the Duke thought it unseemly to receive money for such merchandise, and equally he considered it wrong that Harold should be buried as his mother wished, since so many men lay unburied because of his avarice. They said in jest that he who had guarded the coast with such insensate zeal should be buried by the seashore.[31]

Church: the lower three storeys of the tower are Saxon, the top storey Norman

Another source states that Harold's widow, Edith Swannesha, was called to identify the body, which she did by some private mark known only to her. Harold's strong association with Bosham, his birthplace, and the discovery in 1954 of an Anglo-Saxon coffin in the church there, has led some to suggest it as the place of King Harold's burial. A request to exhume a grave in Bosham
church was refused by the Diocese of Chichester in December 2003, the Chancellor having ruled that the chances of establishing the identity of the body as Harold's were too slim to justify disturbing a burial place.[32] A prior exhumation had revealed the remains of a man, estimated at up to 60 years of age from photographs of the remains, lacking a head, one leg and the lower part of his other leg, a description consistent with the fate of the king as recorded in the Carmen. The poem also claims Harold was buried by the sea, which is consistent with William of Poitiers' account and with the identification of the grave at Bosham
Church that is only yards from Chichester Harbour
Chichester Harbour
and in sight of the English Channel.[33] There were legends of Harold's body being given a proper funeral years later in his church of Waltham Holy Cross
Waltham Holy Cross
in Essex, which he had refounded in 1060. Legends grew up that Harold had not died at Hastings
but instead fled England or that he later ended his life as a hermit at Chester or Canterbury.[34] Harold's son Ulf, along with Morcar and two others, were released from prison by King William as he lay dying in 1087. Ulf threw his lot in with Robert Curthose, who knighted him, and then disappeared from history. Two of Harold's other sons, Godwine and Edmund, invaded England in 1068 and 1069 with the aid of Diarmait mac Máel na mBó (High King of Ireland).[f] They raided Cornwall as late as 1082,[citation needed] but died in obscurity in Ireland. Marriages and children[edit]

13th-century version of Harold's crowning, from an anonymous Life of King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
in Cambridge University Library.

For some twenty years Harold was married more danico (Latin: "in the Danish manner") to Edyth Swannesha
Edyth Swannesha
and had at least six children with her. She was considered Harold's mistress by the clergy.[g] According to Orderic Vitalis, Harold was at some time betrothed to Adeliza, a daughter of William, Duke of Normandy, later William the Conqueror; if so, the betrothal never led to marriage.[35] About January 1066, Harold married Edith (or Ealdgyth), daughter of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia, and widow of the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Edith had two sons—possibly twins—named Harold and Ulf (born around November 1066), both of whom survived into adulthood and probably lived out their lives in exile.[citation needed] After her husband's death, Edith fled for refuge to her brothers, Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria, but both men made their peace with King William initially before rebelling and losing their lands and lives. Edith may have fled abroad (possibly with Harold's mother, Gytha, or with Harold's daughter, Gytha). Harold's sons, Godwin and Edmund, fled to Ireland and then invaded Devon, but were defeated by Brian of Brittany.[h][citation needed] Family tree[edit]







Godwin of Wessex


Gytha Thorkelsdóttir































































Sweyn Godwinson


Edyth Swannesha


Harold Godwinson


Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar


Gruffydd ap Llywelyn


Tostig Godwinson


Edith of Wessex


Edward the Confessor (c. 1004–1066) King of England (1042–1066)




















































































































Godwin (b. 1049)


Edmund (b. 1049)


Magnus (b. 1051)


Gunhild (1055–1097)


Gytha of Wessex


Harold (1067–1098)


Ulf (1066–after 1087)


^ Edward may not have been blameless in this situation, as at least one other man, Sweyn II of Denmark, also thought Edward had promised him the succession.[19] ^ Frank Barlow points out that the author of the Vita, who appears to have looked favourably on Harold, was writing after the Conquest and may have been intentionally vague.[23] ^ This was in preference to Edward's great-nephew, Edgar the Ætheling, who had yet to reach maturity. ^ His claim came through a succession pact concluded between Harthacnut, king of England and Denmark, and Magnus I of Norway, whereby the kingdoms of the first to die were to pass to the survivor. Magnus had thus gained a claim to Denmark on Harthacnut's death but had not pursued this other crown. Hardrada, uncle and heir of Magnus, now claimed England on this basis. ^ Historians do not accept that from January to September the wind was never favourable for an invasion as William claimed. It is generally believed he knew of Harald Hardrada's plans and waited for Harold Godwinson to be weakened or engaged with fighting in the north before he proceeded with his own plans.[citation needed] ^ At midsummer in 1069, Brian of Brittany
and Alan the Black led a force that defeated a raid by Godwine and Edmund, sons of Harold Godwinson, who had sailed from Ireland with a fleet of 64 ships to the mouth of the River Taw
River Taw
in Devon. They had escaped to Leinster after the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
in 1066 where they were hosted by Diarmait. In 1068 and 1069 Diarmait lent them the fleet of Dublin
for their attempted invasions of England. ^ At this time there were a range of spousal relationships, from outright concubinage to fully recognised, church-sanctioned marriages. There are no contemporary sources for Harold's marriages, just the writings of later Norman chroniclers, who had a more church-centered view, and also had motivation to diminish the status of Harold's children. Consequently, the exact status of the relationship between King Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
and Edyth Swannesha
Edyth Swannesha
is unclear.[citation needed] ^ At midsummer in 1069, Brian and Alan the Black led a force that defeated a raid by Godwin and Edmund, sons of Harold Godwinson, who had sailed from Ireland with a fleet of 64 ships to the mouth of the River Taw
River Taw
in Devon. They had escaped to Leinster after the Battle of Hastings
in 1066 where they were hosted by Diarmait. In 1068 and 1069 Diarmait lent them the fleet of Dublin
for their attempted invasions of England.


^ DeVries Norwegian Invasion ^ Walker Harold p. 10 ^ Barlow Feudal Kingdom p. 451 ^ Walker Harold pp. 7–9 ^ Walker Harold p. 12 ^ Walker Harold pp. 13–15 ^ Walker Harold p. 16 ^ Walker Harold pp. 17–18 ^ Mason House of Godwine p. 10 ^ Rex Harold p. 31. ^ Walker Harold pp. 18–19 ^ Barlow Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
p. 74. ^ Walker Harold p. 20. ^ Walker Harold pp. 127–128. ^ Walker Harold p. 22 ^ Walker Harold pp. 24–25. ^ Harold II (Godwineson) (c.1020 - 1066), BBC History ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harold-II.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b Howarth 1066 pp. 69–70 ^ Bayeux Tapestry, in which the place is called in Latin Belrem ^ Howarth 1066 pp. 71–72 ^ Vitalis, Orderic (1853). Historia Ecclesiastica. Translated by Forester, Thomas. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ Barlow Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
p. 251 ^ Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
Official site – Coronations ^ Sturluson, King Harald's Saga p. 149. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (D and E), 1066. ^ Foys, Pulling the Arrow Out, 161–63 ^ Bernstein, Mystery of the Bayeux Tapestry, 148–152. ^ Foys, Pulling the Arrow Out, 171–75 ^ Brooks and Walker, Authority and Interpretation, 81–92. ^ William of Poitiers Gesta Guillelmi II Ducis Normannorum in English Historical Documents 1042–1189 p. 229 ^ In re Holy Trinity, Bosham
[2004] Fam 124 — decision of the Chichester Consistory Court regarding opening King Harold's supposed grave. ^ The Debate concerning the remains found in Bosham
Church Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Bosham
Online Magazine 25 November 2003 Updated to include the Chancellor's ruling of 10 December 2003 ^ Walker Harold pp. 181–182 ^ Round " Adeliza (d 1066?)" Dictionary of National Biography


Barlow, Frank (1970). Edward the Confessor. Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.  Barlow, Frank (1988). The Feudal Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
1042–1216 (Fourth ed.). New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49504-0.  Bernstein, David (1986). The Mystery of the Bayeux Tapestry. Univ of Chicago Pr. ISBN 0-226-04400-9.  Brooks, N. P.; Walker, H. E. (1997). "The Authority and Interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry". In Gameson, Richard. The Study of the Bayeux Tapestry. Boydell and Brewer. pp. 63–92. ISBN 0-85115-664-9.  DeVries, K. (1999). The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-763-7.  Foys, Martin (2010). "Pulling the Arrow Out: The Legend of Harold's Death and the Bayeux Tapestry". In Foys; Overbey, Karen Eileen; Terkla, Dan. Bayeux Tapestry: New Interpretations. Boydell and Brewer. pp. 158–75. ISBN 1-84383-470-7.  Howarth, David (1983). 1066: The Year of the Conquest. Penguin Books.  Mason, Emma (2004). House of Godwine: The History of Dynasty. London: Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-85285-389-1.  Rex, Peter (2005). Harold II: The Doomed Saxon King. Stroud, UK: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7394-7185-2.  Round, J. H. (1885). " Adeliza (d 1066?)". Dictionary of National Biography. Smith, Elder & Co. Retrieved 9 November 2009.  Sturluson, Snorri (1966). King Harald's Saga. Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books.  Walker, Ian (2000). Harold the Last Anglo-Saxon King. Gloucestershire: Wrens Park. ISBN 0-905778-46-4.  William of Poitiers, Gesta Guillelmi II Ducis Normannorum, or "The Deeds of William II, Duke of the Normans". Quoted by David C. Douglas & George W. Greenaway (eds.), in: English Historical Documents 1042–1189, London, 1959.

Further reading[edit]

van Kempen, Ad F. J. (November 2016). "'A mission he bore – to Duke William he came': Harold Godwineson's Commentum and his covert ambitions". Historical Research. 89 (246): 591–612. doi:10.1111/1468-2281.12147. 

External links[edit]

Harold 3 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England BBC Historic Figures: Harold II (Godwineson) (c.1020 – 1066) Portraits of King Harold II (Harold Godwineson) at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Harold Godwinson House of Godwin Born: c. 1022 Died: 14 October 1066

Regnal titles

Preceded by Edward the Confessor King of the English 1066 Succeeded by Edgar the Ætheling or William I

Peerage of England

Preceded by Ælfgār Earl of East Anglia 1052–1053 Succeeded by Ælfgār

Preceded by Godwin Earl of Wessex 1st creation 1053–1066 Merged in Crown

v t e

English monarchs

Anglo-Saxon England 927–1066

Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund Ironside Cnut1 Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar Ætheling

Kingdom of England 1066–1649

William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II1 Henry the Young King Richard I John1 Henry III1 Edward I1 Edward II1 Edward III1 Richard II1 Henry IV1 Henry V1 Henry VI1 Edward IV1 Edward V1 Richard III1 Henry VII1 Henry VIII1 Edward VI1 Jane1 Mary I1 with Philip1 Elizabeth I1 James I2 Charles I2

Commonwealth of England, Scotland
and Ireland 1653–1659

Oliver Cromwell3 Richard Cromwell3

Kingdom of England 1660–1707

Charles II2 James II2 William III and Mary II2 Anne2

1Also ruler of Ireland 2Also ruler of Scotland
and Ireland 3Lord Protector

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Norman conquest of England


William the Conqueror Harold Godwinson Harald Hardrada Sweyn II of Denmark


Battle of Fulford Battle of Stamford Bridge Battle of Hastings


Gyrth Godwinson Odo of Bayeux Leofwine Godwinson Hereward the Wake Edwin Morcar Tostig Waltheof Eustace of Boulogne Eadric the Wild Robert of Mortain Ralph de Gael Roger de Breteuil Companions of William the Conqueror

Associated people

Edward the Confessor Stigand Edith the Fair Edgar Ætheling Ealdred Malcolm III of Scotland Matilda of Flanders


Battle Abbey Battle, East Sussex Pevensey Tower of London


Harrying of the North Revolt of the Earls Council of London Trial of Penenden Heath


Bayeux Tapestry Domesday Book Carmen de Hastingae Proelio William of Poitiers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70172485 LCCN: n50026075 ISNI: 0000 0000 2181 8910 GND: 118720449 SUDOC: 086096095 BNF: cb12555665s (data)

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