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Harold Edward Stassen
Harold Edward Stassen
(April 13, 1907 – March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota. He was a leading candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States
President of the United States
in 1948, considered for a time to be the front-runner. He thereafter regularly continued to run for that and other offices, such that his name became most identified with his status as a perennial candidate. Born in West St. Paul, Minnesota, Stassen was elected as the district attorney of Dakota County, Minnesota
Dakota County, Minnesota
after graduating from the University of Minnesota. He won election as Governor of Minnesota
Governor of Minnesota
in 1938 and gave the keynote address at the 1940 Republican National Convention. He resigned as governor to serve in the United States Navy during World War II, becoming an aide to Admiral
Admiral
William Halsey Jr. After the war, he became president of the University of Pennsylvania, holding that office from 1948 to 1953. Stassen sought the presidential nomination at the 1948 Republican National Convention, winning a significant share of the delegates on the first two ballots of the convention. During the Republican primaries preceding the convention, he engaged in the Dewey–Stassen debate, the first recorded debate between presidential candidates. Stassen sought the presidential nomination again at the 1952 Republican National Convention, and helped Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
win the nomination by shifting his support to Eisenhower. After serving in the Eisenhower administration, Stassen sought various offices. Between 1958 and 1990, he campaigned unsuccessfully for the positions of Governor of Pennsylvania, Mayor of Philadelphia, United States Senator, Governor of Minnesota, and United States Representative. He further sought the Republican nomination for president in 1964, 1968, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, and 2000.

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 Birth to 1940 1.2 World War II 1.3 After the war

1.3.1 Presidential candidate

1.4 Religious life 1.5 Death and legacy

2 Military awards

2.1 Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
citation

3 Cultural references 4 Electoral history 5 Bibliography

5.1 Archives

6 References 7 External links

Life and career[edit] Birth to 1940[edit] Stassen, the third of five children, was born in West St. Paul, Minnesota, to Elsie Emma (née Mueller) and William Andrew Stassen, a farmer and several-times mayor of West St. Paul. His mother was German and his father was born in Minnesota, to German and Czech parents.[1][2][3][4][5] He graduated from high school at age 14. At the University of Minnesota, Stassen was an intercollegiate debater and orator,[6] captain of the champion university rifle team in 1927.[7] He received his B.A. degree in 1927,[8] and his LL.B. degree in 1929.[9][10] After opening a law office with Elmer J. Ryan
Elmer J. Ryan
in South St. Paul that year, he was elected District Attorney of Dakota County in 1930 and 1934, then elected Governor of Minnesota
Governor of Minnesota
in 1938. Stassen was seen as an "up and comer" after delivering the keynote address at the 1940 Republican National Convention. There he worked to help Wendell Willkie
Wendell Willkie
win the Republican Party (GOP) nomination for the presidency.[4] World War II[edit] Stassen, who was reelected as governor of Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1940 and 1942, supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy and encouraged the state Republican Party to repudiate American isolationism before the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the 1942 campaign, he announced that, if re-elected, he would resign to serve on active duty with the United States Naval Reserve, which Stassen had joined with the rank of lieutenant commander the previous year.[4][11] Stassen was re-elected governor in November 1942 and, true to his campaign promise, resigned as governor on April 23, 1943 prior to reporting for active duty with the Navy. (Although he would run in 13 more elections in his life, this was the last time he would hold an elected office.) After being promoted to the rank of commander, he joined the staff of Admiral
Admiral
William F. Halsey, Commander of the Third Fleet in the Pacific Theater. He was awarded the Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
for meritorious service in this position. After almost two and a half years of service, he was promoted to the rank of captain on September 27, 1945 and was released from active duty in November of the same year.[11] After the war[edit]

Commander Harold E. Stassen, USNR while serving as Aide to Admiral William F. Halsey, Commander, Third Fleet

Stassen lost some of his political base while overseas, whereas Republican candidates such as Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
had a chance to increase theirs. Stassen was a delegate at the San Francisco Conference that established the United Nations, and was one of the US signatories of the United Nations Charter. He served as president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1948 to 1953. His attempt to increase the prominence of the university football team was unpopular and soon abandoned.[2] From 1953 to 1955, he was the director of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's short-lived Foreign Operations Administration.[12] Presidential candidate[edit] Stassen was later best known for being a perennial candidate for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States, seeking it nine times between 1944 and 1992 (1944, 1948, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1992). He never won the Republican nomination, much less the presidency; in fact, after 1952, he never even came close, but continued to campaign actively and seriously for President until just a year before his death. Stassen also ran for:[citation needed]

Dakota County District Attorney (he won in 1930 and 1934); Governor of Minnesota
Governor of Minnesota
on four occasions (he won on his first three attempts in 1938, 1940, and 1942, but was unsuccessful in 1982); United States Senate
United States Senate
twice (1978 and 1994 in Minnesota); Governor of Pennsylvania
Governor of Pennsylvania
twice (1958) and (1966) Mayor of Philadelphia
Mayor of Philadelphia
once (1959); U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
(he was the Republican nominee against Bruce Vento of Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1986).

Stassen's strongest bid for the Republican presidential nomination was in 1948, when he won a series of upset victories in early primaries. His challenge to the front runner, New York Governor and 1944 G.O.P. presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, was serious enough that Dewey challenged Stassen to a debate on the night before the Oregon Republican primary. The May 17 Dewey–Stassen debate
Dewey–Stassen debate
was the first recorded modern debate between presidential candidates to take place in the United States. The debate, which concerned the criminalization of the Communist Party of the United States, was broadcast over the radio throughout the nation. At the convention in Philadelphia, Osro Cobb, the then Republican state chairman in Arkansas, made a seconding speech for Stassen, having been motivated by Stassen's promise if nominated to campaign actively in the South. Cobb described the South as "the last frontier to which we can turn for substantial gains for our party - gains that can be held in the years to come. There is a definite affinity between the southern farmer and the grassroots Midwestern Republicans. ...Our party simply cannot indulge the luxury of a Solid South, handed on a silver platter to the opposition every four years...."[13] In the first two rounds of balloting, Stassen finished third behind Dewey, the front runner, and Robert Taft. After the second round, Stassen and Taft bowed out and Dewey was selected unanimously as the nominee on the next ballot. In all Republican conventions since 1948, the nominee has been selected on the first ballot. Stassen played a key role in the 1952 Republican contest when he released his delegates to Dwight D. Eisenhower. His doing so helped Eisenhower to defeat Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
on the first ballot.[14] He served in the Eisenhower Administration, filling posts including director of the Mutual Security Administration (foreign aid) and Special
Special
Assistant to the President for Disarmament.[12] During this period, he held cabinet rank and led a quixotic effort (perhaps covertly encouraged by Eisenhower, who had reservations about Richard Nixon's maturity for the presidency)[15] to "dump Nixon" at the 1956 Republican Convention.[12] After leaving the Eisenhower Administration, Stassen campaigned unsuccessfully for governor of Pennsylvania (1958 and 1966) and for mayor of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(1959). In 1978, Stassen moved back to Minnesota and ran a campaign for the U.S. Senate. In 1982, he campaigned for the Minnesota
Minnesota
governorship and in 1986 for the fourth district congressional seat. He campaigned for the Republican Party presidential nomination in every election except 1956, 1960, and 1972.[16] He was on the ballot in the 1988 Republican New Hampshire Primary and received 130 votes, and also received 1 vote in the Democratic Primary. His last campaign was in 2000.[citation needed]

Harold Stassen, as Governor

Religious life[edit] Raised as a Baptist, Stassen was active with regional Baptist associations as well as many other religious organizations. During the 1960s, he gained a reputation as a liberal, particularly when, as president of the American Baptist Convention
American Baptist Convention
in 1963, he joined Martin Luther King in his march on Washington, D.C.[2] Much of Stassen's political thought came from his religious beliefs. He held important positions in his denomination and in local and national councils of churches.[4] In the latter 1960s and early 1970s, Stassen also participated with the U.S. Inter-religious Committee on Peace, which sponsored a series of conferences on religion and peace.[16] Baptists writing memorials remembered him as much as a church figure as a political candidate.[17] His son Glen Stassen was a prominent Baptist theologian. Death and legacy[edit] On the death of Happy Chandler, Stassen became the earliest serving governor of any U.S. state still living. When he died, the title was passed to Charles Poletti, a former governor of New York State. Stassen died in 2001 in Bloomington, Minnesota, at the age of 93 and is buried at the Acacia Park Cemetery in Mendota Heights, Minnesota. The Minnesota
Minnesota
Department of Revenue headquarters near the State Capitol is named for him. Military awards[edit]

Legion of Merit Navy Commendation Ribbon Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with four battle stars World War II
World War II
Victory Medal

Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
citation[edit] Commander Harold E. Stassen, United States Navy, is awarded the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Assistant Chief of Staff, Administration, and Aide and Flag Secretary on the staff of Commander, THIRD Fleet, from 15 June 1944 to 26 January 1945.[18] General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 337 (April 1945) & No. 363 (May 1947) Action Date: June 15, 1944 - January 26, 1945 Cultural references[edit]

Stassen at the 1980 Republican National Convention

In the Lord of the Rings
Lord of the Rings
parody Bored of the Rings, the "Bath of Lavalier" (which parodies the Mirror of Galadriel in The Fellowship of the Ring) is shown predicting a happy ending for all concerned, and Lavalier says that it bodes well, because the Bath of Lavalier never lies. After the characters leave, the Bath of Lavalier is described as showing "the triumphant reception of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
in New York Harbor, the repayment of the French war debt, and the inaugural ball of Harold Stassen." In Colonization: Aftershocks by Harry Turtledove, part of the Worldwar alternate history series, Stassen appears as a character, serving as Vice-President and then as President of the United States
President of the United States
of America, after the death of the previous President(in the book) Earl Warren. The novel was published only a month before Stassen's death. In the alternate history novel Joe Steele, also by Harry Turtledove, Stassen appears as the Republican Party's candidate during the 1948 presidential election. While he carried Maine, Vermont, Delaware, Maryland, and several other states, President Joe Steele carried the rest of the electoral vote, and won his fifth term. In the ninth episode of the 18th season of The Simpsons, while staying with the titular family, Gil Gunderson
Gil Gunderson
makes breakfast and asks the kids "Who wants some eggs à la Harold Stassen?" When met with dumbfounded looks, he reveals the punchline: "They're always running!" In Elia Kazan's 1947 movie Gentleman's Agreement starring Gregory Peck, the lead character played by Peck mentions early in the film his disappointment with being assigned to write on antisemitism by his magazine editor. Peck's character mentions he feels his first assignment should involve some theme of import, such as "covering Stassen". This is presumably a reference to the then looming 1948 United States presidential election Republican party primary nomination which Stassen and Dewey were both then in heated competition to win.

Electoral history[edit]

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
electoral history

Minnesota
Minnesota
gubernatorial election, 1938[19]

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
(R) – 678,839 (59.92%) Elmer Austin Benson
Elmer Austin Benson
(Farmer-Labor) (inc.) – 387,263 (34.18%) Thomas F. Gallagher (D) – 65,875 (5.82%) John William Castle (Industrial) – 899 (0.08%)

Minnesota
Minnesota
gubernatorial election, 1940[20]

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
(R) (inc.) – 654,686 (52.06%) Hjalmar Petersen
Hjalmar Petersen
(Farmer-Labor) – 459,609 (36.55%) Edward Murphy (D) – 140,021 (11.14%) John William Castle (Industrial) – 3,175 (0.25%)

Minnesota
Minnesota
gubernatorial election, 1942[21]

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
(R) (inc.) – 409,800 (51.60%) Hjalmar Petersen
Hjalmar Petersen
(Farmer-Labor) – 299,917 (37.76%) John D. Sullivan (D) – 75,151 (9.46%) Martin Mackie (Communist) – 5,082 (0.64%) Harris A. Brandborg (Industrial) – 4,278 (0.54%)

1944 Republican presidential primaries[22]

Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
– 662,127 (28.94%) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 594,439 (25.99%) John W. Bricker
John W. Bricker
– 366,444 (16.02%) Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
– 278,727 (12.18%) W. Chapman Revercomb
W. Chapman Revercomb
– 91,602 (4.00%) Unpledged – 87,834 (3.84%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 67,508 (2.95%) Riley A. Bender – 37,575 (1.64%) Charles A. Christopherson
Charles A. Christopherson
– 33,497 (1.46%) Wendell Willkie
Wendell Willkie
– 27,097 (1.19%) Joe H. Bottum
Joe H. Bottum
– 22,135 (0.97%) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(inc.) – 10,535 (0.46%) Edward Martin – 2,406 (0.11%) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– 581 (0.03%) Others – 5,079 (0.22%)

1948 Republican presidential primaries[23]

Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 771,295 (26.99%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 627,321 (21.96%) Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
– 464,741 (16.27%) Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
– 330,799 (11.58%) Riley A. Bender – 324,029 (11.34%) Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
– 87,839 (3.07%) Leverett Saltonstall
Leverett Saltonstall
– 72,191 (2.53%) Herbert E. Hitchcock – 45,463 (1.59%) Edward Martin – 45,072 (1.58%) Unpledged – 28,854 (1.01%) Arthur H. Vandenberg
Arthur H. Vandenberg
– 18,924 (0.66%) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
– 5,014 (0.18%) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(inc.) – 4,907 (0.17%) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
– 1,452 (0.05%) Joseph W. Martin
Joseph W. Martin
– 974 (0.03%) Alfred Eastlack Driscoll
Alfred Eastlack Driscoll
– 44 (0.00%) Others – 5,939 (0.21%)

1948 Republican National Convention[24]

Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
– 1,094 (60.74%) Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
– 274 (15.21%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 157 (8.72%) Arthur H. Vandenberg
Arthur H. Vandenberg
– 62 (3.44%) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 59 (3.28%) Dwight Herbert Green
Dwight Herbert Green
– 56 (3.11%) Alfred Eastlack Driscoll
Alfred Eastlack Driscoll
– 35 (1.94%) Raymond E. Baldwin – 19 (1.06%) Joseph W. Martin
Joseph W. Martin
– 18 (1.00%) Carroll Reece
Carroll Reece
– 15 (0.83%) Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
– 11 (0.61%) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– 1 (0.06%)

1952 Republican presidential primaries[25]

Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
– 2,794,736 (35.84%) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
– 2,050,708 (26.30%) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 1,349,036 (17.30%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 881,702 (11.31%) Thomas H. Werdel
Thomas H. Werdel
– 521,110 (6.68%) George T. Mickelson
George T. Mickelson
– 63,879 (0.82%) Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
– 44,209 (0.57%) Grant A. Ritter – 26,208 (0.34%) Edward C. Slettedahl – 22,712 (0.29%) Riley A. Bender – 22,321 (0.29%) Mary E. Kenny – 10,411 (0.13%) Wayne L. Morse
Wayne L. Morse
– 7,105 (0.09%) Perry J. Stearns – 2,925 (0.04%) William R. Schneider – 580 (0.01%)

1952 Republican National Convention
1952 Republican National Convention
(1st ballot)

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
– 595 Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
– 500 Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 81 Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 20 Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
– 10

Republican primary for Governor of Pennsylvania, 1958[26]

Arthur T. McGonigle – 578,286 (54.52%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 344,043 (32.44%) William S. Livengood – 138,284 (13.04%)

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
mayoral election, 1959[27]

Richardson Dilworth (D) (inc.) – 438,278 (65.60%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
(R) – 229,818 (34.40%)

1964 Republican presidential primaries[28]

Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
– 2,267,079 (38.33%) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
– 1,304,204 (22.05%) James A. Rhodes
James A. Rhodes
– 615,754 (10.41%) Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
– 386,661 (6.54%) John W. Byrnes – 299,612 (5.07%) William Scranton
William Scranton
– 245,401 (4.15%) Margaret Chase Smith
Margaret Chase Smith
– 227,007 (3.84%) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
– 197,212 (3.33%) Unpledged – 173,652 (2.94%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 114,083 (1.93%)

Republican primary for Governor of Pennsylvania, 1966[29]

Raymond P. Shafer
Raymond P. Shafer
– 835,768 (78.02%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 172,150 (16.07%) George J. Brett – 63,366 (5.92%)

1968 Republican presidential primaries[30]

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
– 1,696,632 (37.93%) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
– 1,679,443 (37.54%) James A. Rhodes
James A. Rhodes
– 614,492 (13.74%) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
– 164,340 (3.67%) Unpledged delegates – 140,639 (3.14%) Eugene McCarthy – 44,520 (1.00%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 31,655 (0.71%) John A. Volpe
John A. Volpe
– 31,465 (0.70%)

1968 Republican National Convention
1968 Republican National Convention
(1st ballot)

Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
– 692 Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
– 277 Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
– 182 James A. Rhodes
James A. Rhodes
– 55 George Romney – 50 Clifford Case – 22 Frank Carlson – 20 Winthrop Rockefeller
Winthrop Rockefeller
– 18 Hiram Fong
Hiram Fong
– 14 Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 2 John V. Lindsay
John V. Lindsay
– 1

1978 Republican primary for the United States Senate
United States Senate
from Minnesota[31]

Rudy Boschwitz – 185,393 (86.81%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 28,170 (13.19%)

1980 Republican presidential primaries[32]

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
– 7,709,793 (59.84%) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
– 3,070,033 (23.83%) John B. Anderson
John B. Anderson
– 1,572,174 (12.20%) Howard Baker
Howard Baker
– 181,153 (1.41%) Phil Crane
Phil Crane
– 97,793 (0.76%) John B. Connally
John B. Connally
– 82,625 (0.64%) Unpledged delegates – 68,155 (0.53%) Ben Fernandez – 25,520 (0.20%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 25,425 (0.20%) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
– 10,557 (0.08%) Bob Dole
Bob Dole
– 7,204 (0.06%)

1984 Republican presidential primaries[33]

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(inc.) – 6,484,987 (98.78%) Unpledged delegates – 55,458 (0.85%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 12,749 (0.19%)

Minnesota's 4th congressional district, 1986[34]

Bruce F. Vento (DFL) (inc.) – 112,662 (72.88%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
(R) – 41,926 (27.12%)

1988 Republican presidential primaries[35]

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
– 8,258,512 (67.91%) Bob Dole
Bob Dole
– 2,333,375 (19.19%) Pat Robertson
Pat Robertson
– 1,097,446 (9.02%) Jack Kemp
Jack Kemp
– 331,333 (2.72%) Unpledged – 56,990 (0.47%) Pete DuPont
Pete DuPont
– 49,783 (0.41%) Alexander M. Haig
Alexander M. Haig
– 26,619 (0.22%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 2,682 (0.02%)

1992 Republican presidential primaries[36]

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(inc.) – 9,199,463 (72.84%) Pat Buchanan
Pat Buchanan
– 2,899,488 (22.96%) Unpledged delegates – 287,383 (2.28%) David Duke
David Duke
– 119,115 (0.94%) Ross Perot
Ross Perot
– 56,136 (0.44%) Pat Paulsen
Pat Paulsen
– 10,984 (0.09%) Maurice Horton – 9,637 (0.08%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 8,099 (0.06%)

Republican primary for the United States Senate
United States Senate
from Minnesota, 1994[37]

Rod Grams – 269,931 (58.17%) Joanell M. Dyrstad – 163,205 (35.17%) Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
– 22,430 (4.83%) John J. Zeleniak – 8,467 (1.83%)

Bibliography[edit]

Gunther, John (1947). "Stassen: Young Man Going Somewhere". Inside U.S.A. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. pp. 293–308.  Kirby, Alec, Dalin, David G., Rothmann, John F.. Harold E. Stassen - The Life and Perennial Candidacy of the Progressive Republican (McFarland, 2013) 235pp Pietrusza, David 1948: Harry Truman's Improbable Victory and the Year that Changed America, Union Square Press, 2011. Smemo, Kristoffer. "A “New Dealized” Grand Old Party: Labor and the Emergence of Liberal Republicanism in Minneapolis, 1937–1939." Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas (2014) 11#2 pp: 35-59. Werle, Steve, Stassen Again, (St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press), 2015.

Archives[edit] In the Harold E. Stassen Papers at the Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society, digital content is available for researcher use.[38] Researchers will find content that includes speech files, handwritten notes, memoranda, annotated briefings, correspondence, war diaries, working papers, and draft charters for the United Nations. The entire Harold E. Stassen collection includes campaign and political, naval service, United Nations, Eisenhower administration, and organizational membership files of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Governor (1938–1943), Naval Officer (1943–1945), United Nations delegate (April–June 1945), Presidential contender (1948), and Eisenhower cabinet member and Director of the Mutual Security Agency (1953–1958), documenting most aspects of Stassen's six-decade career, including all of his public offices, campaigns, and Republican Party and other non-official activities. Digital selections from this manuscript collection were made based on user and researcher interest, historic significance, and copyright status. References[edit]

^ A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign By Darcy G. Richardson page 219 ^ a b c "Guide, Harold Edward Stassen
Harold Edward Stassen
Papers, 1940–1957, 1914–1919, University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
University Archives". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ Krebs, Albin (March 5, 2001). "Harold E. Stassen, Who Sought G.O.P. Nomination for President 9 Times, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.  ^ a b c d "Governor Stassen". Life. 1942-10-19. p. 122. Retrieved November 21, 2011.  ^ https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M2L5-72R ^ "Wins Oratorical Prize". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. April 4, 1927. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Gopher Riflemen Win From Culver Academy". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. February 24, 1927. p. 18 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "1,200 Students Given Diplomas at 'U' Program: College of Science, Literature and the Arts". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. June 13, 1927. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "List of Graduating University Seniors: Law School". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. June 17, 1929. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Mayer, Michael S. (2010). The Eisenhower Years. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 723. ISBN 978-0-8160-5387-2.  ^ a b "Captain Harold E. Stassen, USNR, (1907–2001)". Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. March 10, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2010.  ^ a b c Krebs, Albin (March 5, 2001). "Harold E. Stassen, Who Sought G.O.P. Nomination for President 9 Times, Dies at 93". The New York Times.  ^ Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 99-100 ^ "Youngstown Vindicator - Google News Archive Search". News.google.com. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ "American President". Millercenter.org. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ a b "Governors of Minnesota". Mnhs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ First Baptist Church, White Plains, NY. "Who are we? Harold Stassen". Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved June 23, 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Valor awards for Harold E. Stassen". Military Times. Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ "MN Governor Race – Nov 08, 1938". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "MN Governor Race – Nov 05, 1940". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "MN Governor Race – Nov 03, 1942". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1944". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1948". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1952". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "PA Governor- R Primary Race – May 20, 1958". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ " Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Mayor Race – Nov 03, 1959". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1964". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "PA Governor- R Primary Race – May 17, 1966". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – D Primaries Race – Mar 12, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "MN US Senate- R Primary Race – Sep 12, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 17, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 20, 1984". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "MN District 4 Race – Nov 07, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "MN US Senate – R Primary Race – Sep 13, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2010-10-19.  ^ "Harold E. Stassen: An Inventory of His Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society". Mnhs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 

External links[edit]

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
in MNopedia, the Minnesota
Minnesota
Encyclopedia Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
at Find a Grave Biographical information, gubernatorial records, and Finding Aid: Harold E. Stassen Papers at the Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Appearances on C-SPAN

Booknotes interview with Stassen on Eisenhower: Turning the World Toward Peace, October 14, 1990.

A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Harold E. Stassen is available at the Internet Archive Newspaper clippings about Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Party political offices

Preceded by Martin A. Nelson Republican nominee for Governor of Minnesota 1938, 1940, 1942 Succeeded by Edward John Thye

Preceded by Frederick Steiwer Keynote
Keynote
Speaker of the Republican National Convention 1940 Succeeded by Earl Warren

Political offices

Preceded by Elmer Austin Benson Governor of Minnesota 1939–1943 Succeeded by Edward John Thye

Preceded by William H. Vanderbilt Chair of the National Governors Association 1941–1942 Succeeded by Herbert O'Conor

Academic offices

Preceded by George William McClelland President of the University of Pennsylvania 1948–1953 Succeeded by William Hagan DuBarry Acting

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by W. Averell Harriman Director of the Mutual Security Agency 1953 Position abolished

New office Director of the United States Foreign Operations Administration 1953–1955

Honorary titles

Preceded by Happy Chandler Earliest serving U.S. governor 1991–2001 Succeeded by Charles Poletti

v t e

Governors of Minnesota

Territorial (1849–58)

Ramsey Gorman Medary

State (since 1858)

Sibley Ramsey Swift Miller Marshall Austin Davis Pillsbury Hubbard McGill Merriam Nelson Clough Lind Van Sant Johnson Eberhart Hammond Burnquist Preus Christianson Olson Petersen Benson Stassen Thye Youngdahl E. Anderson Freeman Andersen Rolvaag LeVander W. Anderson Perpich Quie Perpich Carlson Ventura Pawlenty Dayton

v t e

Chairs of the National Governors Association

Willson McGovern Walsh Spry Capper Harrington Allen Sproul Cox Trinkle Brewster McMullen Dern Case Pollard Rolph McNutt Peery Cochran Stark Vanderbilt Stassen O'Conor Saltonstall Maw Martin Caldwell Hildreth Hunt Lane Carlson Lausche Peterson Shivers Thornton Kennon Langlie Stanley Stratton Collins Boggs McNichols Powell Rosellini Anderson Sawyer Reed Guy Volpe Ellington Love Hearnes Moore Mandel Evans Rampton Ray Andrus Askew Milliken Carroll Bowen Busbee Snelling Matheson J. Thompson Carlin Alexander Clinton Sununu Baliles Branstad Gardner Ashcroft Romer Campbell Dean T. Thompson Miller Voinovich Carper Leavitt Glendening Engler Patton Kempthorne Warner Huckabee Napolitano Pawlenty Rendell Douglas Manchin Gregoire Heineman Markell Fallin Hickenlooper Herbert McAuliffe Sandoval

v t e

Chief Administrators of the University of Pennsylvania

Provosts

Franklin (1749–1754) William Smith (1754–1779) Ewing (1779–1802) McDowell (1806–1810) Andrews (1810–1813) Beasley (1813–1828) DeLancey (1828–1834) Ludlow (1834–1852) Vethake (1853–1859) Goodwin (1860–1868) Stillé (1868–1880) Pepper (1881–1894) Harrison (1894–1910) Edgar Smith (1910–1920) Penniman (1921–1930)

Presidents

Gates (1930–1944) McClelland (1944–1948) Stassen (1948–1953) DuBarry (acting, 1953) Harnwell (1953–1970) Myerson (1970–1981) Hackney (1981–1993) Fagin (interim, 1993–1994) Rodin (1994–2004) Gutmann (2004–present)

The chief administrator prior to 1930 was the provost

v t e

(1940 ←) United States presidential election, 1944
United States presidential election, 1944
(→ 1948)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

Harry Truman

Candidates

Harry F. Byrd James Farley

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Thomas E. Dewey

VP nominee

John W. Bricker

Candidates

Riley A. Bender Everett Dirksen Douglas MacArthur Harold Stassen Robert Taft Wendell Willkie

Third party and independent candidates

America First Party

Nominee

Gerald L. K. Smith

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Claude A. Watson

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Darlington Hoopes

Other 1944 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1944 ←) United States presidential election, 1948
United States presidential election, 1948
(→ 1952)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Harry Truman

VP nominee

Alben W. Barkley

Candidates

Harley M. Kilgore Richard Russell Jr. Henry A. Wallace

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Thomas Dewey

VP nominee

Earl Warren

Candidates

Riley A. Bender Herbert E. Hitchcock Douglas MacArthur Joseph William Martin Jr. Edward Martin Leverett Saltonstall Harold Stassen Arthur H. Vandenberg Robert Taft

State's Rights Democratic Party

Nominee

Strom Thurmond

VP nominee

Fielding L. Wright

Other third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Claude A. Watson

VP nominee

Dale H. Learn

Progressive Party

Nominee

Henry A. Wallace

VP nominee

Glen H. Taylor

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Tucker P. Smith

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Grace Carlson

Independents and other candidates

Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1948 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1948 ←) United States presidential election, 1952
United States presidential election, 1952
(→ 1956)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Candidates

Riley A. Bender George Theodore Mickelson Harold Stassen Robert Taft Earl Warren

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

John Sparkman

Candidates

Alben W. Barkley Paul A. Dever W. Averell Harriman Hubert Humphrey Estes Kefauver Robert S. Kerr Richard Russell Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Stuart Hamblen

VP nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

Progressive Party

Nominee

Vincent Hallinan

VP nominee

Charlotta Bass

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

Socialist Party

Nominee

Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

Edward Longstreet Bodin Henry B. Krajewski

Other 1952 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1960 ←) United States presidential election, 1964
United States presidential election, 1964
(→ 1968)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Lyndon B. Johnson

VP nominee

Hubert Humphrey

Candidates

Daniel Brewster Pat Brown Robert F. Kennedy Albert S. Porter Jennings Randolph John W. Reynolds Jr. George Wallace Matthew E. Welsh Sam Yorty

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Barry Goldwater

campaign

VP nominee

William E. Miller

Candidates

Hiram Fong Walter Judd Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Jim Rhodes Nelson Rockefeller William Scranton Margaret Chase Smith Harold Stassen

Third party and independent candidates

American Vegetarian Party

Nominee

Symon Gould

National States' Rights Party

Nominee

John Kasper

VP nominee

J. B. Stoner

Prohibition Party

Nominee

E. Harold Munn

VP nominee

Mark R. Shaw

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

VP nominee

Henning A. Blomen

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Clifton DeBerry

VP nominee

Ed Shaw

Independents and other candidates

George Lincoln Rockwell

Other 1964 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1964 ←)    United States presidential election, 1968    (→ 1972)

United States elections, 1968

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Richard Nixon

campaign

VP nominee

Spiro Agnew

Candidates

Frank Carlson Clifford P. Case Hiram Fong John Lindsay Ronald Reagan Jim Rhodes Nelson Rockefeller Winthrop Rockefeller George W. Romney

campaign

Harold Stassen John Volpe

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Protests

Nominee

Hubert Humphrey

campaign

VP nominee

Edmund Muskie

Candidates

Roger D. Branigin John G. Crommelin Paul C. Fisher Lyndon B. Johnson Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(campaign) Thomas C. Lynch Eugene McCarthy (campaign) George McGovern Dan K. Moore Channing E. Phillips George Smathers Stephen M. Young

American Independent Party

Nominee

George Wallace

campaign

VP nominee

Curtis LeMay

Other third party and independent candidates

Communist Party

Nominee

Charlene Mitchell

VP nominee

Michael Zagarell

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee

Eldridge Cleaver

VP nominee

Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd

Prohibition Party

Nominee

E. Harold Munn

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Henning A. Blomen

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Fred Halstead

VP nominee

Paul Boutelle

Independents and other candidates

Dick Gregory Pat Paulsen Pigasus

Other 1968 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1972 ←) United States presidential election, 1976
United States presidential election, 1976
(→ 1980)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Jimmy Carter

VP nominee

Walter Mondale

Candidates

Birch Bayh Lloyd Bentsen Jerry Brown Robert Byrd Hugh Carey Frank Church Fred R. Harris Hubert Humphrey Henry M. Jackson Leon Jaworski Barbara Jordan Eugene McCarthy Ellen McCormack Walter Mondale Jennings Randolph Terry Sanford Milton Shapp

campaign

Sargent Shriver Adlai Stevenson III Mo Udall George Wallace

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Gerald Ford

VP nominee

Bob Dole

Candidates

James L. Buckley Ronald Reagan Harold Stassen

Third party and independent candidates

American Party

Nominee

Thomas J. Anderson

American Independent Party

Nominee

Lester Maddox

Communist Party

Nominee

Gus Hall

VP nominee

Jarvis Tyner

Libertarian Party

Nominee

Roger MacBride

VP nominee

David Bergland

People's Party

Nominee

Margaret Wright

VP nominee

Benjamin Spock

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Ben Bubar

VP nominee

Earl Dodge

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Peter Camejo

VP nominee

Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Labor Party

Nominee

Lyndon LaRouche

Other 1976 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1976 ←) United States presidential election, 1980
United States presidential election, 1980
(→ 1984)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates John B. Anderson Howard Baker George H. W. Bush John Connally Phil Crane Bob Dole Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Jimmy Carter

VP nominee Walter Mondale

Candidates Jerry Brown Ted Kennedy Ron Dellums

Independent

Candidate John B. Anderson

VP candidate Patrick Lucey

Other independent and third party candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Barry Commoner

VP nominee LaDonna Harris

Libertarian Party

Nominee Ed Clark

VP nominee David Koch

Prohibition Party

Nominee Ben Bubar

VP nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Party

Nominee David McReynolds

VP nominee Diane Drufenbrock

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Andrew Pulley Alternate nominees Richard Congress Clifton DeBerry

Workers World Party

Nominee Deirdre Griswold

VP nominee Gavrielle Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Lyndon LaRouche Maureen Smith Running mate Elizabeth Cervantes Barron Warren Spannaus

Other 1980 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1980 ←) United States presidential election, 1984
United States presidential election, 1984
(→ 1988)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Walter Mondale

VP nominee Geraldine Ferraro

Candidates Reubin Askew Alan Cranston John Glenn Gary Hart Fritz Hollings Jesse Jackson George McGovern

Third party and independent candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Communist Party

Nominee Gus Hall

VP nominee Angela Davis

Libertarian Party

Nominee David Bergland

VP nominee Jim Lewis

Candidates Gene Burns Earl Ravenal Mary Ruwart

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Edward Winn

VP nominee Helen Halyard

Socialist Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Melvin T. Mason

VP nominee Matilde Zimmermann

Workers World Party

Nominee Larry Holmes Alternate nominee Gavrielle Holmes

VP nominee Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Charles Doty Larry Flynt Larry "Bozo" Harmon Lyndon LaRouche Running mate Billy Davis

Other 1984 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1984 ←) United States presidential election, 1988
United States presidential election, 1988
(→ 1992)

Republican Party Convention Primaries Primary results

Nominee

George H. W. Bush

VP nominee

Dan Quayle

Candidates

Bob Dole Pete du Pont Ben Fernandez Alexander Haig Jack Kemp Paul Laxalt Isabell Masters Pat Robertson Donald Rumsfeld Harold Stassen

Democratic Party Convention Primaries Primary results

Nominee

Michael Dukakis

campaign

VP nominee

Lloyd Bentsen

Candidates

Douglas Applegate Bruce Babbitt Joe Biden

campaign

David Duke Dick Gephardt Al Gore

campaign

Gary Hart Jesse Jackson

campaign

Lyndon LaRouche Andy Martin Patricia Schroeder Paul Simon James Traficant

Third party and independent candidates

Libertarian Party Convention

Nominee

Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign)

VP nominee

Andre Marrou

Candidates

Jim Lewis Russell Means

New Alliance Party

Nominee

Lenora Fulani

Populist Party

Nominee

David Duke

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee

Edward Winn

Socialist Party

Nominee

Willa Kenoyer

VP nominee

Ron Ehrenreich

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

James Warren

VP nominee

Kathleen Mickells

Workers World Party

Nominee

Larry Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and others

Jack Herer Lyndon LaRouche Herbert G. Lewin William A. Marra Eugene McCarthy

Other 1988 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1988 ←) United States presidential election, 1992
United States presidential election, 1992
(→ 1996)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(campaign) VP nominee Al Gore

Candidates Larry Agran Jerry Brown Tom Harkin Bob Kerrey Lyndon LaRouche Tom Laughlin Eugene McCarthy Paul Tsongas Douglas Wilder Charles Woods

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee George H. W. Bush VP nominee Dan Quayle

Candidates Pat Buchanan David Duke Jack Fellure Isabell Masters Pat Paulsen Tennie Rogers Harold Stassen

Independent

Candidate Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(campaign) VP candidate James Stockdale

Other independent and third party candidates

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Andre Marrou

VP nominee Nancy Lord

Natural Law Party

Nominee John Hagelin

VP nominee Mike Tompkins

New Alliance Party

Nominee Lenora Fulani

VP nominee Maria Elizabeth Muñoz

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

VP nominee George Ormsby

Socialist Party USA

Nominee J. Quinn Brisben

VP nominee Barbara Garson

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Warren

VP nominee Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Taxpayers Party

Convention

Nominee Howard Phillips

VP nominee Albion W. Knight, Jr.

Workers World Party

Nominee Gloria La Riva

VP nominee Larry Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Ronald Daniels (Running mate: Asiba Tupahache) Bo Gritz Isabell Masters

Other 1992 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 99120508 LCCN: n80139271 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 9411 GND: 132459086 SUDOC: 083258132 BNF: cb115545596 (data) BNE: XX869

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