Coordinates: 40°48′32.52″N 73°56′54.14″W /
40.8090333°N 73.9483722°W / 40.8090333; -73.9483722
Neighborhood of Manhattan
Harlem apartment buildings adjacent to Morningside Park
Nickname(s): "Heaven", "Black mecca"
Motto(s): "Making It!"
10.03 km2 (3.871 sq mi)
33,000/km2 (87,000/sq mi)
10026–10027, 10029–10031, 10035, 10037, 10039
212, 917, 646, 347
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York
City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s,
Harlem has been known as a
major African American residential, cultural and business center.
Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named
after the city of
Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has
been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with
significant population shifts accompanying each cycle.
Following the Civil War, poor Jews and poor Italians were the
predominant demographic in Harlem. African-American residents began to
arrive in large numbers in 1905 as part of the Great Migration. In the
1920s and 1930s, Central and West
Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem
Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the
American black community. However, with job losses in the time of the
Great Depression and the deindustrialization of New York
World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly.
Harlem's African-American population peaked in the 1950s. In the
second half of the 20th century,
Harlem became a major hub of
African-American businesses. In 2008, the
United States Census
United States Census found
that for the first time since the 1930s, less than half of the
residents were black, comprising only 40% of the population.
Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century,
been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.
1.1 Emergency services and representation
3.1 Religious life
4 Population and demographics
4.1 Central Harlem
4.2 West Harlem
4.3 East Harlem
5 Social issues
5.1 Poverty and health
7.2 Public transportation
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Map of Upper Manhattan, with
Harlem and its subsections highlighted
Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by
locals. It stretches from the
Harlem River and
East River in the east,
Hudson River to the west; and between 155th Street in the
north, where it meets Washington Heights, and an uneven boundary along
the south that runs along either 96th Street east of
Fifth Avenue or
110th Street west of Fifth Avenue.
Harlem is bounded by
Fifth Avenue on the east,
Central Park on
the south, Morningside Park,
St. Nicholas Avenue
St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue
on the west, and the
Harlem River on the north. A chain of three
large linear parks—Morningside Park,
St. Nicholas Park
St. Nicholas Park and Jackie
Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of
the district's western boundary. On the east,
Fifth Avenue and Marcus
Garvey Park, also known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from
East Harlem. The bulk of the area falls under
Board No. 10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area
redevelopment, running along
Frederick Douglass Boulevard
Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West
110th to West 138th Streets.
Harlem neighborhoods of
Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights
comprise part of
Manhattan Community Board No. 9. The two
neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway (110th Street) on
the South; 155th Street on the North; Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St.
Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the East; and Riverside
Hudson River on the west.
Manhattanville begins at roughly
123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street. The northern most
section of West
Harlem is Hamilton Heights.
East Harlem, also called Spanish
Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan
Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East
138th Street on the north,
Fifth Avenue on the west, and the Harlem
River on the east.
Emergency services and representation
The New York
City Police Department patrols six precincts located
within Harlem. The areas of West
Harlem are served by the 30th
Precinct, and the 26th Precinct, the areas of Central Harlem
are served by the 28th and 32nd Precincts, and the areas of
East Harlem are served by the 23rd and 25th Precincts.
The New York
City Fire Department operates 9 firehouses in Harlem,
organized into 2 Battalions. The following fire companies are
quartered in Harlem: Engine 35, Engine 37, Engine 47, Engine 58,
Engine 59, Engine 69, Engine 80, Engine 84, Engine 91, Ladder 14,
Ladder 23, Ladder 26, Ladder 28, Ladder 30, Ladder 34, Ladder 40, and
the Chiefs of the 12th and 16th Battalions.
Harlem is represented by New York's 13th congressional district, the
New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's
68th and 70th districts, and the New York
City Council's 7th, 8th, and
Harlem, from the old fort in the Central Park, New York Public Library
Main article: History of Harlem
Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become
Harlem (originally Haarlem) was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native
tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most likely Lenape
occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis. As many as several hundred
Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few
settlements were established. During the American Revolution,
the British burned
Harlem to the ground. It took a long time to
Harlem grew more slowly than the rest of
the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem
experienced an economic boom starting in 1868. The neighborhood
continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but increasingly those
coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian. The New York and
Harlem Railroad, as well as the
Interborough Rapid Transit
Interborough Rapid Transit and
elevated railway lines, helped Harlem's economic growth, as they
Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan.
Rowhouse built for the African-American population of
Harlem in the
A condemned building in
Harlem after the 1970s
The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and
Puerto Rican population increased in this time. The early
20th-century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities
was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek
better jobs and education for their children, and escape a culture of
lynching violence; during World War I, expanding industries recruited
black laborers to fill new jobs, thinly staffed after the draft began
to take young men. In 1910, Central
Harlem was about 10% black. By
1930, it had reached 70%. Starting around the time of the end of
World War I,
Harlem became associated with the
New Negro movement, and
then the artistic outpouring known as the
Harlem Renaissance, which
extended to poetry, novels, theater, and the visual arts. So many
blacks came that it "threaten[ed] the very existence of some of the
leading industries of Georgia, Florida, Tennessee and Alabama."
Many settled in Harlem. By 1920, central
Harlem was 32.43% black. The
1930 census revealed that 70.18% of Central Harlem's residents were
black and lived as far south as Central Park, at 110th Street.
However, by the 1930s, the neighborhood was hit hard by job losses in
the Great Depression. In the early 1930s, 25% of Harlemites were out
of work, and employment prospects for Harlemites stayed bad for
decades. Employment among black New Yorkers fell as some traditionally
black businesses, including domestic service and some types of manual
labor, were taken over by other ethnic groups. Major industries left
City altogether, especially after 1950. Several riots
happened in this period, including in 1935 and 1943.
There were major changes following World War II. In the late 1950s and
Harlem was the scene of a series of rent strikes by
neighborhood tenants, led by local activist Jesse Gray, together with
the Congress of Racial Equality,
Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited
(HARYOU), and other groups. These groups wanted the city to force
landlords to improve the quality of housing by bringing them up to
code, to take action against rats and roaches, to provide heat during
the winter, and to keep prices in line with existing rent control
regulations. The largest public works projects in
Harlem in these
years were public housing, with the largest concentration built in
East Harlem. Typically, existing structures were torn down and
replaced with city-designed and managed properties that would, in
theory, present a safer and more pleasant environment than those
available from private landlords. Ultimately, community objections
halted the construction of new projects. From the mid-20th
century, the low quality of education in
Harlem has been a source of
distress. In the 1960s, about 75% of
Harlem students tested under
grade levels in reading skills, and 80% tested under grade level in
math. In 1964, residents of
Harlem staged two school boycotts to
call attention to the problem. In central Harlem, 92% of students
stayed home. In the post-
World War II
World War II era,
Harlem ceased to be
home to a majority of the city's blacks, but it remained the
cultural and political capital of black New York, and possibly black
By the 1970s, many of those Harlemites who were able to escape from
poverty left the neighborhood in search of safer streets, better
schools and homes. Those who remained were the poorest and least
skilled, with the fewest opportunities for success. Though the federal
Model Cities Program
Model Cities Program spent $100 million on job training,
health care, education, public safety, sanitation, housing, and other
projects over a ten-year period,
Harlem showed no improvement. The
city began auctioning its enormous portfolio of
Harlem properties to
the public in 1985. This was intended to improve the community by
placing property in the hands of people who would live in them and
maintain them. In many cases, the city would even pay to completely
renovate a property before selling it (by lottery) below market
After the 1990s,
Harlem began to grow again. Between 1990 and 2006 the
neighborhood's population grew by 16.9%, with the percentage of blacks
decreasing from 87.6% to 69.3%, then dropping to 54.4% by
2010, and the percentage of whites increasing from 1.5% to 6.6% by
2006, and to "almost 10%" by 2010. A renovation of 125th
Street and new properties along the thoroughfare also helped
to revitalize Harlem.
Apollo Theater on 125th Street, in November 2006.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West
Harlem was the focus of the
Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent
in the American Black community. Though
Harlem musicians and writers
are particularly well remembered, the community has also hosted
numerous actors and theater companies, including the New Heritage
Repertory Theater, National Black Theater, Lafayette Players,
Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro
Theater, and the Rose McClendon Players.
Apollo Theater opened on 125th Street on January 26, 1934, in a
former burlesque house. The Savoy Ballroom, on Lenox Avenue, was a
renowned venue for swing dancing, and was immortalized in a popular
song of the era, "Stompin' At The Savoy". In the 1920s and 1930s,
between Lenox and Seventh Avenues in central Harlem, over 125
entertainment places operated, including speakeasies, cellars,
lounges, cafes, taverns, supper clubs, rib joints, theaters, dance
halls, and bars and grills. 133rd Street, known as "Swing Street",
became known for its cabarets, speakeasies and jazz scene during the
Prohibition era, and was dubbed "Jungle Alley" because of
"inter-racial mingling" on the street. Some jazz venues,
including the Cotton Club, where
Duke Ellington played, and Connie's
Inn, were restricted to whites only. Others were integrated, including
the Renaissance Ballroom and the Savoy Ballroom.
Orson Welles produced his black
Macbeth at the Lafayette
Theater in Harlem. Grand theaters from the late 19th and early
20th centuries were torn down or converted to churches.
any permanent performance space until the creation of the Gatehouse
Theater in an old
Croton aqueduct building on 135th Street in
From 1965 until 2007, the community was home to the
Harlem Boys Choir,
a touring choir and education program for young boys, most of whom are
black. The Girls Choir of
Harlem was founded in 1989, and closed
with the Boys Choir.
Harlem is also home to the largest
African American Day Parade which
celebrates the culture of African diaspora in America. The parade was
started up in the spring of 1969 with Congressman Adam Clayton Powell,
Jr. as the Grand Marshal of the first celebration.
Arthur Mitchell, a former dancer with the New York
Dance Theatre of Harlem
Dance Theatre of Harlem as a school and company of
classical ballet and theater training in the late 1960s. The company
has toured nationally and internationally. Generations of theater
artists have gotten a start at the school.
Manhattan's contributions to hip-hop stems largely from artists with
Harlem roots such as Big L,
Kurtis Blow and Immortal Technique. Harlem
is also the birthplace of popular hip-hop dances such as the Harlem
shake, toe wop, and Chicken Noodle Soup.
Harlem is currently experiencing a gourmet renaissance with new dining
hotspots popping up uptown around Frederick Douglass Boulevard. At
the same time, some residents are fighting back against the powerful
waves of gentrification the neighborhood is experiencing. On October
17, 2013, residents staged a sidewalk sit-in to protest a
five-days-a-week farmers market that would shut down Macombs Place at
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Churches in Harlem.
Religious life has historically had a strong presence in Black Harlem.
The area is home to over 400 churches. Major Christian
denominations include Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists (generally
African Methodist Episcopalian, or "AME"), Episcopalians, and Roman
Abyssinian Baptist Church
Abyssinian Baptist Church has long been influential
because of its large congregation, and recently wealthy on account of
its extensive real estate holdings. The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints built a chapel on 128th Street in 2005. Previously
the Church had had a branch meeting around the corner in a former
Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall. As of 2015 there are 3 LDS Wards
meeting at the
Many of the area's churches are "storefront churches", which operate
in an empty store, or a basement, or a converted brownstone townhouse.
These congregations may have fewer than 30–50 members each, but
there are hundreds of them. Others are old, large, and designated
landmarks. Especially in the years before World War II, Harlem
Christian charismatic "cult" leaders, including
George Wilson Becton and Father Divine. Mosques in
the Malcolm Shabazz
Mosque No. 7
Mosque No. 7 (formerly
Mosque No. 7
Mosque No. 7 Nation of
Islam, and the location of the 1972
Harlem Mosque incident), the
Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood and Masjid Aqsa. Judaism, too, maintains
a presence in
Harlem through the Old Broadway Synagogue. A
non-mainstream synagogue of
Black Hebrews known as Commandment
Keepers, was based in a synagogue at 1 West 123rd Street until 2008.
St Martin's Episcopal Church, at
Lenox Avenue and 122nd Street
Hotel Theresa building at the corner of Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
Boulevard and 125th Street
Adam Clayton Powell Jr. State Office Building, at the same
intersection as the Hotel Theresa
Many places in
Harlem are New York
City Landmarks, listed on the
National Register of Historic Places, or are otherwise prominent:
155th Street Viaduct leading to Macombs Dam Bridge
Abyssinian Baptist Church
Adam Clayton Powell Jr. State Office Building
All Saints Church
Atlah Worldwide Church
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
Bushman Steps Stairway that led baseball fans from the subway to The
Polo Grounds ticket booth.
City College of New York
Duke Ellington Circle
Dunbar Apartments designed by architect Andrew J. Thomas. former home
to W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, Asa Philip Randolph, Bill
“Bojangles” Robinson and explorer Matthew Henson
First Corinthian Baptist Church
Central Park and Nutter's Battery
Frederick Douglass Circle
Harbor Conservatory for the Performing Arts
Harlem Children's Zone
Harlem Hospital Center
Harlem River Houses
Harlem School of the Arts
Harlem Hellfighters Monument / 369th Infantry Regiment Memorial
James Bailey House
Jumel Terrace and
Morris-Jumel Mansion in modern-day Washington
Langston Hughes House
Manhattan Avenue-West 120th-123rd Streets Historic District
Mount Morris Bank Building
Mount Morris Park Historic District
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Mount Sinai Hospital, New
El Museo Del Barrio
Museum of the
City of New York
National Black Theater
New York College of Podiatric Medicine
St. Martin's Episcopal Church (formerly Trinity Church) designed by
William Appleton Potter
Savoy Ballroom marked by a plaque on Lenox.
St. Nicholas Historic District
St. Nicholas Houses
Studio Museum in Harlem
Swing Low Harriet Tubman Memorial
Sylvia's Soul Food
West 147th-149th Streets Historic District
Population and demographics
Like most neighborhoods in New York, the demographics of Harlem's
communities have changed rapidly throughout the history of New York.
In 1910, 10% of Harlem's population was black but by 1930, they had
become a 70% majority. The period between 1910 and 1930 marks a
huge point in the great migration of
African Americans from the South
to New York. This point also marks an influx from downtown Manhattan
neighborhoods where blacks were feeling less welcome, to the Harlem
area. The black population in
Harlem peaked in 1950 with a 98%
share of the population (population 233,000).
As of 2000, Central
Harlem had a black community comprising 77% of the
population; however, the black population is declining as many African
Americans moved out as more and more immigrants began to move in.
Harlem is the most famous section of
Harlem and thus is
commonly referred to simply as Harlem. Central
Harlem is home to the
famous Apollo Theater.
In 2010, the population of Central
Harlem was at 115,000 according to
a regional census. Central
Harlem is home to the Mount Morris Park
In 2010, the population of West
Harlem was at 110,193 according to a
West Harlem, consisting of Morningside Heights, Manhattanville, and
Hamilton Heights, as a whole is predominately Hispanic. African
Americans make up about a quarter of the West
Morningside Heights has a large number of White
Morningside Heights is known as the "Academic Acropolis
of New York". Educational institutions in the neighborhood include
City College of New York, Columbia University, Barnard College, and
New York Theological Seminary.
In 2010, the population of
East Harlem was at 120,000.
East Harlem originally formed as a predominantly Italian American
neighborhood, but its demographics have changed over the years. and it
is now known as a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood. Italian Harlem
formed when Southern Italian immigration began in the late 19th
Italian Harlem is notable as the founding location of the
Genovese crime family, one of the
Five Families that dominated Italian
organized crime in New York
City as part of the Mafia (or Cosa
The area began its transition from
Italian Harlem to Spanish Harlem
when Puerto Rican migration began after World War II. This
community of stateside Puerto Ricans is notable for its contributions
to Salsa music. In recent decades, many Mexican and Salvadoran
immigrants have also settled in East Harlem.
East Harlem is also
known as El Barrio and today is predominantly Hispanic, though with a
significant Black presence. The area suffers from the highest
violent crime rate in Manhattan.
Poverty and health
Harlem street scene
Drew Hamilton Houses, a large low-income
NYCHA housing project in
Harlem suffers from unemployment rates generally more than twice as
high than the New York average and high mortality rates as well.
In both cases, the numbers for men have been consistently worse than
the numbers for women.
Unemployment and poverty in the neighborhood
resisted private and governmental initiatives to ameliorate them.
During the Great Depression, unemployment in
Harlem went past 20% and
people were being evicted from their homes. In the 1960s,
uneducated blacks could find jobs more easily than educated ones
could, confounding efforts to improve the lives of people who lived in
the neighborhood through education. Land owners took advantage of
the neighborhood and offered apartments to the lower-class families
for cheaper rent but in lower class conditions. As of 1999,
179,000 housing units were available for the citizens of Harlem.
Housing activists in
Harlem state that, even after residents were
given vouchers for the
Section 8 housing
Section 8 housing that was being placed, many
were not able to live there and had to find homes elsewhere or become
Infant mortality was 124 per thousand in 1928 (12.4%)
. By 1940, infant mortality in
Harlem was 5% (one infant in 20
would die), and the death rate from disease generally was twice that
of the rest of New York.
Tuberculosis was the main killer, and four
times as prevalent among
Harlem citizens than among the rest of New
A 1990 study of life expectancy of teenagers in
Harlem reported that
15-year-old girls in
Harlem had a 65% chance of surviving to age 65,
about the same as women in India. Fifteen-year-old men in Harlem, on
the other hand, had a 37% chance of surviving to age 65, about the
same as men in Angola; for men, the survival rate beyond the age of 40
was lower in
Harlem than Bangladesh. Infectious diseases and
diseases of the circulatory system were to blame, with a variety of
contributing factors, including consumption of the deep-fried foods
traditional to the South, which may contribute to heart disease.
Harlem Riot of 1964
Main article: Crime in Harlem
In the early 20th century,
Harlem was a stronghold of the Italian
Mafia. As the ethnic composition of the neighborhood changed, black
criminals began to organize themselves similarly. However, rather than
compete with the established mobs, gangs concentrated on the "policy
racket", also called the numbers game, or bolita in East Harlem. This
was a gambling scheme similar to a lottery that could be played,
illegally, from countless locations around Harlem. According to
Francis Ianni, "By 1925 there were thirty black policy banks in
Harlem, several of them large enough to collect bets in an area of
twenty city blocks and across three or four avenues."
By the early 1950s, the total money at play amounted to billions of
dollars, and the police force had been thoroughly corrupted by bribes
from numbers bosses. These bosses became financial powerhouses,
providing capital for loans for those who could not qualify for them
from traditional financial institutions, and investing in legitimate
businesses and real estate. One of the powerful early numbers bosses
was a woman, Madame Stephanie St. Clair, who fought gun battles with
Dutch Schultz over control of the lucrative trade.
The popularity of playing the numbers waned with the introduction of
the state lottery, which is legal but has lower payouts and has taxes
collected on winnings. The practice continues on a smaller scale
among those who prefer the numbers tradition or who prefer to trust
their local numbers bank to the state.
Statistics from 1940 show about 100 murders per year in Harlem, "but
rape is very rare". By 1950, essentially all of the whites had
Harlem and by 1960, much of the black middle class had departed.
At the same time, control of organized crime shifted from Italian
syndicates to local black, Puerto Rican, and Cuban groups that were
somewhat less formally organized. At the time of the 1964 riots,
the drug addiction rate in
Harlem was ten times higher than the New
City average, and twelve times higher than the United States as a
whole. Of the 30,000 drug addicts then estimated to live in New York
City, 15,000 to 20,000 lived in Harlem.
Property crime was pervasive,
and the murder rate was six times higher than New York's average. Half
of the children in
Harlem grew up with one parent, or none, and lack
of supervision contributed to juvenile delinquency; between 1953 and
1962, the crime rate among young people increased throughout New York
City, but was consistently 50% higher in
Harlem than in New York City
as a whole.
Injecting heroin grew in popularity in
Harlem through the 1950s and
1960s, though the use of this drug then leveled off. In the 1980s, use
of crack cocaine became widespread, which produced collateral crime as
addicts stole to finance their purchasing of additional drugs, and as
dealers fought for the right to sell in particular regions, or over
deals gone bad.
With the end of the "crack wars" in the mid-1990s and with the
initiation of aggressive policing under mayors
David Dinkins and
subsequently Rudolph Giuliani, crime in
Harlem plummeted. In 1981,
6,500 robberies were reported in Harlem; robberies dropped to 4,800 in
1990 during David Dinkins' mayoralty. By 2000, only
1,700 robberies were reported, and by 2010, only 1,100 were reported.
There have been similar changes in all categories of crimes tracked by
the New York
City Police Department. In the 32nd Precinct, which
Harlem above 127th Street, for example, between 1990
and 2013, the murder rate dropped 89.4%, the rape rate dropped 67.5%,
the robbery rate dropped 74.2%, burglary dropped 93.4%, and the total
number of crime complaints dropped 77.6%.
Main article: Education in Harlem
In 1977, Isiah Robinson, president of the New York
City Board of
Education, was quoted as saying that "the quality of education in
Harlem has degenerated to the level of a custodial service."
Currently the New York
City Department of Education operates district
As of May 2006[update],
Harlem was the heart of the charter
schools movement in Manhattan; of the 25 charter schools operating in
Manhattan, 18 were in Harlem. In 2010, about one age-eligible
Harlem child in five was enrolled in charter schools.
New York Public Library
New York Public Library operates the
Harlem Branch Library at 9
West 124th Street, the George Bruce Library at 518 West 125th
Street, the 115th Street Branch Library at 203 West 115th
Street, and the 125th Street Branch Library at 224 East 125th
Street, near Third Avenue.
The CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York
College of Podiatric Medicine,
City College of New York, and Touro
College of Osteopathic Medicine, are all located in Harlem.
Harlem River spans;
Harlem to the left and the Bronx to the right
Harlem River separates the Bronx and Manhattan, necessitating
several spans between the two New York
City boroughs. In East Harlem,
Wards Island Bridge, also known as the 103rd Street Footbridge,
Manhattan with Wards Island. The
Triboro Bridge is a complex
of three separate bridges that offers connections between Queens,
Manhattan (Harlem), and the Bronx.
Harlem – 125th Street station on the
Public transportation service is provided by the Metropolitan
Transportation Authority. This includes the New York
City Subway and
MTA Regional Bus Operations, as well as a
Metro-North commuter rail
stop at East 125th Street, connecting
Westchester County with New York
City. Some Bronx local routes also serve Manhattan, to provide
customers with access between both boroughs.
Subway routes include:
Lenox Avenue Line (2 and 3 trains)
IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line
IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (1 train)
IRT Lexington Avenue Line
IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4, 5, 6, and <6> trains at
IND Eighth Avenue Line
IND Eighth Avenue Line (A, B, C, and D trains)
IND Concourse Line
IND Concourse Line (B and D trains at 155th Street)
Future: IND Second Avenue Line
Bus routes include:
M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M7, M10, M11, M15, M15 SBS, M35, M60 SBS, M100,
M101, M102, M103, M104, M116 (
Bx6, Bx6 SBS, Bx15, Bx19, Bx33 (Bronx buses)
List of films shot in Harlem
List of people from Harlem
African American portal
Harlem neighborhood in New York". Retrieved December 16,
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^ 30th Precinct New York
City Police Department
^ 26th Precinct, New York
City Police Department.
^ 28th Precinct, New York
City Police Department.
^ 32nd Precinct New York
City Police Department.
^ 23rd Precinct, New York
City Police Department.
^ 25th Precinct, New York
City Police Department.
^ Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town
Books. p. 52.
^ Gill, 2011, p. 6
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Harlem Publishing Company
Harlem in the Old Times". The New York Times. January 11, 1880.
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^ "Harlem, the Village That Became a Ghetto", Martin Duberman, in New
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^ Gill, 2011, pp. 100, 109.
^ Gill, 2011, p. 86.
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for
Harlem and Upper Manhattan.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harlem, Manhattan.
Portraits of Harlem
Digital Harlem: Everyday Life 1915–1930
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