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Harihara
Harihara
is the fused representation of Vishnu
Vishnu
(Hari) and Shiva
Shiva
(Hara) from the Hindu tradition. Also known as Shankaranarayana ("Shankara" is Shiva, and "Narayana" is Vishnu), Harihara
Harihara
is thus revered by both Vaishnavites and Shaivites as a form of the Supreme God. Harihara
Harihara
is also sometimes used as a philosophical term to denote the unity of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
as different aspects of the same Ultimate Reality called Brahman. This concept of equivalence of various gods as one principle and "oneness of all existence" is discussed as Harihara in the texts of Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
school of Hindu philosophy.[1] Some of the earliest sculptures of Harihara, with one half of the image as Shiva
Shiva
and other half as Vishnu, are found in the surviving cave temples of India, such as in the cave 1 and cave 3 of the 6th-century Badami cave temples.[2][3]

Contents

1 Concept

1.1 One and the same

2 Depiction in art 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

5.1 Nature of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu 5.2 Harihara
Harihara
images

Concept[edit]

Vishnu
Vishnu
( holding Sudarshana Chakra) and Shiva
Shiva
(lighter coloured half, wearing tiger skin, holding Trishula) combined in a single Harihara murti, sometimes referred to as Sivakesavaand "Haryadhamurti".

The diversity within Hinduism
Hinduism
encourages a wide variety of beliefs and traditions, of which two important and large traditions are associated with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva. Some schools focus on Vishnu
Vishnu
(including his associated avatars such as Rama
Rama
and Krishna) as the Supreme God, and others on Shiva
Shiva
(including his different avatars such as Mahadeva and Pashupata). The Puranas
Puranas
and various Hindu traditions treat both Shiva and Vishnu
Vishnu
as being different aspects of the one Brahman. Harihara
Harihara
is a symbolic representation of this idea. A similar idea, called Ardhanarishvara
Ardhanarishvara
or Naranari, fuses masculine and feminine deities as one and equivalent representation in Hinduism.[4] Depending on which scriptures (and translations) are quoted, evidence is available to support each of the different arguments. In most cases, even if one personality is taken as being superior over the other, much respect is still offered to both Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
by the other's worshippers (i.e. Shiva
Shiva
is still regarded as being above the level of an ordinary jiva and 'the greatest of the Vaishnavas' by Vaishnavas who worship only Vishnu).[5] One and the same[edit] Sivananda
Sivananda
states: " Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
are one and the same entity. They are essentially one and the same. They are the names given to the different aspects of the all-pervading Supreme Parabrahman the Supreme Being or the Absolute. ‘Sivasya hridayam vishnur-vishnoscha hridayam sivah— Vishnu
Vishnu
is the heart of Shiva
Shiva
and likewise Shiva
Shiva
is the heart of Vishnu’." Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
holds that Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
are different aspects of the same God.[6][7][8] Notably, the Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
view is a minority view among Vaishnavites, but the dominant view in contemporary Hinduism which follows the Smarta
Smarta
view in general.[9] Depiction in art[edit]

Statue of Harihara. This statue is the mortuary deified portrayal of King Kertarajasa, the first king of Majapahit (1293-1309) from the temple Candi Simping in East Java.

Harihara
Harihara
sculpture, British Museum. The left half represents Shiva (with the Trishula) and the right half represents Vishnu
Vishnu
(with the Chakra and Conch).

Harihara
Harihara
is depicted in art as split down the middle, one half representing Shiva, the other half representing Vishnu. The Shiva
Shiva
half will have the matted locks of a yogic master piled high on his head and sometimes will wear a tiger skin, reserved for the most revered ascetics. Shiva's pale skin may be read as ash-covered in his role as an ascetic. The Vishnu
Vishnu
half will wear a tall crown and other jewelry, representing his responsibility for maintaining world order. Vishnu's black skin represents holiness. Broadly, these distinctions serve to represent the duality of humble religious influence in the ascetic and authoritative secular power in the king or householder.[10] However, in other aspects Shiva
Shiva
also takes on the authoritative position of householder, a position which is directly at odds with the ascetic position depicted in his Harihara
Harihara
manifestation. Harihara
Harihara
has been part of temple iconography throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia, with some illustrations listed in the following table. In some states, the concept of Harihara
Harihara
appears through alternate names and its progeny; for example, temples incorporating Ayyappan
Ayyappan
and Shasta deities in Kerala
Kerala
illustrate this Hindu tradition there since at least the 7th century.[11]

Temples with Harihara
Harihara
murti (half Vishnu, half Shiva)

Temple name Location Harihara
Harihara
murti date Reference

Badami cave temples Karnataka 6th century [12]

Dharmaraja Ratha Tamil Nadu 7th century [13]

Birasini temple Madhya Pradesh

Harihareshwara Temple Karnataka 13th century [14]

Ossian temples Rajasthan two from 8th century, one 9th century [15][16]

Deopani temple Assam two from 9th, 10th century [17]

Saugal-tol temple Nepal statue: 6th century temple: 12th to 16th century [18]

Purandi temple Nepal 11th century [19]

Prasat Andet Cambodia late 7th to early 8th century [20][21]

Candi Simping Indonesia 13th or 14th century [22]

See also[edit]

Ardhanari Lingaraj Temple Trimurti

References[edit]

^ David Leeming (2001), A Dictionary of Asian Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195120530, page 67 ^ Alice Boner (1990), Principles of Composition in Hindu Sculpture: Cave Temple Period, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807051, pages 89-95, 115-124, 174-184 ^ TA Gopinatha Rao (1993), Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120808775, pages 334-335 ^ Ellen Goldberg (2002), The Lord who is half woman: Ardhanārīśvara in Indian and feminist perspective, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-791453251, pages 1-4 ^ "Lord Sambhu [Siva] the greatest of Vaishnavas and vice versa" from Bhag-Purana 12.13.16 Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1], verses 47, 84, of their scripture, Shikshapatri, [2] states, "And the oneness of Narayana
Narayana
and Shiva
Shiva
should be understood, as the Vedas
Vedas
have described both to be brahmaroopa, or form of Brahman, i.e., Saguna Brahman, indicating that Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
are different forms of the one and same God. ^ Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Satsang - Scriptures Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.swaminarayansatsang.com/library/scriptures/scriptureexplanation.asp?IDProduct=762&idcategory=2= ^ Heart of Hinduism: The Smarta
Smarta
Tradition ^ Thirty Thousand Years of Art. Phaidon Press Limited. p. 484 ^ Jones and Ryan (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0816054589, page 58 ^ TA Gopinatha Rao (1993), Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120808775, pages 334-335 ^ World Heritage Sites - Mahabalipuram Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India (2011), Quote: "The sculptures around the sanctum in the corner blocks depict simple forms of Siva, Harihara, Brahma-Sasta, Brahma, a delicately balanced representation of Ardhanarisvara." ^ Henry Cousens (1996), The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts, Archaeological Survey of India, page 93 ^ Harihara
Harihara
temple 1, Osian, Jodhpur, India, University of Chicago Archives ^ Cynthia Packert Atherton (1997), The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan, BRILL, ISBN 978-9004107892, pages 42-46 ^ CD Tripathi (2008), Kāmarūpa-Kaliṅga-Mithilā: a politico-cultural alignment in Eastern India : history, art, traditions, IIAS, ISBN 978-8173053276, pages 55-57 ^ Mary Slusser, Saugal-tol temple of Patan, INAS Journal, page 40-41 and 46-48 (images) ^ Mary Slusser (1996), The Purandi Hoard: Metalwork from Eleventh-Century Nepal, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 56, No. 1/2, pages 95-137, 139-143 ^ Fred Kleiner (2012), Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, Cengage, ISBN 978-0495915423, pages 443-444 ^ Standing Hari–Hara, Pre–Angkor period The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA ^ Edi Sedyawati et al (2013), Candi Indonesia: Seri Jawa, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan, ISBN 978-6021766934, pages 246-248

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harihara.

Nature of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu[edit]

Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
as One and the Same (dlshq.org)

Harihara
Harihara
images[edit]

Harihara
Harihara
- Photograph of Carving from Hoysaleshvara Temple, Halebid (art-and-archaeology.com)

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