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Haredi
Haredi
Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: חֲרֵדִי‬ Ḥaredi, IPA: [χaʁeˈdi]; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are often referred to as strictly Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents.[1] Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews,[2] although this claim is contested by other streams.[3][4] Haredi
Haredi
Judaism
Judaism
is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, enlightenment, the Haskalah
Haskalah
movement derived from enlightenment, acculturation, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc.[5] In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society.[6] However, there are many Haredi
Haredi
communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, and contact exists between Haredi
Haredi
and non- Haredi
Haredi
Jews.[7] Haredi
Haredi
communities are primarily found in Israel, North America, and Western Europe. Their estimated global population currently numbers 1.5–1.8 million, and, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly.[8][9][10][11] Their numbers have also been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews
Jews
adopting a Haredi
Haredi
lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement.[12][13][14][15]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 Post-Holocaust

3 Practices and beliefs

3.1 Lifestyle and family 3.2 Dress 3.3 Neighborhoods 3.4 Gender separation 3.5 Newspapers and publications 3.6 Technology 3.7 News hotlines

4 In Israel

4.1 Attitudes towards Zionism 4.2 Education 4.3 Military 4.4 Employment 4.5 Other issues

5 Population

5.1 Israel 5.2 United States

5.2.1 New York City

5.2.1.1 Brooklyn 5.2.1.2 Queens 5.2.1.3 Manhattan

5.2.2 Hudson Valley 5.2.3 Long Island (New York) 5.2.4 New Jersey 5.2.5 Maryland 5.2.6 California 5.2.7 Illinois 5.2.8 Colorado 5.2.9 Massachusetts 5.2.10 Ohio

5.3 United Kingdom 5.4 Elsewhere

6 Past rabbinical leaders 7 Present leadership and organizations

7.1 Rabbis 7.2 Groups 7.3 Israeli political parties

8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Terminology[edit]

Haredi
Haredi
men reading from the Torah

The term most commonly used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism.[1] Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi
Haredi
survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America.[16] Haredi
Haredi
is a Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared which appears in the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
(66:2; its plural haredim appears in Isaiah 66:5)[17] and is translated as "[one who] trembles" at the word of God. The word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God,[18] and is used to describe staunchly Orthodox Jews
Jews
(similar to the definition used by the Christian Quakers)[19][20] and to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.[17] The word Haredi
Haredi
is often used in the Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
in place of the term "ultra-Orthodox", which many view as inaccurate or offensive,[21][22][23] it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism; English-language alternatives that have been proposed include "fervently Orthodox",[24] "strictly Orthodox",[22] or "traditional Orthodoxy".[1] Others, however, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative.[16] Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term simply serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, and is not meant as pejorative.[1] Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world.[25][16] The community has sometimes been characterized as "Traditional Orthodox", in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
(not to be confused with the movement represented by Union for Traditional Judaism, which is even more "modern" than the Modern Orthodox).[26][27] Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
also use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish
Yiddish
words include Yidn (Jews) or erlekhe Yidn (virtuous Jews),[21] Ben Torah
Torah
(literally "son of the Torah"),[17] frum (pious), and heimish (home-like, i. e., "our crowd"). In Israel, Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
are sometimes also called by the derogatory slang words dos (plural dosim), that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious,[28] and more rarely, "blacks" (sh'chorim), a reference to the black clothes they typically wear;[29] a related informal term used in English is "Black Hat".[30] History[edit]

Hasidic
Hasidic
boys in Łódź, 1910

According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see its beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai.[31] However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi
Haredi
Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no later than the start of the 20th century.[31] For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews
Jews
were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture
Jewish culture
and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states. The influence of the Haskalah movement (Jewish Enlightenment) was also evidence. Supporters of the Haskalah
Haskalah
held that Judaism
Judaism
must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews
Jews
insisted on strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law and custom). In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a strictly Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools. His approach was to accept the tools of modern scholarship and apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (including areas traditionally considered Lithuanian), Jews
Jews
true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel.[32] Moses Sofer
Moses Sofer
was opposed to any philosophical, social or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin took an active role in arguing against the Reform movement. Others, such as Hillel Lichtenstein advocated an even more stringent position for orthodoxy. A major historic event was the meltdown after the Universal Israelite Congress of 1868–1869 in Pest. In an attempt to unify all streams of Judaism
Judaism
under one constitution, the Orthodox offered the Shulchan Aruch as the ruling Code of law and observance. This was dismissed by the reformists, leading many Orthodox rabbis to resign from the Congress and form their own social and political groups. Hungarian Jewry split into two major institutionally sectarian groups, Orthodox and Neolog. However, some communities refused to join either of the groups calling themselves Status Quo. Schick demonstrated support in 1877 for the separatist policies of Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
in Germany. Schick's own son was enrolled in the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary
Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary
that taught secular studies and was headed by Azriel Hildesheimer. Hirsch, however, did not reciprocate, and expressed astonishment at Schick's halakhic contortions in condemning even those Status Quo communities that clearly adhered to halakhah.[33] Lichtenstein opposed Hildesheimer and his son Hirsh Hildesheimer as they made use of the German language
German language
in sermons from the pulpit and seemed to sway to the direction of Modern Zionism.[34] Shimon Sofer
Shimon Sofer
was somewhat more lenient than Lichtenstein on the use of German in sermons, allowing so only if it was a medium for keeping cordial relations with the various governments. Likewise, he allowed extra-curricular studies of the gymnasium for students whose rabbinical positions would be recognized by the governments, stipulating the necessity to prove the strict adherence to the God-fearing standards per individual case.[35]

Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
from Galicia at the Karmelitermarkt (de) in Vienna's second district Leopoldstadt, 1915

In 1912, the World Agudath Israel was founded to differentiate itself from the Torah
Torah
Nationalists Mizrachi and secular Zionist organizations. It was dominated by the Hasidic
Hasidic
rebbes and Lithuanian rabbis and roshei yeshiva. Agudah nominated rabbis who were elected as representatives in the Polish government Sejm, such as Meir Shapiro and Yitzhak-Meir Levin. Not all Hasidic
Hasidic
factions joined the Agudath Israel, remaining independent such as Machzikei Hadat of Galicia.[36] In 1919, Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld
Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld
and Yitzchok Yerucham Diskin founded the Edah HaChareidis
Edah HaChareidis
as part of Agudath Israel
Israel
in then Mandate Palestine. In 1924, Agudath Israel
Israel
obtained 75 percent of the votes in the Kehilla elections.[37] The Orthodox community polled some 16,000 of a total 90,000 at the Knesseth Israel
Israel
in 1929.[38] But Sonnenfeld lobbied Sir John Chancellor, the High Commissioner, for separate representation in the Palestine Communities Ordinance from that of the Knesseth Israel. He explained that the Agudas Israel
Israel
community would cooperate with the Vaad Leumi
Vaad Leumi
and the National Jewish Council in matters pertaining to the municipality, but sought to protect its religious convictions independently. The community petitioned the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations
League of Nations
on this issue. The one community principle was victorious despite their opposition, but this is seen as the creation of the Haredi
Haredi
community in Israel
Israel
separate from the other modern Orthodox and Zionist movements.[39] In 1932, Sonnenfeld was succeeded by Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky, a disciple of the Shevet Sofer, one of the grandchildren of Moses Sofer. Dushinsky promised to build up a strong Jewish Orthodoxy at peace with the other Jewish communities and the non-Jews.[40] Post-Holocaust[edit] In general, the present-day Haredi
Haredi
population originate from two distinct post-Holocaust waves:

The vast majority of Hasidic
Hasidic
and Litvak communities were destroyed during the Holocaust.[41][42] Though Hasidic
Hasidic
customs have largely been preserved, the customs of Lithuanian Jewry, including its unique Hebrew pronunciation, have been almost lost. Litvish customs are still preserved primarily by the few older Jews
Jews
who were born in Lithuania prior to the Holocaust. In the decade or so after 1945, there was a strong drive to revive and maintain these lifestyles by some notable Haredi
Haredi
leaders. The Chazon Ish
Chazon Ish
was particularly prominent in the early days of the State of Israel. Rabbi
Rabbi
Aharon Kotler
Aharon Kotler
established many of the Haredi
Haredi
schools and Yeshivas in the United States
United States
and Israel; and Rabbi
Rabbi
Joel Teitelbaum
Joel Teitelbaum
had a significant impact on revitalizing Hasidic Jewry, as well as many of the Jews
Jews
who fled Hungary
Hungary
during 1956 revolution who became followers of his Satmar
Satmar
dynasty, and became the largest Hasidic
Hasidic
group in the world. These Haredim would typically only have maintained a connection with other religious family members. As such, those growing up in such families have little or no contact with non-Haredim.[43] The second wave began in the 1970s associated with the religious revival of the so-called baal teshuva movement, although most of the newly religious become Orthodox and not necessarily fully Haredi.[citation needed] The formation and spread of the Sephardic Haredi
Haredi
lifestyle movement also began in the 1980s by Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef alongside the establishment of the Shas
Shas
party in 1984. This led many Sephardi Jews
Jews
to adopt the clothing and culture of the Lithuanian Haredim, though it had no historical basis in their own tradition.[citation needed] Many yeshivas were also established specifically for new adopters of the Haredi
Haredi
way of life.[citation needed]

The original Haredi
Haredi
population has been instrumental in the expansion of their lifestyle, though criticisms have been made of discrimination towards the later adopters of the Haredi
Haredi
lifestyle in Shidduchim (matchmaking)[44] and the school system.[45] Practices and beliefs[edit] Haredi
Haredi
Judaism
Judaism
is not an institutionally cohesive or homogeneous group, but comprises a diversity of spiritual and cultural orientations, generally divided into a broad range of Hasidic
Hasidic
sects, Litvishe-Yeshivish streams from Eastern Europe, and Oriental Sephardic Haredim. These groups often differ significantly from one another in their specific ideologies and lifestyles, as well as the degree of stringency in religious practice, rigidity of religious philosophy, and isolation from the general culture that they maintain.[citation needed] The majority of the Haredim worldwide live in neighborhoods in which reside mostly other Haredim.[citation needed] Lifestyle and family[edit]

Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in Mea Shearim

Haredi
Haredi
life, like Orthodox Jewish life in general, is very family-centered. Boys and girls attend separate schools, and proceed to higher Torah
Torah
study, in a yeshiva or seminary, respectively, starting anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18. A significant proportion of young men remain in yeshiva until their marriage (which is usually arranged through facilitated dating). After marriage, many Haredi
Haredi
men continue their Torah
Torah
studies in a kollel. Studying in secular institutions is often discouraged, although educational facilities for vocational training in a Haredi
Haredi
framework do exist. In the United States
United States
and Europe, the majority of Haredi
Haredi
males are active in the workforce. For various reasons, in Israel, around half of their members do not work, and most of those who do are not officially a part of the workforce.[46][47][48] Haredi
Haredi
families (and Orthodox Jewish families in general) are usually much larger than non-Orthodox Jewish families, with four, six, eight, ten, or even twelve or more children.[7] Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
are typically opposed to the viewing of television and films,[49] and the reading of secular newspapers and books. There has been a strong campaign against the Internet, and internet-enabled mobile phones without filters have also been banned by leading rabbis.[50][51][52] In May 2012, 40,000 Haredim gathered at Citi Field, a baseball park in New York City, to discuss the dangers of unfiltered Internet.[51][53] The event was organized by the Ichud HaKehillos LeTohar HaMachane. The Internet
Internet
has been allowed for business purposes so long as filters are installed. Dress[edit]

Styles of Haredi
Haredi
dress

Typical Haredi
Haredi
dress for men and women

The standard mode of dress for males of the Lithuanian stream is a black suit and a white shirt.[citation needed] Headgear includes black fedora or Homburg hats, with black skull caps under their hats. Pre-war Lithuanian yeshiva students, however, also wore light coloured suits, along with beige or grey hats.[54] Beards are common among Haredi
Haredi
Jewish men, and most Hasidic
Hasidic
males will never be clean-shaven. Women adhere to the laws of modest dress, and wear long skirts and sleeves, high necklines, and, if married, some form of hair covering.[55] Haredi
Haredi
women never wear trousers, although a small minority do wear pajama-trousers within the home at night.[56] Over the years, it has become popular among some Haredi
Haredi
women to wear wigs that are more attractive than their own hair (drawing criticism from some more conservative Haredi
Haredi
rabbis).[citation needed] Mainstream Sephardi Haredi
Haredi
Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
forbade the wearing of wigs altogether.[57] Haredi
Haredi
women often dress more freely and casually within the home, as long as the body remains covered in accordance with the halakha. More "modernized" Haredi
Haredi
women are somewhat more lenient in matters of their dress, and some follow the latest trends and fashions while conforming to the halakha.[56] Non-Lithuanian Hasidic
Hasidic
men and women differ from the Lithuanian stream by having a much more specific dress code, the most obvious difference for men being the full-length suit jacket (rekel) on weekdays, and the fur hat (shtreimel) and silk caftan (bekishe) on the Sabbath. Liberal Jewish
Liberal Jewish
scholar Dalia Marx has suggested that Haredi
Haredi
indulgence in matters of modesty is in itself excessive, and thus, "not modest".[58] Neighborhoods[edit] Haredi
Haredi
neighborhoods tend to be safe.[59] In Israel, the entrances to some of the most extreme Haredi
Haredi
neighborhoods are fitted with signs asking that modest clothing be worn.[60] Some areas are known to have "modesty patrols",[61] and people dressed in ways perceived as immodest may suffer harassment, and advertisements featuring scantily dressed models may be targeted for vandalism.[62][63] These concerns are also addressed through public lobbying and legal avenues.[64][65] In Rio de Janeiro, during the week long Rio Carnival, many Orthodox Jews
Jews
feel compelled to leave the town due to the immodest exposure of participants.[66] In 2001, Haredi
Haredi
campaigners in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
succeeded in persuading the Egged bus company to get all their advertisements approved by a special committee.[67] By 2011, Egged had gradually removed all bus adverts which featured women in response to their continuous defacement. A court order which stated such action was discriminatory led to Egged's decision not to feature people at all (neither male nor female).[68] Depictions of certain other creatures, such as aliens, were also banned in order not to offend Haredi sensibilities.[69] Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
also campaign against other types of advertising which promote activities they deem offensive or inappropriate.[70] To honor the Shabbat, most state-run buses in Israel
Israel
do not run on Saturdays.[71] In a similar vein, Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
have demanded that the roads in their neighborhoods be closed on Saturdays, vehicular traffic being viewed as an "intolerable provocation" upon their religious lifestyle (see Driving on Shabbat
Shabbat
in Jewish law). In most cases, the authorities granted permission after Haredi petitioning and demonstrations, some of them including fierce clashes between Haredim and secular counter-demonstrators, and violence against police and motorists.[72] Gender separation[edit]

Gender-separate beach in Israel. To accommodate Haredi
Haredi
and other Orthodox Jews, many coastal resorts in Israel
Israel
have a designated area for gender-separate bathing.[73][74]

While Jewish modesty law requires gender separation under various circumstances, observers have contended that there is a growing trend among some groups of Hasidic
Hasidic
Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
to extend its observance to the public arena.[75] In the Hasidic
Hasidic
village of Kiryas Joel, New York, an entrance sign asks visitors to "maintain gender separation in all public areas", and the bus stops have separate waiting areas for men and women.[76] In New Square, another Hasidic
Hasidic
enclave, men and women are expected to walk on opposite sides of the road.[75] In Israel, residents of Meah Shearim were banned from erecting a street barrier dividing men and women during the nightly week-long Sukkot
Sukkot
festivities,[77][78] and street signs requesting that women avoid certain pavements in Beit Shemesh have been repeatedly removed by the municipality.[79] Since 1973, buses catering for Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
running from New York into Manhattan have had separate areas for men and women, allowing passengers to conduct on-board prayer services.[80] Although the lines are privately operated, they serve the general public, and in 2011, the set-up was challenged on grounds of discrimination, and the arrangement was deemed illegal.[81][82] During 2010–2012, there was much public debate in Israel
Israel
surrounding the existence of segregated Haredi
Haredi
Mehadrin bus lines
Mehadrin bus lines
(whose policy calls for both men and women to stay in their respective areas: men in the front of the bus[83] and women in the rear of the bus) following an altercation which occurred after a woman refused to move to the rear of the bus to sit among the women. A subsequent court ruling stated that while voluntary segregation should be allowed, forced separation is unlawful.[84] Israeli national airline El Al
El Al
has agreed to provide gender-separated flights to cater for Haredi
Haredi
requirements.[85]

The Bais Yaakov
Bais Yaakov
graduating class of 1934 in Łódź, Poland

Education in the Haredi
Haredi
community is strictly segregated by sex. The education for boys is primarily focused on the study of Jewish scriptures, such as the Torah
Torah
and Talmud, while girls obtain studies both in Jewish education as well as broader secular subjects.[86] In 2012, A Better Safe Than Sorry Book, aimed at Haredi
Haredi
Jewish children, was published with some controversy as it contains both sexes.[87] Newspapers and publications[edit]

Tziporah Heller, a weekly columnist for Hamodia

In pre-war Poland, the Agudath Israel
Israel
published its own Yiddish language paper, Dos Yiddishe Tagblatt. In 1950, the Agudah started printing Hamodia, a Hebrew language
Hebrew language
Israeli daily. Haredi
Haredi
publications tend to shield their readership from objectionable material,[88] and perceive themselves as a "counterculture", desisting from advertising secular entertainment and events.[89] The editorial policy of a Haredi
Haredi
newspaper is determined by a rabbinical board, and every edition is checked by a rabbinical censor.[90] A strict policy of modesty is characteristic of the Haredi
Haredi
press, and pictures of women and girls are usually not printed.[91] In 2009, the Israeli daily Yated Ne'eman doctored an Israeli cabinet photograph replacing two female ministers with images of men,[92] and in 2013, the Bakehilah magazine pixelated the faces of women appearing in a photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto.[93] The mainstream Haredi
Haredi
political party Shas
Shas
also refrains from publishing female images.[94] No coverage is given to serious crime, violence, sex, or drugs, and little coverage is given to non-Orthodox streams of Judaism.[95] Inclusion of "immoral" content is avoided, and when publication of such stories is a necessity, they are often written ambiguously.[91] The Haredi
Haredi
press generally takes a non-Zionist stance, and gives more coverage to issues which concern the Haredi
Haredi
community, such as the drafting of girls and yeshiva students into the army, autopsies, and Shabbat
Shabbat
observance.[89] In Israel, it portrays the secular world as "spitefully anti-Semitic", and describes secular youth as "mindless, immoral, drugged, and unspeakably lewd".[96][97] Such attacks have led to Haredi
Haredi
editors being warned about libelous provocations.[98] While the Haredi
Haredi
press is extensive and varied in Israel,[89] only around half the Haredi
Haredi
population reads newspapers. Around 10% read secular newspapers, while 40% do not read any newspaper at all.[99] According to a 2007 survey, 27% read the weekend Friday edition of HaModia, and 26% the Yated Ne'eman.[100] In 2006, the most-read Haredi magazine in Israel
Israel
was the Mishpacha
Mishpacha
weekly, which sold 110,000 copies.[100] Technology[edit] In the modern era of the internet and cell phones, it can be confusing on what would be considered kosher, and what wouldn't. The Haredi leaders have at times suggested a ban on the internet, as well as any internet-capable device.[101][102] Their reasoning being that the immense amount of information can be corrupting, and with the ability to use the internet with no observation from the community can lead to individuation.[103] However, these presented reasons by the Haredi leaders could be influenced by a general fear of the loss of young Haredi
Haredi
members. Banning the internet for Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
could be a detriment to possible economic uses from Jewish businesses. Some Haredi
Haredi
businessman utilize the internet throughout the week, but they still observe Shabbat
Shabbat
in every aspect by not accepting or processing orders from Friday evening to Saturday evening.[104] They utilize the internet under strict filters and guidelines. Although Haredi
Haredi
leaders have been unsuccessful in their attempts of banning internet use, they have influenced the world of technology. The Kosher cell phone was introduced to the Jewish public with the sole ability to call other phones. It was unable to utilize the internet, text other phones, and had no camera feature. In fact, a kosher phone plan was created, with decreased rates for kosher-to-kosher calls, to encourage community.[105][106] News hotlines[edit] Main article: Chareidi news hotlines News hotlines are an important source of news in the Haredi
Haredi
world. Since many Haredim do not listen to the radio or have access to the internet, even if they read newspapers, they are left with little or no access to breaking news. News hotlines were formed to fill this gap, and many have expanded to additional fields over time.[107][1] Currently, many news lines provide rabbinic lectures, entertainment, business advice, and similar services, in addition to their primary function of reporting the news. Many Hasidic
Hasidic
sects maintain their own hotlines, where relevant internal news is reported and the group's perspective can be advocated for. In the Israeli Haredi
Haredi
community, there are dozens of prominent hotlines, in both Yiddish
Yiddish
and Hebrew. Some Haredi
Haredi
hotlines have played significant public roles.[108] In Israel[edit] Attitudes towards Zionism[edit] See also: Haredim and Zionism While most Haredim were opposed to the establishment of the State of Israel, and Haredim mostly still do not celebrate its national Independence Day or other state-instituted holidays, there were many who threw their considerable weight in support of the nascent state.[109][110] The chief political division among Haredim has been in their approach to the State of Israel. While ideologically non-Zionist, the United Torah
Torah
Judaism
Judaism
alliance comprising Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
and Degel HaTorah (and the umbrella organizations World Agudath Israel and Agudath Israel
Israel
of America) represent a moderate and pragmatic stance of cooperation with the State of Israel, and participation in the political system. UTJ has been a participant in numerous coalition governments, seeking to influence state and society in a more religious direction and maintain welfare and religious funding policies. Haredim who are more stridently anti-Zionist are under the umbrella of Edah HaChareidis, who reject participation in politics and state funding of its affiliated institutions, in contradistinction to Agudah-affiliated institutions. Neturei Karta
Neturei Karta
is a very small activist organization of anti-Zionist Haredim, whose controversial activities have been strongly condemned, including by other anti-Zionist Haredim. Neither main political party has the support in numbers to elect a majority government, and so they both rely on support from the Haredi parties. In recent years, some rebbes affiliated with Agudath Israel, such as the Sadigura rebbe Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, have taken more hard-line stances on security, settlements, and disengagement.[111] Shas
Shas
represents Sephardi and Mizrahi Haredim, and, while having many points in common with Ashkenazi Haredim, differs from them by its more enthusiastic support for the State of Israel. Education[edit] The Council for Higher Education announced in 2012 that it was investing NIS 180 million over the following five years to establish appropriate frameworks for the education of Haredim, focusing on specific professions.[112] Military[edit]

Haredi
Haredi
demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils

Upon the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
in 1948, the nation's population of military-aged Haredi
Haredi
males were exempted from the universal conscription into the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) under the Torato Umanuto
Torato Umanuto
arrangement, which officially granted deferred entry into the IDF for yeshiva students, but in practice allowed young Haredi
Haredi
men to serve for a significantly reduced period of time or bypass military service altogether. At that time, only a small group of roughly 400 individuals was affected, since due to the historic opposition of Haredi
Haredi
Judaism
Judaism
to Zionism, the population of Haredim was very low.[113] However, the Haredim are estimated to now make up 10% of Israel's population, and their absence from the IDF often attracts significant resentment from Israel's secular majority. The most common criticisms of the exemption policy are:

The Haredim can work in those 2–3 years of their lives in which they do not serve in the IDF, while most soldiers at the IDF are usually paid anywhere between $80–250 a month, in addition to clothing and lodging.[114] All the while, Haredi
Haredi
yeshiva students receive significant monthly funds and payments for their religious studies.[115] The Haredim, if they so choose, can study at that time.[116][117]

While a certain amount of Haredim have enlisted in the IDF every year in recent decades, the Haredim usually reject the concept and practice of IDF service. Contentions include:

A Yeshiva
Yeshiva
student is equal to or more important than a soldier in the IDF, because he keeps Jewish tradition alive and prays for the people of Israel
Israel
to be safe.[118][119][120] The army is not conducive to the Haredi
Haredi
lifestyle. It is regarded as a "state-sponsored quagmire of promiscuity".[121] Israel
Israel
conscripts both men and women, and often groups them together in military activities.

The Torato Umanuto
Torato Umanuto
arrangement was enshrined in the Tal Law that came in force in 2002. The High Court of Justice later ruled that it could not be extended in its current form beyond August 2012. A replacement was expected. The Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) was, however, experiencing a shortage of personnel, and there were pressures to reduce the scope of the Torato Omanuto exemption.[122] The Shahar program, also known as Shiluv Haredim ("Ultra-Orthodox integration") allows Haredi
Haredi
men aged 22 to 26 to serve in the army for about a year and a half. At the beginning of their service, they study mathematics and English, which are not well covered in Haredi
Haredi
schools. The program is partly aimed at encouraging Haredi
Haredi
participation in the workforce after military service. However, not all beneficiaries seem to be Haredim.[123] Over the years, as many as 1000 Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
have chosen to volunteer to serve in the IDF, in a Haredi
Haredi
Jewish unit, the Netzah Yehuda Battalion, also known as Nahal Haredi. The vast majority of Haredi men, however, continue to receive deferments from military service.[124] In March 2014, Israel's parliament approved legislation to end exemptions from military service for Haredi
Haredi
seminary students. The bill was passed by 65 votes to one, and an amendment allowing civilian national service by 67 to one.[125] There has been much uproar in Haredi
Haredi
society following actions towards Haredi
Haredi
conscription. While some Haredim see this as a great social and economic opportunity,[126] others (including leading rabbis among them) strongly oppose this move.[127] Among the extreme Haredim, there have been some more severe reactions. Several Haredi
Haredi
leaders have threatened that Haredi
Haredi
populations would leave the country if forced to enlist.[128][129] Others have fueled public incitement against Seculars and National-Religious Jews, and specifically against politicians Yair Lapid
Yair Lapid
and Naftali Bennett, who support and promote Haredi
Haredi
enlistment.[130][131] Some Haredim have taken to threatening fellow Haredim who agree to enlist,[132][133] to the point of physically attacking some of them.[134][135] Employment[edit] As of 2012[update], it was estimated that 37% of Haredi
Haredi
men and 49% of Haredi
Haredi
women were employed. The more recent figures from the Central Bureau of Statistics on employment rates place Haredi
Haredi
women at 69.3%, comparable to 71% for the women's national figure; while the number of working Haredi
Haredi
men has increased to 44.5%, it is still fall far below the 81.5% of men nationwide.[136] The Trajtenberg Committee, charged in 2011 with drafting proposals for economic and social change, called, among other things, for increasing employment among the Haredi
Haredi
population. Its proposals included encouraging military or national service and offering college prep courses for volunteers, creating more employment centers targeting Haredim and experimental matriculation prep courses after Yeshiva hours. The committee also called for increasing the number of Haredi students receiving technical training through the Industry, Trade and Labor Ministry and forcing Haredi
Haredi
schools to carry out standardized testing, as is done at other public schools.[137] It is estimated that half as many of the Haredi
Haredi
community are in employment as the rest of population. This has led to increasing financial deprivation, and 50% of children within the community live below the poverty line. This puts strain on each family, the community, and often the Israeli economy. The demographic trend indicates the community will constitute an increasing percentage of the population, and consequently, Israel faces an economic challenge in the years ahead due to fewer people in the labor force. A report commissioned by the Treasury found that the Israeli economy may lose more than six billion shekels annually as a result of low Haredi
Haredi
participation in the workforce.[138] The OECD
OECD
in a 2010 report stated that, " Haredi
Haredi
families are frequently jobless or are one-earner families in low-paid employment. Poverty rates are around 60% for Haredim."[139] In 2007, the Kemach Foundation was established to become an investor in the sector’s social and economic development and provide opportunities for employment. Through the philanthropy of Leo Noé
Leo Noé
of London, later joined by the Wolfson family of New York and Elie Horn from Brazil, Kemach has facilitated academic and vocational training. With a $22m budget, including government funding, Kemach provides individualized career assessment, academic or vocational scholarships and job placement for the entire Haredi
Haredi
population in Israel. The Foundation is managed by specialists who, coming from the Haredi sector themselves, are familiar with the community’s needs and sensitivities. By April 2014, more than 17,800 Haredim have received the services of Kemach, and more than 7,500 have, or continue to receive, monthly scholarships to fund their academic or vocational studies. From 500 graduates, the net benefits to the government would be 80.8 million NIS if they work for one year, 572.3 million NIS if they work for 5 years, and 2.8 billion NIS (discounted) if they work for 30 years.[140] According to data released by Central Bureau of Statistics, employment rate in the Haredi
Haredi
sector increased by 7% in two years, 2009-2011.[141] As of 2017, according to an Israeli finance ministry study, the Haredi participation rate in the labour force is 51%, compared to 89% for the rest of Israeli Jews.[142] Other issues[edit]

Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.

The Haredim are relatively materially poor, compared to other Israelis, but represent an important market sector due to their bloc purchasing habits.[143] For this reason, some companies and organizations in Israel
Israel
refrain from including women or other images deemed immodest in their advertisements to avoid Haredi
Haredi
consumer boycotts.[144][145] More than 50 percent of Haredim live below the poverty line, compared with 15 percent of the rest of the population.[146] Their families are also larger, with Haredi
Haredi
women having an average of 6.7 children, while the average Jewish Israeli woman has 3 children.[147] Families with many children receive economic support through governmental child allowances, government assistance in housing, as well as specific funds by their own community institutions.[148] In recent years, there has been a process of reconciliation and an attempt to merge Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
with Israeli society,[149] although employment discrimination is widespread.[150] Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
such as satirist Kobi Arieli, publicist Sehara Blau, and politician Israel Eichler write regularly to leading Israeli newspapers. Another important factor in the reconciliation process has been the activities of ZAKA, a Haredi
Haredi
organization known for providing emergency medical attention at the scene of suicide bombings, and Yad Sarah, the largest national volunteer organization in Israel established in 1977 by former Haredi
Haredi
mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski. It is estimated that Yad Sarah
Yad Sarah
saves the country's economy an estimated $320 million in hospital fees and long-term care costs each year.[151][152] Population[edit] Due to its imprecise definition, lack of data collection, and rapid change over time, estimates of the global Haredi
Haredi
population are difficult to measure, and may significantly underestimate the true number of Haredim, due to their reluctance to participate in surveys and censuses.[74][153] One estimate given in 2011 stated there were approximately 1.3 million Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
globally.[154] Studies have shown a very high growth rate, with a large young population.[155]

Large Haredi communities

Israeli communities In Jerusalem: Mea Shearim Beit Yisrael
Beit Yisrael
(Beis Yisroel) · Geula Har Nof · Ramot Ramat Shlomo · Sanhedria Neve Yaakov · Maalot Dafna Ramat Eshkol · Ezrat Torah
Torah
(Ezras Torah) Mattersdorf · Bayit Vegan Elsewhere: Bnei Brak · Modi'in Illit Beitar · Beit Shemesh Kiryat Ye'arim · Ashdod Rekhasim · Safed · El'ad North America: Flatbush · Williamsburg Borough Park Crown Heights · Canarsie East New York · Monsey Kiryas Joel · Lakewood · Passaic Los Angeles · Chicago Cleveland · Detroit
Detroit
 · Baltimore Miami
Miami
 • Toronto
Toronto
 • Montreal United Kingdom: Stamford Hill · Hendon Golders Green · Edgware Broughton Park · Prestwich Gateshead

Israel[edit] Israel
Israel
is home to the largest Haredi
Haredi
population. While Haredim made up just 9.9% of the Israeli population in 2009, with 750,000 out of 7,552,100, by 2014, that figure had risen to 11.1%, with 910,500 Haredim out of a total Israeli population of 8,183,400. According to a December 2017 study conducted Israeli Democracy Institute, the number of Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
exceeded 1 million in 2017, making up 12% of the population in Israel. By 2030, the Haredi
Haredi
Jewish community is projected to make up 16% of the total population, and by 2065 one third of the Israeli population.[156] The number of Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
is rising rapidly. The number of children per woman is 6.2, and the share of Haredim among those under the age of 20 was 16.3% in 2009 (29% of Jews).[157] In 1992, out of a total of 1,500,000 Orthodox Jews
Jews
worldwide, about 550,000 were Haredi (half of them in Israel).[158] The vast majority of Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
are Ashkenazi. However, some 20% of the Haredi
Haredi
population are thought to belong to the Sephardic Haredi
Sephardic Haredi
stream. In recent decades, Haredi society has grown due to the addition of a religious population that identifies with the Shas
Shas
movement. The extent of people leaving the Haredi
Haredi
population is extremely low. The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics forecasts that the Haredi
Haredi
population of Israel
Israel
will number 1.1 million in 2019. It is also projected that the number of Haredim in 2059 may be between 2.73 and 5.84 million, of an estimated total number of Israeli Jews
Jews
between 6.09 and 9.95 million.[157][159] Large Israeli Haredi
Haredi
concentrations include Jerusalem, Bnei Brak, Modi'in Illit, Beitar Illit, Beit Shemesh, Kiryat Ye'arim, Ashdod, and El'ad. Two Haredi
Haredi
cities, Kasif and Harish, are planned. United States[edit] The United States
United States
is home to the second largest Haredi
Haredi
population, which has a growth rate on pace to double every 20 years. In 2000, there were 360,000 Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in the US (7.2 per cent of the approximately 5 million Jews
Jews
in the U.S.); by 2006, demographers estimate the number had grown to 468,000 or 9.4 per cent.[9] New York City[edit] Most American Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
live in the greater New York metropolitan area.[160][161] Brooklyn[edit]

Hasidic
Hasidic
family on the street in Borough Park, Brooklyn

The largest centers of Haredi
Haredi
and Hasidic
Hasidic
life anywhere in New York are found in Brooklyn.[162][163]

In 1988, it was estimated that there are between 40,000 and 57,000 Haredim in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, Hasidim most belonging to Satmar.[164] The Jewish population in the Borough Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, estimated at 70,000 in 1983, is also mostly Haredi, and also mostly Hasidic.[158] The Bobov
Bobov
Hasidim are the largest single bloc that mainly live in Borough Park.[165] Crown Heights is the home base of the worldwide Chabad-Lubavitch movement with its network of shluchim ("emissaries") heading Chabad houses throughout the Jewish world.[166][167] The Flatbush-Midwood,[168] Kensington,[169] Marine Park (Brooklyn)[170] neighborhoods have tens of thousands of Haredi
Haredi
Jews living in them. They are also the centers for the major non-Hasidic Haredi
Haredi
yeshivas such as Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Torah
Torah
Vodaas, Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim Berlin, Mir Yeshiva, as well as a string of similar smaller yeshivas. The Torah
Torah
Vodaas and Chaim Berlin yeshivas[171] allow some students to attend college and university, presently at Touro College, and previously at Brooklyn
Brooklyn
College.[171]

Queens[edit] The New York City
New York City
borough of Queens
Queens
is home to a growing Haredi population mainly affiliated with the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Chofetz Chaim and Yeshivas Ohr HaChaim in Kew Gardens Hills and Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Shaar Hatorah in Kew Gardens. Many of the students attend Queens
Queens
College.[171] There are major yeshivas and communities of Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
in Far Rockaway[169] such as Yeshiva
Yeshiva
of Far Rockaway and a number of others. Manhattan[edit] One of the oldest Haredi
Haredi
communities in New York is on the Lower East Side[172] home to the Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem. The Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
and Khal Adath Jeshurun
Khal Adath Jeshurun
are home to Haredi
Haredi
Jews in Washington Heights.[173] Hudson Valley[edit] The Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
north of New York City
New York City
has the most rapidly growing Haredi
Haredi
communities, such as the Hasidic
Hasidic
communities in Kiryas Joel[174][175][176] of Satmar
Satmar
Hasidim, and New Square
New Square
of the Skver.[177] A vast community of Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
lives in the Monsey, New York, area.[178] Long Island (New York)[edit] The Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Sh'or Yoshuv, together with many synagogues in the Lawrence neighborhood, have attracted many Haredi
Haredi
Jews.[179] New Jersey[edit] There are significant Haredi
Haredi
communities in Lakewood (New Jersey), home to the largest non- Hasidic
Hasidic
Lithuanian yeshiva in America, Beth Medrash Govoha.[180] There are also sizable communities in Passaic[181] and Edison, where a branch of the Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Joseph Yeshiva
Yeshiva
opened in 1982. There is also a community of Syrian Jews favorable to the Haredim in their midst in Deal, New Jersey.[182] Maryland[edit] Baltimore, Maryland, is home to a large Haredi
Haredi
population. The major yeshiva is Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, founded in 1933, with thousands of alumni and their families. Ner Yisroel is also a Maryland state-accredited college, and has agreements with Johns Hopkins University, Towson University, Loyola College in Maryland, University of Baltimore, and University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
County allowing undergraduate students to take night courses at these colleges and universities in a variety of academic fields.[171] The agreement also allows the students to receive academic credits for their religious studies. Silver Spring, Maryland, and its environs is home to a growing Haredi community mostly of highly educated and skilled professionals working for the United States
United States
government in various capacities, most residing in Kemp Mill, White Oak, and Woodside,[183] and many of its children attend the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
of Greater Washington and Yeshivas Ner Yisroel
Yeshivas Ner Yisroel
in Baltimore. California[edit] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is home to many Hasidim and Haredi
Haredi
Jews
Jews
who are not Hasidic. Most live in the Pico-Robertson and the Fairfax (Fairfax Avenue-La Brea Avenue) areas.[184][185] Illinois[edit] Chicago
Chicago
is home to the Haredi
Haredi
Telshe Yeshiva
Yeshiva
of Chicago, with many other Haredim living in the city.[186] Colorado[edit] Denver
Denver
is home to a large Haredi
Haredi
population of Ashkenazi origin, dating back to the early 1920s. The Haredi
Haredi
Denver
Denver
West Side Jewish Community adheres to Litvak Jewish traditions (Lithuanian) and have several congregations located within their communities.[187] Massachusetts[edit] Boston
Boston
and Brookline, Massachusetts
Brookline, Massachusetts
have the largest Haredi populations in New England. Ohio[edit]

Students of Telshe yeshiva, 1936

One of the oldest Haredi
Haredi
Lithuanian yeshivas, Telshe Yeshiva transplanted itself to Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1941.[188][189] United Kingdom[edit] In 1998, the Haredi
Haredi
population in the Jewish community of the United Kingdom was estimated at 27,000 (13% of affiliated Jews).[158] The largest communities are located in London, particularly the Haredi community of Stamford Hill, and in the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
areas of Salford, and Prestwich, as well as in the Jewish community of Gateshead. A 2007 study asserted that three out of four British Jewish births were Haredi, who then accounted for 17% of British Jews, (45,500 out of around 275,000).[9] Another study in 2010 established that there were 9,049 Haredi
Haredi
households in the UK, which would account for a population of nearly 53,400, or 20% of the community.[190][191] The Board of Deputies
Board of Deputies
of British Jews
Jews
has predicted that the Haredi community will become the largest group in Anglo-Jewry within the next three decades: In comparison with the national average of 2.4 children per family, Haredi
Haredi
families have an average of 5.9 children, and consequently, the population distribution is heavily biased to the under-20-year-olds. By 2006, membership of Haredi
Haredi
synagogues had doubled since 1990.[192][193] An investigation by The Independent
The Independent
in 2014 reported that more than 1,000 children in Haredi
Haredi
communities were attending illegal schools where secular knowledge is banned, and they learn only religious texts, meaning they leave school with no qualifications and often unable to speak any English.[194] Elsewhere[edit] About 25,000 Haredim live in the Jewish community of France, mostly Sephardi Jews
Jews
of North African descent.[158] Important communities are located in Paris, Strasbourg, and Lyon. Other important communities, mostly of Ashkenazi Jews, are the Antwerp community in Belgium, as well as in the Swiss communities of Zürich
Zürich
and Basel, and in the Dutch community in Amsterdam. There is also a Haredi
Haredi
community in Vienna, in the community of Austria. Other countries with significant Haredi
Haredi
populations include: Canada, with large Haredi
Haredi
centres in Montreal
Montreal
and Toronto; South Africa, primarily in Johannesburg; and Australia, centred in Melbourne. Hasidic
Hasidic
communities also exist in Argentina, especially in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil, primarily in São Paulo.

Country Year Population Annual growth rate

Israel 2006 444,000–795,000[74] 6%[195]

United States 2006 468,000[9] 5.4%[9]

United Kingdom 2007/2008 22,800–36,400[196] / 45,500[9] 4%[196]

Past rabbinical leaders[edit]

The Baal Shem Tov (18th century founder of Hasidism) The Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
(of Lithuania) Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim of Volozhin (19th century founder of the Lithuanian yeshivoth) Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses Sofer
Moses Sofer
(18th–19th century leader of Eastern European ultra-Orthodox) Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir HaCohen Kagan, the Chafetz Chaim Rabbi
Rabbi
Avrohom Mordechai Alter, Third Gerrer Rebbe, driving force behind Agudas Yisroel in Poland Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Feinstein, one of the foremost halakhic authorities for much of the twentieth century Rabbi
Rabbi
Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz
Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz
(leader of Haredim in Israel) Rabbi
Rabbi
Elazar Shach
Elazar Shach
(leader of the Lithuanian community of Haredim in Israel) Rabbi
Rabbi
Aharon Kotler
Aharon Kotler
(founder of the Lakewood yeshivas in America) Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
(leader of Israeli Sephardi Haredim) Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Shalom Elyashiv (leader of Israel's non- Hasidic
Hasidic
Ashkenazi Haredim until 2012) Aharon Yehuda Leib Shteinman
Aharon Yehuda Leib Shteinman
(non- Hasidic
Hasidic
Lithuanian Jews)

Present leadership and organizations[edit] Rabbis[edit]

David Lau
David Lau
(Israeli Ashkenazi Jews) Yitzhak Yosef
Yitzhak Yosef
(Israeli Sephardi Jews)

Chaim Kanievsky
Chaim Kanievsky
(non- Hasidic
Hasidic
Lithuanian Jews) Yaakov Aryeh Alter
Yaakov Aryeh Alter
(heads the Ger Hasidic
Hasidic
dynasty, the largest Hasidic group in Israel)

Groups[edit]

World Agudath Israel (including Agudath Israel
Israel
of America) Major Hasidic
Hasidic
groups (including Belz, Bobov, Boyan, Breslov, Chabad Lubavitch,[167] Ger, Satmar, and Vizhnitz) Edah HaChareidis
Edah HaChareidis
(representing anti-Zionist Haredi
Haredi
groups in and around Jerusalem, including Satmar, Dushinsky, Toldos Aharon, Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok, Mishkenos HoRoim, Spinka, Brisk, and a section of other Litvish Haredim) Toldos Yeshurun (organization for Russian Jews)

Israeli political parties[edit]

Shas
Shas
(representing Mizrahi and Sephardic Haredim) United Torah
Torah
Judaism
Judaism
(alliance representing Ashkenazi Haredim)

Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
(representing Hasidic
Hasidic
Jews) Degel Ha Torah
Torah
(representing Lithuanian Jews)

See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Relationships between Jewish religious movements Hasidim and Mitnagdim

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Markoe, Lauren (February 6, 2014). "Should ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
be able to decide what they're called?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":0" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ Tatyana Dumova; Richard Fiordo (30 September 2011). Blogging in the Global Society: Cultural, Political and Geographical Aspects. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 126. ISBN 978-1-60960-744-9. Haredim regard themselves as the most authentic custodians of Jewish religious law and tradition which, in their opinion, is binding and unchangeable. They consider all other expressions of Judaism, including Modern Orthodoxy, as deviations from God's laws.  ^ Nora L. Rubel (2010). Doubting the Devout: The Ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish American Imagination. Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-231-14187-1. Retrieved 24 July 2013. Mainstream Jews have—until recently—maintained the impression that the ultraorthodox are the 'real' Jews.  ^ Ilan 2012: "One of the main sources of power enabling Haredi
Haredi
Jews' extreme behavior is the Israeli public's widely held view that their way of life represents traditional Judaism, and that when it comes to Judaism, more radical means more authentic. This is among the most strongly held and unfounded myths in Israel
Israel
society." ^ For example: Arnold Eisen, Rethinking Modern Judaism, University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 1998. p. 3. ^ Batnitzky 2011, pp. 184–185 ^ a b Wertheimer, Jack. "What You Don’t Know About the Ultra-Orthodox." Commentary Magazine. 1 July 2015. 4 September 2015. ^ Norman S. Cohen (1 January 2012). The Americanization of the Jews. NYU Press. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-8147-3957-0. Given the high fertility and statistical insignificance of intermarriage among ultra-Orthodox haredim in contrast to most of the rest of the Jews...  ^ a b c d e f Wise 2007 ^ Buck, Tobias (2011-11-06). "Israel's secular activists start to fight back". Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Berman, Eli (2000). "Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist's View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 115 (3): 905–953. doi:10.1162/003355300554944.  ^ Šelomo A. Dešen; Charles Seymour Liebman; Moshe Shokeid (1 January 1995). Israeli Judaism: The Sociology of Religion in Israel. Transaction Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4128-2674-7. The number of baalei teshuvah, "penitents" from secular backgrounds who become Ultraorthodox Jews, amounts to a few thousand, mainly between the years 1975-87, and is modest compared with the natural growth of the haredim; but the phenomenon has generated great interest in Israel.  ^ Harris 1992, p. 490: "This movement began in the US, but is now centred in Israel, where, since 1967, many thousands of Jews
Jews
have consciously adopted an ultra-Orthodox lifestyle." ^ Weintraub 2002, p. 211: "Many of the Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
living in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
are baaley tshuva, Jews
Jews
who have gone through a repentance experience and have become Orthodox though they may have been raised in entirely secular Jewish homes." ^ Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of Orthodox Judaism, By M. Herbert Danzger: "A survey of Jews
Jews
in the New York metropolitan area found that 24% of those who were highly observant ... had been reared by parents who did not share such scruples. [...] The ba'al t'shuva represents a new phenomenon for Judaism; for the first time there are not only Jews
Jews
who leave the fold ... but also a substantial number who "return." pg 2; and "Defined in terms of observance, then, the number of newly Orthodox is about 100,000." pg. 193. ^ a b c Halkin, Hillel (2013-02-17). "Just How Orthodox Are They?". The Forward. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ a b c Stadler 2009, p. 4 ^ Ben-Yehuda 2010, p. 17 ^ White, John Kenneth (1998). Political Parties and the Collapse of the Old Orders. State University of New York Press. p. 157. ^ Keysar, Ariela (2009). Secularism, Women & the State: The Mediterranean World in the 21st Century. Institute for the Study of Secularism
Secularism
in Society and Culture. p. 86. ^ a b Ayalon, Ami (1999). "Language as a barrier to political reform in the Middle East", International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Volume 137, pp. 67–80: "Haredi" has none of the misleading religious implications of "ultra-Orthodox": in the words of Shilhav (1989: 53), "They are not necessarily [objectively] more religious, but religious in a different way."; and "'Haredi'… is preferable, being a term commonly used by such Jews
Jews
themselves… Moreover, it carries none of the venom often injected into the term 'ultra-Orthodox' by other Jews
Jews
and, sadly, by the Western media…." ^ a b Sources describing the term as pejorative or derogatory include:

Kobre, Eytan. One People, Two Worlds. A Reform Rabbi
Rabbi
and an Orthodox Rabbi
Rabbi
Explore the Issues That Divide Them, reviewed by Eytan Kobre, Jewish Media Resources, February 2003. Retrieved August 25, 2009. "'Indeed, the social scientist Marvin Schick calls attention to the fact that "through the simple device of identifying [some Jews] … as "ultra-Orthodox", … [a] pejorative term has become the standard reference term for describing a great many Orthodox Jews…. No other ethnic or religious group in this country is identified in language that conveys so negative a message.'" Goldschmidt, Henry. Race and religion among the chosen peoples of Crown Heights, Rutgers University Press, 2006, p. 244, note 26. "I am reluctant to use the term 'ultra-orthodox,' as the prefix 'ultra' carries pejorative connotations of irrational extremism." Longman, Chia. "Engendering Identities as Political Processes: Discources of Gender Among Strictly Orthodox Jewish Women", in Rik Pinxten, Ghislain Verstraete, Chia Longmanp (eds.) Culture and politics: identity and conflict in a multicultural world, Berghahn Books, 2004, p. 55. "Webber (1994: 27) uses the label 'strictly Orthodox' when referring to haredi, seemingly more adequate as a purely descriptive name, yet carrying less pejorative connotations than ultra-Orthodox." Shafran, Avi. Don't Call Us 'Ultra-Orthodox', The Jewish Daily Forward, February 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. "Considering that other Orthodox groups have self-identified with prefixes like “modern” or “open,” why can’t we Haredim just be, simply, “Orthodox”? Our beliefs and practices, after all, are those that most resemble those of our grandparents. But, whatever alternative is adopted, “ultra” deserves to be jettisoned from media and discourse. We Haredim aren’t looking for special treatment, or to be called by some name we just happen to prefer. We’re only seeking the mothballing of a pejorative."

^ Stolow, Jeremy (2010-01-01). Orthodox by Design: Judaism, Print Politics, and the ArtScroll Revolution. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520264250.  ^ Lipowsky, Josh. "Paper loses 'divisive' term". Jewish Standard. January 30, 2009. "…JTA [Jewish Telegraphic Agency] faced the same conundrum and decided to do away with the term, replacing it with 'fervently Orthodox.' … 'ultra-Orthodox' was seen as a derogatory term that suggested extremism." ^ Heilman, Samuel. "Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
Shouldn't Have a Monopoly on Tradition". The Forward. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ Heilman, Samuel C. (1976). Synagogue
Synagogue
Life: A Study in Symbolic Interaction. Transaction Publishers. pp. 15–16. ISBN 1412835496.  ^ Ritzer, edited by George; Ryan, J. Michael (2011). The concise encyclopedia of sociology. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 335. ISBN 1444392646. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Donna Rosenthal. The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. Simon and Schuster, 2005. p. 183. "Dossim, a derogatory word for Haredim, is Yiddish-accented Hebrew for 'religious.'" ^ Nadia Abu El-Haj. Facts on the ground: Archaeological practice and territorial self-fashioning in Israeli society. University of Chicago Press, 2001. p. 262. ^ Benor, Sarah Bunin (2012). Becoming frum how newcomers learn the language and culture of Orthodox Judaism. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0813553911.  ^ a b Rubel, Nora L. (2009-11-01). Doubting the Devout: The Ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish American Imagination. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231512589.  ^ [1] Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "YIVO Schick, Mosheh". Yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Kolmyya, Ukraine (Pages 41-55, 85-88)". Jewishgen.org. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon Sofer
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• "The Author of Michtav Sofer"". Hevratpinto.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "New Religious Party". Archive.jta.org. 1934-09-13. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Berlin Conference Adopts Constitution for World Union Progressive Judaism". Archive.jta.org. 1928-08-21. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Agudah Claims 16,205 Palestine Jews
Jews
Favor Separate Communities". Archive.jta.org. 1929-02-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Palestine Communities Ordinance Promulgated". Archive.jta.org. 1927-07-20. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Rabbi
Rabbi
Dushinsky Installed As Jerusalem
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Chief Rabbi
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of Orthodox Agudath Israel". Archive.jta.org. 1933-09-03. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Assaf, David (2010). "Hasidism: Historical Overview". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews
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in Eastern Europe. p. 2.  ^ MacQueen, Michael (2014). "The Context of Mass Destruction: Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Oxford University Press. 12 (1): 27–48. doi:10.1093/hgs/12.1.27. ISSN 1476-7937.  ^ Weiss, Raysh. "Haredim (Chareidim)". myjewishlearning.com.  ^ Lehmann, David; Siebzehner, Batia (August 2009). "Power, Boundaries and Institutions: Marriage in Ultra-Orthodox Judaism". European Journal of Sociology. 50 (2): 273–308. doi:10.1017/s0003975609990142.  ^ Bob, Yonah Jeremy (19 April 2013). "Sephardi haredim complain to court about 'ghettos'". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ Stadler 2009, p. 79: "The economic situation of Haredi
Haredi
in Israel
Israel
is unique. When comparing the Haredi
Haredi
community in Israel
Israel
with that in the United States, Gonen (2000) found that Haredi
Haredi
members in the United States
United States
(both Lithuanians and Hasidic) work and participate in the labor market." ^ Stadler 2009, p. 44: "The support of the yeshiva culture is related also to the developments of Israel's welfare policy... This is why in Israel
Israel
today, Haredim live in relatively poorer conditions (Berman 2000, Dahan 1998, Shilhav 1991), and large Haredi
Haredi
families are totally dependent on state-funded social support systems. This situation is unique to Israel." ^ Stadler 2009, pp. 77–78: "According to various surveys of the Haredi
Haredi
community, between 46 and sixty percent of its members do not participate in the labor market and 25 percent have part-time jobs (see Berman 1998; Dahan 1998). Members who work usually take specific jobs within a very narrow range of occupations, mainly those of teachers and clerical or administrative staff (Lupo 2003). In addition, because Haredim encourage large families, half of them live in poverty and economic distress (Berman 1998)." ^ הרב הראשי לתלמידי הישיבות: אל תצפו בטלוויזיה בפיצוציות [Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
[of Israel] To Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Students: Don't Watch TV in Kiosks]. Ynetnews (in Hebrew). 29 July 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.  ^ Rosenblum, Jonathan (2004-12-15). "Proud to be Chareidi". Jewish Media Resources. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ a b Miller, Rabbi
Rabbi
Jason (8 June 2012). "Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
are Correct About the Dangers of the Internet". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ "Is that cellphone kosher?". BBC
BBC
News. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ "Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
Rally to Discuss Risks of Internet". The New York Times. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Dress: Why do some Orthodox Jews, especially Chassidim, wear a distinctive style of clothing (i. e., fur hats, black coats, gartel)?, Soc.Culture.Jewish: "The style of hat varies by groups, and the black hat is relatively modern. In the pre-war Lithuanian Yeshivot, grey suits and grey fedoras were the style and many in the Litvish tradition still wear grey and blue suits." ^ Hoffman 2011, p. 90 ^ a b "A long article explaining the characteristics of female Haredi dress inside and outside the house". Peopleil.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ Galahar, Ari. " Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef comes out against wig-wearing". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 31 January 2014.  ^ Marx, Daliah (16 July 2007). זה לא צנוע לדבר על צניעות [It's Not Modest to Talk
Talk
About Modesty] (in Hebrew). Ynetnews. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Aryeh Spero (11 January 2013). "Orthodoxy Confronts Reform – The Two Hundred Years' War". In Dana Evan Kaplan. Contemporary Debates in American Reform Judaism: Conflicting Visions. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-136-05574-4. Haredi
Haredi
citizenship is beneficial, however, since it creates safe neighborhoods where robbery, mugging, or rape will not be visited on strangers walking through it, and where rules of modesty and civilized behavior are the expected norm.  ^ Starr Sered 2001, p. 196 ^ Sharkansky 1996, p. 145: "Modesty patrols" exist in Bnei Brak and ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods of Jerusalem; their purpose is to keep those areas free of immoral influences." ^ Ben-Yehuda 2010, p. 115: "Women dressed in what is judged as immodest may experience violence and harassment, and demands to leave the area. Immodest advertising may cause Haredi
Haredi
boycotts, and public spaces that present immodest advertisement may be vandalized." ^ Melman 1992, p. 128: "In one part of the city, Orthodox platoons smash billboards showing half-naked fashion models." ^ Heilman 2002, p. 322: "While similar sentiments about the moral significance of "immodest" posters in public are surely shared by American haredim, they would not attack images of scantily clad models on city bus stops on their neighborhoods with the same alacrity as their Israeli counterparts. ^ Calvin Klein bra advert ruled OK despite Charedi complaint, Jennifer Lipman, January 18, 2012 ^ Jews
Jews
flee Rio during carnival, Kobi Nahshoni 15/02/13 ^ Cohen 2012, p. 159 ^ Lidman, Melanie (2012-08-29). "Egged: We will not use people on J'lem bus ads". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ Egged bars J’lem ads featuring aliens Times of Israel
Israel
(June 28, 2013) ^ Ban this offensive advert, Jewish leaders demand, By Chris Hastings and Elizabeth Day 27/07/03Daily Telegraph ^ N. J. Demerath, III; Nicholas Jay Demerath (1 January 2003). Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics. Rutgers University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8135-3207-3. To honor the Sabbath, many government services are closed, and no state buses operate from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday. Recent religious demands in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
have ranged from Sabbath road closings in Jewish areas and relocating a sports stadium so that it would not disturb a particular neighborhood's Sabbath to halting the sale of non-kosher food in Jewish sectors.  ^ Issa Rose (2004). Taking Space Seriously: Law, Space, and Society in Contemporary Israel. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 101–105. ISBN 978-0-7546-2351-9. The residents of the neighbourhood considered traffic on the Sabbath an intolerable provocation directly interfering with their way of life and began to demonstrate against it (Segev, 1986).  ^ Landau 1993, p. 276 ^ a b c Ettinger 2011 ^ a b Zeveloff 2011 ^ Chavkin & Nathan-Kazis 2011 ^ Rosenberg 2011 ^ Sharon 2012 ^ Heller 2012 ^ The Jewish Spectator. School of the Jewish Woman. 1977. p. 6. THE NEW YORK State Assembly has passed a law permitting segregated seating for women on the buses chartered by ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
for the routes from their Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Rockland County (Spring Valley, Monsey, New Square) neighborhoods to their places of business and work in Manhattan. The buses are equipped with mehitzot which separate the men's section from the women's. The operator of the partitioned buses and the sponsors of the law which permits their unequal seating argued their case by invoking freedom of religion.  ^ Dashefsk & Sheskin 2012, p. 129 ^ Haughney 2011 ^ Kobre, Eytan (28 December 2011). "In The Hot Seat". Mishpacha. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ Katya Alder (24 April 2007). "Israel's 'modesty buses' draw fire". BBC
BBC
News.  ^ " El Al
El Al
to launch kosher flights for haredim - Israel
Israel
Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ "Israel: Selected Issues Paper; IMF Country Report 12/71; March 9, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-23.  ^ Rotemfirst1=Tamar (4 September 2012). "Israel's ultra-Orthodox community tackles the issue of sexual abuse". HAARETZ. HAARETZ. Retrieved 3 March 2015.  ^ Bryant 2012: " Haredi
Haredi
press rarely reports on deviance and unconventionality among Haredim. Thus, most reports are based on the secular Press. This is consistent with Haredi
Haredi
press policy of 'the right of the people not to know', which aims to shield Haredi
Haredi
readers from exposure to information about such issues as rape, robbery, suicide, prostitution, and so on." ^ a b c Rita James Simon (28 July 1978). Continuity and Change: A Study of Two Ethnic Communities in Israel. CUP Archive. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-521-29318-1.  ^ Cohen 2012, p. 79 ^ a b Cohen 2012, p. 80 ^ anonymous (BBC) 2009 ^ Tessler 2013 ^ "ynet ביטאון ש"ס צנזר את תמונת רחל אטיאס - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ Cohen 2012, p. 93 ^ Cohen & Susser 2000, p. 103: "The Haredi
Haredi
press, for its part, is every bit as belligerent and dismissive. [...] Apart from the recurrent images of drug-crazed, sybaritic, terminally empty-headed young people, the secular world is also portrayed as spitefully anti-Semitic." ^ Cohen & Susser 2000, p. 102: "Yet when the Haredi newspapers present the world of secular Israeli youth as mindless, immoral, drugged, and unspeakably lewd..." ^ Cohen & Susser 2000, p. 103 ^ Cohen 2012, p. 110 ^ a b Cohen 2012, p. 111 ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel. "The Forbidden Fork, the Cell Phone Holocaust, and Other Haredi
Haredi
Encounters with Technology." Contemporary Jewry, vol. 29, no. 1, 2009, 4. ^ Deutsch 2009, p. 5 ^ Deutsch 2009, p. 8 ^ Deutsch 2009, p. 4 ^ Deutsch 2009, p. 9 ^ Deutsch 2009, p. 18 ^ "קווי נייעס ספקי החדשות והרכילות של המגזר החרדי, נלחמים על חייהם" [ Haredi
Haredi
news hotlines fighting to stay alive]. Haaretz
Haaretz
(in Hebrew).  ^ " Haredi
Haredi
protestors shut down Jerusalem
Jerusalem
roads for the second week in a row". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post JPost.com. Retrieved 2018-03-07. ...Instructions were eventually sent out at 6:30 p.m. over the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Faction's telephone hotlines for the protesters to disperse, and only then were the roads and junctions they had blocked open to traffic again.  ^ David Sherman (1993). Judaism
Judaism
Confronts Modernity: Sermons and Essays by Rabbi
Rabbi
David Sherman on the Meaning of Jewish Life and Ideals Today. D. Sherman. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-620-18195-2. The establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
was bitterly opposed by the ultra-orthodox who still have great difficulty in accepting it. In Mea Shearim, Yom Ha'Atzmaut, Israel
Israel
Independence Day, is treated as a day of mourning. They act as if they would rather be under Arafat or Hussein.  ^ Ruth Ebenstein (2003). "Remembered Through Rejection: Yom HaShoah in the Ashkenazi Haredi
Haredi
Daily Press, 1950-2000". Israel
Israel
Studies. Volume 8 (Number 3, Fall 2003 ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 149. A few years later, in the late 1990s, we find a striking twist to the Haredi
Haredi
rejection of the day. Both Ha-mod'ia and Yated Ne'eman usher in Yom HaShoah with trepidation. No longer was the day simply one they found offensive, but in their experience, it now marked the start of a week-long assault on Haredim for not observing the trilogy of secular Israel's national "holy days" — Yom HaShoah, Yom Hazikaron Lehaleley Zahal (the Memorial Day for Israel's war dead), and Yom Ha'atzmaut (Independence Day). Sparked, perhaps, by media coverage of Haredim ignoring memorial sirens, Haredim now felt attacked, even hunted down, for their rejection of the day during a period described by both Haredi
Haredi
newspapers with the Talmudic term byimey edeyhem, referring to idolatrous holidays.  ^ Ettinger, Yair (21 August 2017). " Hasidic
Hasidic
Leader Yaakov Friedman, the Admor of Sadigura, Dies at 84" – via Haaretz.  ^ Lior Dattel (2012-02-10). "New project to integrate Haredim in higher education". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-02.  ^ " Israel
Israel
ends ultra-Orthodox military service exemptions". 12 March 2014 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ "משכורות בצה"ל: כמה הצבא מוציא עליכם?". Mako.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "סל ההטבות לאברך: 17 אלף שקל ברוטו - כללי - הארץ". Haaretz.co.il. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "An example for an academic program for Haredi
Haredi
yeshiva students at the Israeli Open University". Openu.ac.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ Only one academic institution allows this. Also, most soldiers work over 9 hours a day, and cannot afford such studies time-wise, or with their low monthly salary (see prior references to soldier's monthly income) ^ "תורה מגינה ומצילה". Shabes.net. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "הרב עמאר: "ישיבת ההסדר באשקלון מגנה על העיר"". Srugim.co.il. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "שר הפנים אלי ישי: צה"ל נכשל במלחמת לבנון השנייה כי החיילים לא התפללו - חינוך וחברה - הארץ". Haaretz.co.il. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ Mordecai Richler. "This Year in Jerusalem". Chatto & Windus, 1994. ISBN 0701162724. pg/ 73. ^ Amos Harel (2012-02-24). "IDF facing shortage of new soldiers". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-19.  ^ Amos Harel (2012-03-01). " Haaretz
Haaretz
probe: Many in IDF's Haredi
Haredi
track aren't really Haredi". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-19.  ^ Sheleg, Yair. 2000. The new religious Jews: recent developments among observant Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
(HaDati'im haHadashim: Mabat achshavi al haHevra haDatit b'Yisrael). Jerusalem: Keter (in Hebrew). ^ " BBC
BBC
News - Israel
Israel
ends ultra-Orthodox military service exemptions". Bbc.com. 2014-03-12. Retrieved 2014-08-17.  ^ "נשפיע - סקר: 68% מהחרדים בעד גיוס תלמידי ישיבות לצבא". Nashpia.co.il. 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "הרב חיים דרוקמן בעד גיוס חרדים: "מצווה מהתורה"". Kikarhashabat.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "הרב עובדיה יוסף על סכנת הגיוס: "נעזוב את הארץ"". Kikarhashabat.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "צפו בוידאו שעורר סערה: הרב אייכלר "אם תפגעו בנו נעזוב את הארץ לצמיתות"". Kooker.co.il. 2013-10-17. Archived from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "News report of mainstream Haredi
Haredi
Rabbis cursing and inciting against Lapid". Globes.co.il. 2013-09-29. Archived from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "A news report regarding an incitement campaign against people supporting Haredi
Haredi
enlistment included a long comic book depicting Haredim as sheep, and the Secular, Nationally-Religious and their politicians as predatory animals who conspire to eat them". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "ynet די להסתה: גם אני חרד"ק גאה - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "ynet אזהרה: בקרוב עלול להירצח חייל חרדי - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "ynet ביום שאחרי: "אף חייל לא הותקף. ספין של צה"ל" - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-08-17.  ^ "ynet "החיים שלנו סיוט". עדויות של חיילים חרדים - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ עיבודים מיוחדים של מינהל מחקר וכלכלה ללסקר כ’א של הל׳מס 2000–2013 ^ Hila Weisberg (2012-01-27). "Measures on Haredim vanish from labor reform". The Marker - Haaretz. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ " Haredi
Haredi
unemployment costs billions annually". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-17.  ^ " OECD
OECD
Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies OECD
OECD
Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Israel" (1). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 22 January 2010: 286.  ^ Lisa Cave and Hamutal Aboody (December 2010). "The Benefits and Costs of Employment Programs for the Haredim Implemented by the Kemach Foundation". Myers JDC Brookdale Institute.  ^ Ran Rimon: Bank of Israel: 45% of Haredim worked in 2011 Ynet 3 Oct 2012. ^ "The difficulty of drafting ultra-Orthodox Jews
Jews
into Israel's army". The Economist. 30 September 2017.  ^ Bartram, David. "Cultural Dimensions of Workfare and Welfare". Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 7:3, 233–247, 2005 ^ "A news report on the very large Israeli company Tnuva censoring women in order to please Haredi
Haredi
clients". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ "A news report (August 2013)". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (November 2, 2007). "A Modern Marketplace for Israel's Ultra-Orthodox". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-22.  ^ Paul Morland (April 7, 2014). "Israeli women do it by the numbers". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ Dov Friedlander (2002). "Fertility in Israel: Is the Transition to Replacement Level in Sight? Part of: Completing the Fertility Transition" (PDF). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division.  ^ Ibenboim, Racheli. "Ultra-Orthodox feminism: Not a contradiction in terms." Jewish Journal. 29 June 2016. 1 July 2016. ^ Newman, Marissa (30 March 2014). "Gov't: Employers discriminate against Arabs, Haredim". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ "Yad Sarah – 30 Years Old". Israel
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Today Magazine. 9 July 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2011.  ^ Marks, Abbey (22 June 2007). "Israel's Yad Sarah
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National News.  ^ a b Ari Paltiel, Michel Sepulchre, Irene Kornilenko, Martin Maldonado: Long‐Range Population Projections for Israel: 2009‐2059 Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2014-04-21. ^ a b c d Baumel, Simon D. (2005). Sacred speakers: language and culture among the Haredim in Israel. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-062-5. LCCN 2005053085. OCLC 226230948.  ^ "CBS predicts Arab-haredi majority in 2059 - Israel
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News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ Berger, Joseph (June 11, 2012). "Aided by Orthodox, City's Jewish Population Is Growing Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Goldberg, J.J. (June 15, 2012). "Time To Rethink the New York Jew: Study Leaves Out Suburbs and Ignores Splits Among Orthodox". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Debra, Nussbaum Cohen (Feb 19, 2013). "As New York Haredim multiply, Jewish Federation faces a quandary". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Shwayder, Maya (2013-09-20). "NY Jewish community wields growing political power: High birthrate of ultra-Orthodox and Hasidic communities expected to have great impact on future votes". The Jerusalem
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Post. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Berger, Joseph (July 5, 2012). "Divisions in Satmar
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Sect Complicate Politics of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Hasidim". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Fox, Margalit (March 25, 2005). "Naftali Halberstam Dies at 74; Bobov
Bobov
Hasidim's Grand Rabbi". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Brenner, Elsa (April 3, 1994). "Two Groups Contest Role in Promoting Lubavitch Judaism's Cause in the County". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ a b According to some sociologists studying contemporary Jewry, the Chabad
Chabad
movement neither fits into the category of Haredi
Haredi
or modern Orthodox, the standard categories for Orthodox Jews. This is due in part to the existence of the "non-Orthodox Hasidim" (of which include former Israeli President Zalman Shazar), the lack of official recognition of political and religious distinctions within Judaism, and the open relationship with non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
represented by the activism of Chabad
Chabad
emissaries. See Liebman, Charles S. "Orthodoxy in American Jewish Life". The American Jewish Year Book
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(1965): 21-97; Ferziger, Adam S. "Church/sect theory and American orthodoxy reconsidered". Ambivalent Jew - Charles S. Liebman in memoriam, ed. Stuart Cohen and Bernard Susser (2007): 107-124. ^ Weichselbaum, Simone (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds: Growing Orthodox families across the borough account for most of the increase". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ a b Heilman, Samuel C. (2006). Sliding to the Right: The Contest for the Future of American Jewish Orthodoxy. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 9780520247635. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Machberes/Matzav.com (November 17, 2010). "Shea Rubenstein Claims Marine Park is "Fastest-Growing Jewish Community in the World". The Jewish Press/Matzav.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ a b c d Helmreich, William B. (1982). The World of the Yeshiva: An Intimate Portrait of Orthodox Jewry. New York, New York: The Free Press - Macmillan Publishing Company/Republished by Ktav Publishing (2000). pp. 200, 226–228, 236–238. ISBN 0881256420.  ^ Diner, Hasia R. Diner (2000). Lower East Side
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Memories: A Jewish Place in America. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0691095450. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Geberer, Raanan (March 28, 2013). "'Ultra-Orthodox Jews': who are they?". Brooklyn
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Daily Eagle. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ "Neighbors riled as insular Hasidic
Hasidic
village seeks to expand". The Korea Times. February 27, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.  ^ McKenna, Chris (2011-03-25). "CENSUS 2010: Orange population growth rate 2nd highest in state, but lower than expected Sullivan and Ulster also recorded increases". Times Herald-Record. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Santos, Fernanda (August 27, 2006). "Reverberations of a Baby Boom". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "New Square". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia Judaica. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Rockland County". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia Judaica. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Eisenberg, Carol (June 10, 2006). "A clash of cultures in the Five Towns". US Newsday. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Landes, David (June 5, 2013). "How Lakewood, N.J., Is Redefining What It Means To Be Orthodox in America: Seventy years ago, Rabbi Aharon Kotler
Aharon Kotler
built an enduring community of yeshiva scholars by making peace with capitalism". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Lipman, Steve (2009-11-11). "A Haredi
Haredi
Town Confronts Abuse From The Inside: Passaic, N.J., is waging a lonely fight against molestation in the Orthodox community. Will its example spread?". The New York Jewish Week. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Cohler-Esses, Larry (July 28, 2009). "An Inside Look at a Syrian-Jewish Enclave: Solidarity Forever, or 'Medieval Minds in Armani Designs'?". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Lubman Rathner, Janet (October 15, 2005). "An Orthodox Destination". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Klein, Amy (November 9, 2006). "Two neighborhoods reveal Orthodox community's fault lines: Pico-Robertson vs. Hancock Park". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Tavory, Iddo. "The Hollywood shtetl: From ethnic enclave to religious destination (2010)". academia.edu. sagepublications.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Wax, Burton (Spring 2012). "Orthodoxy/Traditional Judaism
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