HAREDI JUDAISM (Hebrew : חֲרֵדִי _Ḥaredi_, IPA: ; also
spelled _Charedi_, plural _Charedim_) is a broad spectrum of groups
Judaism , all characterized by a rejection of modern
secular culture. Its members are often referred to as STRICTLY
ORTHODOX or ULTRA-ORTHODOX in English. The term "ultra-Orthodox",
however, is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim
regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews,
although this claim is contested by other streams.
Judaism coalesced in response to the sweeping changes brought
Jews in the modern era: emancipation, enlightenment, the
Haskalah _ movement derived from enlightenment, acculturation,
secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to
extreme, the rise of the
Jewish national movements , etc. In contrast
Judaism , which hastened to embrace modernity , the
approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to
Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society.
However, there are many
Haredi communities in which getting a
professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, and
contact exists between
Haredi and non-
Haredi communities are primarily found in
North America ,
Western Europe . Their estimated global population currently
numbers 1.3–1.5 million, and, due to a virtual absence of interfaith
marriage and a high birth rate , their numbers are growing rapidly.
Their numbers have also been boosted by a substantial number of
Jews adopting a
Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva
* 1 Terminology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Post-Holocaust
* 3 Practices and beliefs
* 3.1 Lifestyle and family
* 3.2 Dress
* 3.3 Neighborhoods
* 3.4 Gender separation
* 3.5 Newspapers and publications
* 4 In
* 4.1 Political
* 4.2 Education
* 4.3 Military
* 4.4 Employment
* 4.5 Other issues
* 5 Population
New York City
New York City
* 184.108.40.206 Manhattan
* 5.2.3 Long Island (New York)
* 5.2.4 New Jersey
* 5.2.5 Maryland
* 5.2.6 California
* 5.2.7 Illinois
* 5.2.8 Colorado
* 5.2.9 Ohio
* 5.4 Elsewhere
* 6 Past rabbinical leaders
* 7 Present leadership and organizations
* 7.1 Rabbis
* 7.2 Groups
* 7.3 Israeli political parties
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
Haredi men reading from the
The term most commonly used by outsiders, including most American
news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism. Hillel Halkin
suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in
Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in
Haredi is a
Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb
_hared_ which appears in the
Book of Isaiah (66:2; its plural
_haredim_ appears in Isaiah 66:5) and is translated as " trembles" at
the word of God. The word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to
perform the will of God and is used to describe staunchly Orthodox
Jews (similar to the definition used by the Christian
Quakers ) and
to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.
Haredi is sometimes used in the
Jewish diaspora in place of
the term "ultra-Orthodox", which some view as inaccurate or offensive,
it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism;
English-language alternatives that have been proposed include
"fervently Orthodox" "strictly Orthodox", or "traditional
Orthodoxy." Others, however, dispute the characterization of the term
Ari L. Goldman , a professor at
Columbia University ,
notes that the term simply serves a practical purpose to distinguish a
specific part of the Orthodox community, and is not meant as
pejorative. Others, such as
Samuel Heilman , criticized terms such as
"ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox," arguing that they
misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as
opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to
separate from the outside world.
Sometimes the community has been characterized as "Traditional
Orthodox", in contradistinction to the
Modern Orthodox , the other
major branch of Orthodox
Judaism (not to be confused with the movement
represented by Union for Traditional
Judaism , which is even more
"modern" than the Modern Orthodox).
Jews also use other terms to refer to themselves. Common
Yiddish words include _Yidn_ (Jews) or _erlekhe Yidn_ (virtuous Jews),
_Ben Torah_ (literally "son of the Torah"), _frum _ (pious) and
_heimish_ (home-like, i.e. "our crowd").
Jews are sometimes also called by the derogatory
slang words _dos_ (plural _dosim_), that mimics the traditional
Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word _datim_, meaning
religious, and more rarely, "blacks" (_sh'chorim_), a reference to
the black clothes they typically wear; a related informal term used
in English is "Black Hat".
Hasidic boys in
Łódź , 1910
According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim
were the traditionalists of
Eastern Europe who fought against
modernization. Indeed, adherents see its beliefs as part of an
unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai . However,
most historians of Orthodoxy consider
Haredi Judaism, in its modern
incarnation, to date back no later than the start of the 20th century.
For centuries, before
Jewish emancipation , European
Jews were forced
to live in ghettos where
Jewish culture and religious observance were
preserved. Change began in the wake of the
Age of Enlightenment when
some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the
emerging empires and nation states . The influence of the _
movement (Jewish Enlightenment) was also evidence. Supporters of the
Haskalah held that
Judaism must change in keeping with the social
changes around them. Other
Jews insisted on strict adherence to
halakha (Jewish law and custom).
Germany , the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch
, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to
form a strictly Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues
and schools . His approach was to accept the tools of modern
scholarship and apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (including areas traditionally
considered Lithuanian ),
Jews true to traditional values gathered
under the banner of _Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel_.
Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social or practical
change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any
secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva
. Sofer's student
Moshe Schick together with Sofer's sons Shimon and
Samuel Benjamin took an active role in arguing against the Reform
movement. Others, such as
Hillel Lichtenstein advocated an even more
stringent position for orthodoxy.
A major historic event was the meltdown after the Universal Israelite
Congress of 1868–1869 in Pest . In an attempt to unify all streams
Judaism under one constitution, the Orthodox offered the _Shulchan
Aruch _ as the ruling Code of law and observance. This was dismissed
by the reformists, leading many Orthodox rabbis to resign from the
Congress and form their own social and political groups. Hungarian
Jewry split into two major institutionally sectarian groups , Orthodox
and Neolog . However, some communities refused to join either of the
groups calling themselves Status Quo.
Schick demonstrated support in 1877 for the separatist policies of
Samson Raphael Hirsch in Germany. Schick's own son was enrolled in the
Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary that taught secular studies and was
Azriel Hildesheimer . Hirsch, however, did not reciprocate,
and expressed astonishment at Schick's halakhic contortions in
condemning even those Status Quo communities that clearly adhered to
halakhah. Lichtenstein opposed Hildesheimer and his son Hirsh
Hildesheimer as they made use of the
German language in sermons from
the pulpit and seemed to sway to the direction of Modern
Shimon Sofer was somewhat more lenient than Lichtenstein on the use
of German in sermons, allowing so only if it was a medium for keeping
cordial relations with the various governments. Likewise, he allowed
extra-curricular studies of the gymnasium for students whose
rabbinical positions would be recognized by the governments,
stipulating the necessity to prove the strict adherence to the
God-fearing standards per individual case. Orthodox
Galicia at the Karmelitermarkt (de) in Vienna's second district
Leopoldstadt , 1915
In 1912, the
World Agudath Israel was founded to differentiate itself
Torah Nationalists Mizrachi and secular Zionist
organizations. It was dominated by the
Hasidic _rebbes _ and
Lithuanian rabbis and _rosh yeshivas _. Agudah nominated rabbis who
were elected as representatives in the Polish government
Sejm , such
Meir Shapiro and
Yitzhak-Meir Levin . Not all
joined the Agudath Israel, remaining independent such as Machzikei
Hadat of Galicia.
Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld and Yitzchok Yerucham Diskin founded
Edah HaChareidis as part of Agudath
Israel in then Mandate
In 1924, Agudath
Israel obtained 75 percent of the votes in the
The Orthodox community polled some 16,000 of a total 90,000 at the
Israel in 1929. But Sonnenfeld lobbied Sir John Chancellor ,
the High Commissioner, for separate representation in the Palestine
Communities Ordinance from that of the Knesseth Israel. He explained
that the Agudas
Israel community would cooperate with the Vaad Leumi
and the National Jewish Council in matters pertaining to the
municipality, but sought to protect its religious convictions
independently. The community petitioned the Permanent Mandates
Commission of the
League of Nations on this issue. The one community
principle was victorious despite their opposition, but this is seen as
the creation of the
Haredi community in
Israel separate from the other
modern Orthodox and Zionist movements.
In 1932, Sonnenfeld was succeeded by Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky , a
disciple of the Shevet Sofer, one of the grandchildren of
Dushinsky promised to build up a strong Jewish Orthodoxy at peace with
the other Jewish communities and the non-Jews.
In general, the present-day
Haredi population originate from two
distinct post-Holocaust waves:
* The vast majority of
Hasidic and Litvak communities were destroyed
during the Holocaust . Though hasidic customs have largely been
preserved, the customs of Lithuanian Jewry, including its unique
Hebrew pronunciation, have been almost lost. Litvish customs are still
preserved primarily by the few older
Jews who were born in Lithuania
prior to the Holocaust. In the decade or so after 1945, there was a
strong drive to revive and maintain these lifestyles by some notable
Haredi leaders. The
Chazon Ish was particularly prominent in the early
days of the State of Israel.
Aharon Kotler established many of
Haredi schools and Yeshivas in the
United States and Israel; and
Joel Teitelbaum had a significant impact on revitalizing Hasidic
Jewry, as well as many of the
Jews who fled
Hungary during 1956
revolution who became followers of his
Satmar dynasty, and became the
Hasidic sect in the world. These Haredim would typically only
have maintained a connection with other religious family members. As
such, those growing up in such families have little or no contact with
* The second wave began in the 1970s associated with the religious
revival of the so-called baal teshuva movement , although most of the
newly religious become Orthodox and not necessarily fully Haredi. The
formation and spread of the
Sephardic Haredi lifestyle movement also
began in the 1980s by
Ovadia Yosef alongside the establishment
Shas party in 1984. This led many Sephardi
Jews to adopt the
clothing and culture of the Lithuanian Haredim, though it had no
historical basis in their own tradition. Many yeshivas were also
established specifically for new adopters of the
Haredi way of life.
Haredi population has been instrumental in the expansion
of their lifestyle, though criticisms have been made of discrimination
towards the later adopters of the
Haredi lifestyle in Shidduchim
(matchmaking) and the school system.
PRACTICES AND BELIEFS
Judaism is not an institutionally cohesive or homogeneous
group, but comprises a diversity of spiritual and cultural
orientations, generally divided into a broad range of
Yeshivish streams from
Eastern Europe , and Oriental
Sephardic Haredim. These groups often differ significantly from one
another in their specific ideologies and lifestyles, as well as the
degree of stringency in religious practice, rigidity of religious
philosophy and isolation from the general culture that they maintain.
The majority of the Haredim worldwide live in neighborhoods in which
reside mostly other Haredim.
LIFESTYLE AND FAMILY
Haredi life, like Orthodox Jewish life in general, is very
family-centered. Boys and girls attend separate schools and proceed to
Torah study , in a yeshiva or seminary respectively, starting
anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18. A significant proportion of
young men remain in yeshiva until their marriage. After marriage, many
Haredi men continue their
Torah studies in a kollel . Studying in
secular institutions is discouraged, although educational facilities
for vocational training in a
Haredi framework do exist. In the United
States and Europe, the majority of
Haredi males are active in the
workforce. For various reasons, in Israel, around half of their
members do not work, and most of those who do are not officially a
part of the workforce.
Haredi families are usually much larger than
non-Orthodox Jewish families with four, six, or even twelve children.
Jews are typically opposed to the viewing of television and
films , and the reading of secular newspapers and books. There has
been a strong campaign against the
Internet and internet-enabled
mobile phones without filters have also been banned by many leading
rabbis. In May 2012, 40,000 Haredim gathered at
Citi Field , a
baseball park in
New York City
New York City , to discuss the dangers of unfiltered
Internet. The event was organized by the Ichud HaKehillos LeTohar
HaMachane . The
Internet has been allowed for business purposes so
long as filters are installed.
Haredi dress Typical
Haredi dress for men and
The standard mode of dress for males of the Lithuanian stream is a
black suit and a white shirt. Headgear includes black fedora or
Homburg hats, with black skull caps under their hats. Pre-war
Lithuanian yeshiva students, however, also wore light coloured suits,
along with beige or grey hats. Beards are common among
men, and most
Hasidic males will never be clean-shaven. Women adhere
to the laws of modest dress , and wear long skirts and sleeves, high
necklines, and, if married, some form of hair covering.
never wear trousers, although a small minority do wear pajama-trousers
within the home at night.
Over the years, it has become popular among some
Haredi women to wear
wigs that are more attractive than their own hair (drawing criticism
from some more conservative
Haredi rabbis). Mainstream Sephardi Haredi
Ovadia Yosef forbade the wearing of wigs altogether. Haredi
women often dress more freely and casually within the home, as long as
the body remains covered in accordance with the _halakha_. More
Haredi women are somewhat more lenient in matters of
their dress, and some follow the latest trends and fashions while
conforming to the _halakha_.
Hasidic men and women differ from the Lithuanian
stream by having a much more specific dress code , the most obvious
difference for men being the full-length suit jacket (_rekel _) on
weekdays, and the fur hat (_shtreimel _) and silk caftan (_bekishe _)
on the Sabbath.
Liberal Jewish scholar Dalia Marx, has suggested that Haredi
indulgence in matters of modesty is in itself excessive, and thus,
Haredi neighborhoods tend to be free of violent crime. In Israel,
the entrances to some of the most extreme
Haredi neighborhoods are
fitted with signs asking that modest clothing be worn. Some areas are
known to have "modesty patrols", and people dressed in ways perceived
as immodest may suffer harassment, and advertisements featuring
scantily dressed models may be targeted for vandalism. These
concerns are also addressed through public lobbying and legal avenues.
In Rio de Janeiro, during the week long
Rio Carnival , many Orthodox
Jews feel compelled to leave the town due to the immodest exposure of
participants. In 2001,
Haredi campaigners in
Jerusalem succeeded in
persuading the Egged bus company to get all their advertisements
approved by a special committee. By 2011, Egged had gradually removed
all bus adverts which featured women in response to their continuous
defacement. A court order which stated such action was discriminatory
led to Egged's decision not to feature people at all (neither male nor
female). Depictions of certain other creatures, such as aliens , were
also banned in order not to offend
also campaign against other types of advertising which promote
activities they deem offensive or inappropriate.
To honor the
Shabbat , most state-run buses in
Israel do not run on
Saturdays. In a similar vein,
Israel have demanded
that the roads in their neighborhoods be closed on Saturdays,
vehicular traffic being viewed as an "intolerable provocation" upon
their religious lifestyle (see Driving on
Shabbat in Jewish law ). In
most cases, the authorities granted permission after Haredi
petitioning and demonstrations, some of them including fierce clashes
between Haredim and secular counter demonstrators, and violence
against police and motorists.
Gender-separate beach in
While Jewish modesty law requires gender separation under various
circumstances, observers have contended that there is a growing trend
among some groups of
Jews to extend its observance to
the public arena.
Hasidic village of
Kiryas Joel , New York , an entrance sign
asks visitors to "maintain gender separation in all public areas", and
the bus stops have separate waiting areas for men and women. In New
Square , another
Hasidic enclave, men and women are expected to walk
on opposite sides of the road. In Israel, residents of Meah Shearim
were banned from erecting a street barrier dividing men and women
during the nightly week-long
Sukkot festivities, and street signs
requesting that women avoid certain pavements in
Beit Shemesh have
been repeatedly removed by the municipality.
Since 1973, buses catering for
Jews running from New York into
Manhattan have had separate areas for men and women, allowing
passengers to conduct on-board prayer services. Although the lines
are privately operated, they serve the general public and in 2011 the
set-up was challenged on grounds of discrimination and the arrangement
was deemed illegal. During 2010–2012, there was much public debate
Israel surrounding the existence of segregated
Haredi Mehadrin bus
lines (whose policy calls for both men and women to stay in their
respective areas: men in the front of the bus and women in the rear
of the bus) following an altercation which occurred after a woman
refused to move to the rear of the bus to sit among the women. A
subsequent court ruling stated that while voluntary segregation should
be allowed, forced separation is unlawful. Israeli national airline
El Al has agreed to provide gender-separated flights to cater for
Haredi requirements. The
Bais Yaakov graduating class of 1934 in
Łódź , Poland.
Education in the
Haredi community is strictly segregated by sex. The
education for boys is primarily focused on the study of Jewish
scriptures, such as the
Talmud , while girls obtain studies
Jewish education as well as broader secular subjects.
In 2012, _
A Better Safe Than Sorry Book _, aimed at
children, was published with some controversy as it contains both
NEWSPAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS
Tziporah Heller , a weekly columnist for
In pre-war Poland, the Agudath
Israel published its own Yiddish
language paper, _Dos Yiddishe Tagblatt_. In 1950, the Agudah started
Hamodia _, a
Hebrew language Israeli daily.
Haredi publications tend to shield their readership from
objectionable material and perceive themselves as a "counterculture",
desisting from advertising secular entertainment and events. The
editorial policy of a
Haredi newspaper is determined by a rabbinical
board and every edition is checked by a rabbinical censor. A strict
policy of modesty is characteristic of the
Haredi press and pictures
of women and girls are generally not printed. In 2009, the Israeli
daily _Yated Ne\'eman _ doctored an Israeli cabinet photograph
replacing two female ministers with images of men, and in 2013, the
_Bakehilah_ magazine pixelated the faces of women appearing in a
photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto . The mainstream
Shas also refrains from publishing female images.
No coverage is given to serious crime, sport, or non-Jewish
festivals, and little coverage is given to other streams of Judaism.
Inclusion of "immoral" content is avoided, and when publication of
such stories is a necessity, they are written ambiguously. The Haredi
press generally takes an anti-Zionist stance and gives more coverage
to issues which concern the
Haredi community, such as the drafting of
girls and _yeshiva _ students into the army, autopsies, and Sabbath
observance. In Israel, it portrays the secular world as "spitefully
anti-Semitic", and describes secular youth as "mindless, immoral,
drugged, and unspeakably lewd". Such attacks have led to Haredi
editors being warned about libelous provocations.
Haredi press is extensive and varied in Israel, only
around half the
Haredi population reads newspapers. Around 10% read
secular newspapers while 40% do not read any newspaper at all.
According to a 2007 survey, 27% read the weekend Friday edition of
_HaModia_, and 26% the _Yated Ne'eman_. In 2006, the most read Haredi
Israel was the _
Mishpacha _ weekly which sold 110,000
See also: Haredim and
While most Haredim were opposed to the establishment of the State of
Israel, and Haredim mostly still do not celebrate its national
Independence Day or other state-instituted holidays, there were many
who threw their considerable weight in support of the nascent state.
The chief political division among Haredim has been in their approach
to the State of Israel. While ideologically non-Zionist, the United
Judaism alliance comprising
Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah
(and the umbrella organizations
World Agudath Israel and Agudath
Israel of America ) represent a moderate and pragmatic stance of
cooperation with the State of Israel, and participation in the
political system. UTJ has been a participant in numerous coalition
governments, seeking to influence state and society in a more
religious direction and maintain welfare and religious funding
policies. Haredim who are more stridently anti-Zionist are under the
Edah HaChareidis , who reject participation in politics
and state funding of its affiliated institutions, in contradistinction
to Agudah-affiliated institutions.
Neturei Karta is a very small
activist organization of anti-Zionist Haredim, whose controversial
activities have been strongly condemned, including by other
anti-Zionist Haredim. Neither main political party has the support in
numbers to elect a majority government, and so they both rely on
support from the
In recent years, some rebbes affiliated with Agudath Israel, such as
the Sadigura rebbe Avrohom Yaakov Friedman , have taken more hard-line
stances on security, settlements, and disengagement.
Shas represents Sephardi and Mizrahi Haredim, and, while having many
points in common with Ashkenazi Haredim, differs from them by its more
enthusiastic support for the State of Israel.
The Council for Higher Education announced in 2012 that it was
investing NIS 180 million over the following five years to establish
appropriate frameworks for the education of Haredim, focusing on
Haredi demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils
Upon the establishment of the State of
Israel in 1948, the nation's
population of military aged
Haredi males were exempted from the
universal conscription into the
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) under the
Torato Omanuto arrangement, which officially granted deferred entry
into the IDF for yeshiva students, but in practice allowed young
Haredi men to serve for a significantly reduced period of time or
bypass military service altogether. At that time, only a small group
of roughly 400 individuals was affected, since due to the historic
Judaism to Zionism, the population of Haredim was
very low. However, the Haredim are estimated to now make up 10% of
Israel's population, and their absence from the IDF often attracts
significant resentment from Israel's secular majority. The most common
criticisms of the exemption policy are:
* The Haredim can work in those 2–3 years of their lives in which
they do not serve in the IDF, while most soldiers at the IDF are
usually paid anywhere between $80–250 a month, in addition to
clothing and lodging. All the while,
Haredi yeshiva students receive
significant monthly funds and payments for their religious studies.
* The Haredim, if they so choose, can study at that time.
While a few dozen Haredim have enlisted in the IDF every year in
recent decades, the Haredim usually reject the concept and practice of
IDF service. Contentions include:
Yeshiva student is equal to or more important than a soldier in
the IDF, because he keeps Jewish tradition alive and prays for the
Israel to be safe.
* The army is not conducive to the
Haredi lifestyle. It is regarded
as a "state-sponsored quagmire of promiscuity ."
both men and women , and often groups them together in military
Torato Omanuto _ arrangement was enshrined in the _
Tal Law _
that came in force in 2002. The High Court later ruled that it could
not be extended in its current form beyond August 2012. A replacement
was expected. The
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) was, however,
experiencing a shortage of personnel, and there were pressures to
reduce the scope of the _Torato Omanuto_ exemption.
The Shahar program, also known as _Shiluv Haredim_ ("Ultra-Orthodox
Haredi men aged 22 to 26 to serve in the army for
about a year and a half. At the beginning of their service, they study
mathematics and English, which are not well covered in
The program is partly aimed at encouraging
Haredi participation in the
workforce after military service. However, not all beneficiaries seem
to be Haredim.
Over the years, as many as 1000
Jews have chosen to volunteer
to serve in the IDF , in a
Haredi Jewish unit, the Netzah Yehuda
Battalion , also known as Nahal Haredi. The vast majority of Haredi
men, however, continue to receive deferments from military service.
In March 2014 Israel's parliament approved legislation to end
exemptions from military service for
Haredi seminary students. The
bill was passed by 65 votes to one, and an amendment allowing civilian
national service by 67 to one.
There has been much uproar in
Haredi society following actions
Haredi conscription. While some Haredim see this as a great
social and economic opportunity, others (including leading rabbis
among them) strongly oppose this move. Among the extreme Haredim
there have been some more severe reactions. Several
have threatened that
Haredi populations would leave the country if
forced to enlist. Others have fueled public incitement against
Seculars and National-Religious Jews, and specifically against
Yair Lapid and
Naftali Bennett , who support and promote
Haredi enlistment. Some Haredim have taken to threatening fellow
Haredim who agree to enlist, to the point of physically attacking
some of them.
As of 2012 , it was estimated that 37% of
Haredi men and 49% of
Haredi women were employed. The more recent figures from the Central
Bureau of Statistics on employment rates place
Haredi women at 69.3%
comparable to 71% for the women's national figure, while the number of
Haredi men has increased to 44.5%, it is still fall far below
the 81.5% of men nationwide.
Trajtenberg Committee , charged in 2011 with drafting proposals
for economic and social change, called, among other things, for
increasing employment among the
Haredi population. Its proposals
included encouraging military or national service and offering college
prep courses for volunteers, creating more employment centers
targeting Haredim and experimental matriculation prep courses after
Yeshiva hours. The committee also called for increasing the number of
Haredi students receiving technical training through the Industry,
Trade and Labor Ministry and forcing
Haredi schools to carry out
standardized testing, as is done at other public schools. It is
estimated that half as many of the
Haredi community are in employment
as the rest of population. This has led to increasing financial
deprivation and 50% of children within the community live below the
poverty line. This puts strain on each family, the community and the
The demographic trend indicates the community will constitute an
increasing percentage of the population, and consequently
an economic challenge in the years ahead due to fewer people in the
labor force. A report commissioned by the Treasury found that the
Israeli economy may lose more than six billion shekels annually as a
result of low
Haredi participation in the workforce. The
OECD in a
2010 report stated "
Haredi families are frequently jobless or are
one-earner families in low-paid employment. Poverty rates are around
60% for Haredim."
In 2007, the Kemach Foundation was established to become an investor
in the sector’s social and economic development and provide
opportunities for employment. Through the philanthropy of
Leo Noé of
London, later joined by the Wolfson family of New York and Elie Horn
from Brazil, Kemach has facilitated academic and vocational training.
With a $22m budget, including government funding, Kemach provides
individualized career assessment, academic or vocational scholarships
and job placement for the entire
Haredi population in Israel. The
Foundation is managed by specialists who, coming from the Haredi
sector themselves, are familiar with the community’s needs and
sensitivities. By April 2014, more than 17,800 Haredim have received
the services of Kemach, and more than 7,500 have, or continue to
receive, monthly scholarships to fund their academic or vocational
studies. From 500 graduates the net benefits to the government would
be 80.8 million NIS if they work for one year, 572.3 million NIS if
they work for 5 years, and 2.8 billion NIS (discounted) if they work
for 30 years.
According to data released by Central Bureau of Statistics,
employment rate in the
Haredi sector increased by 7% in two years,
Hasidim walk to the synagogue,
The Haredim are relatively materially poor, compared to other
Israelis, but represent an important market sector due to their bloc
purchasing habits. For this reason, some companies and organizations
Israel refrain from including women or other images deemed immodest
in their advertisements to avoid
Haredi consumer boycotts. More than
50 percent live below the poverty line and get state allowances,
compared with 15 percent of the rest of the population. Their
families are also larger, with
Haredi women having an average of 6.7
children while the average Jewish Israeli woman has 3 children.
Haredi families with many children receive economic support through
governmental child allowances, government assistance in housing young
religious couples, as well as specific funds by their own community
In recent years, there has been a process of reconciliation and an
attempt to merge
Jews with Israeli society, although
employment discrimination is widespread.
Jews such as satirist
Kobi Arieli , publicist Sehara Blau , and politician
write regularly to leading Israeli newspapers.
Another important factor in the reconciliation process has been the
ZAKA , a
Haredi organization known for providing
emergency medical attention at the scene of suicide bombings , and Yad
Sarah , the largest national volunteer organization in Israel
established in 1977 by former
Haredi mayor of
Jerusalem , Uri
Lupolianski . It is estimated that
Yad Sarah saves the country's
economy an estimated $320 million in hospital fees and long-term care
costs each year.
Due to its imprecise definition, lack of data collection and rapid
change over time, estimates of the global
Haredi population are
difficult to measure and may significantly underestimate the true
number of Haredim, due to their reluctance to participate in surveys
and censuses. One estimate given in 2011 stated there were
approximately 1.3 million
Jews globally. Studies have shown a
very high growth rate with a large young population.
Beit Yisrael (Beis Yisroel) ·
Har Nof ·
Ramat Shlomo · Sanhedria
Neve Yaakov ·
Ramat Eshkol · Ezrat
Torah (Ezras Torah)
Bnei Brak · Modi\'in Illit
Kiryat Ye\'arim ·
Safed · El\'ad
Flatbush · Williamsburg
Crown Heights · Canarsie
East New York · Monsey
Kiryas Joel · Lakewood · Passaic
Los Angeles ·
Stamford Hill ·
Golders Green ·
Broughton Park ·
Israel is home to the largest
Haredi population, at approx. 750,000
(out of 7.5 million
Israelis ) in 2009. The number of
Israel is rising rapidly. The number of children per woman is 6.2, and
the share of Haredim among those under the age of 20 was 16.3% in 2009
(29% of Jews). In 1992, out of a total of 1,500,000 Orthodox Jews
worldwide, about 550,000 were
Haredi (half of them in Israel). The
vast majority of
Jews are Ashkenazi. However, some 20% of the
Haredi population are thought to belong to the Sephardic Haredi
stream. In recent decades,
Haredi society has grown due to the
addition of a religious population that identifies with the Shas
movement. The extent of people leaving the
Haredi population is
extremely low. The
Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics forecasts that
Haredi population of
Israel will number 1.1 million in 2019. It is
also projected that the number of Haredim in 2059 may be between 2.73
and 5.84 million, of an estimated total number of Israeli
6.09 and 9.95 million. Large Israeli
Haredi concentrations include
Bnei Brak , Modi\'in Illit ,
Beitar Illit ,
Beit Shemesh ,
Kiryat Ye\'arim ,
Ashdod , and El\'ad . Two
Haredi cities, Kasif and
Harish, are planned.
United States is home to the second largest
which has a growth rate on pace to double every 20 years. In 2000,
there were 360,000
Jews in the US (7.2 per cent of the
approximately 5 million
Jews in the U.S.); by 2006, demographers
estimate the number had grown to 468,000 or 9.4 per cent.
New York City
Jews live in the greater New York metropolitan
The largest centers of
Hasidic life anywhere in New York
are found in
Hasidic Family on the street in Borough
* In 1988, it was estimated that there are between 40,000 and 57,000
Haredim in the Williamsburg neighborhood of
Brooklyn , New York ,
Hasidim most belonging to
* The Jewish population in the Borough Park neighborhood of Brooklyn
estimated at 70,000 in 1983 is also mostly
Haredi and also mostly
Bobov Hasidim are the largest single bloc that mainly
live in Borough Park.
* Crown Heights is the home base of the worldwide Chabad-Lubavitch
movement with its network of shluchim ("emissaries") heading Chabad
houses throughout the Jewish world.
* The Flatbush -Midwood , Kensington ,
Marine Park (Brooklyn)
neighborhoods have tens of thousands of
Jews living in them.
They are also the centers for the major non-
Torah Vodaas ,
Rabbi Chaim Berlin , Mir
Yeshiva as well as a string of similar smaller yeshivas. The Torah
Vodaas and Chaim Berlin yeshivas allow some students to attend
college and university presently at
Touro College and previously at
Brooklyn College .
New York City
New York City borough of
Queens is home to a growing Haredi
population mainly affiliated with the
Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim and
Yeshivas Ohr HaChaim in Kew Gardens Hills and
Yeshiva Shaar Hatorah in
Kew Gardens . Many of the students attend
Queens College . There are
major yeshivas and communities of
Jews in Far Rockaway such
Yeshiva of Far Rockaway and a number of others.
One of the oldest
Haredi communities in New York is on the Lower East
Side home to the Mesivtha Tifereth
Jerusalem . The
Samson Raphael Hirsch and
Khal Adath Jeshurun are home to
in Washington Heights .
Hudson Valley north of
New York City
New York City has the most rapidly growing
Haredi communities such as the
Hasidic communities in
Satmar Hasidim and
New Square of the Skver . A vast community of
Jews lives in the
Monsey, New York area.
Long Island (New York)
Yeshiva Sh\'or Yoshuv together with many synagogues in the
Lawrence neighborhood have attracted many
There are significant
Haredi communities in Lakewood (New Jersey)
home to the largest non-
Hasidic Lithuanian yeshiva in America Beth
Medrash Govoha . As well as in Passaic , Edison where in 1982 a
branch of the
Yeshiva opened, and a community
largely of Syrian
Jews favorable to the Haredim in their midst in
Deal, New Jersey .
Baltimore, Maryland is home to a large
Haredi population. The major
Yeshivas Ner Yisroel founded in 1933 with thousands of
alumni and their families. Ner Yisroel is also a Maryland state
accredited college, and has agreements with
Johns Hopkins University ,
Towson University ,
Loyola College in Maryland , University of
Baltimore , and University of Maryland,
Baltimore County allowing
undergraduate students to take night courses at these colleges and
universities in a variety of academic fields. The agreement also
allows the students to receive academic credits for their religious
Silver Spring, Maryland and its environs is home to a growing Haredi
community mostly of highly educated and skilled professionals working
United States government in various capacities, most residing
in Kemp Mill , White Oak and Woodside and many of its children
Yeshiva of Greater Washington and
Yeshivas Ner Yisroel in
Los Angeles is home to many Hasidim and
Jews who are not
Hasidic. Most live in the Pico-Robertson and the Fairfax (Fairfax
La Brea Avenue ) areas.
Chicago is home to the
Chicago with many
other Haredim living in the city.
Denver is home to a large
Haredi population of Ashkenazi origin,
dating back to the early 1920s. The
Denver West Side Jewish
Community adheres to Litvak Jewish traditions (Lithuanian) and have
several congregations located within their communities.
Telshe yeshiva , 1936.
One of the oldest
Haredi Lithuanian yeshivas, Telshe Yeshiva
transplanted itself to
Cleveland in 1941.
In the UK , the largest communities are located in London,
Haredi community of
Stamford Hill , and in the
Greater Manchester areas of Salford , and
Prestwich ; as well as in
the Jewish community of
In 1998, the
Haredi population in the Jewish community of the United
Kingdom was estimated at 27,000 (13% of affiliated Jews). A 2007
study asserted that three out of four British Jewish births were
Haredi, who then accounted for 17% of British
Jews , (45,500 out of
around 275,000). Another study in 2010 established that there were
Haredi households in the UK, which would account for a
population of nearly 53,400, or 20% of the community. Within the
next three decades the
Board of Deputies of British
Jews predicts that
Haredi community will become the largest group in Anglo-Jewry: in
comparison with the national average of 2.4 children per family,
Haredi families have an average of 5.9 children and consequently the
population distribution is heavily biased to the under-20-year-olds.
By 2006 membership of
Haredi synagogues had doubled since 1990.
An investigation by _
The Independent _ earlier this year found more
than 1,000 children in
Haredi communities are attending illegal
schools where secular knowledge is banned and they learn only
religious texts, meaning they leave school with no qualifications and
often unable to speak any English.
About 25,000 Haredim live in the Jewish community of France , mostly
Jews of North African descent. Important communities are
Lyon . Other important communities,
mostly of Ashkenazi
Jews , are the Antwerp community in
Belgium , as
well as in the Swiss communities of
Basel , and in the
Dutch community in
Amsterdam . There is also a
Haredi community in
Vienna , in the community of Austria . Other countries with
Haredi populations include: Canada , with large Haredi
Toronto ; South Africa , primarily in
Johannesburg ; and Australia , centred in
Melbourne . Hasidic
communities also exist in Argentina , especially in
Buenos Aires and,
to a lesser extent, in Brazil , primarily in
São Paulo .
ANNUAL GROWTH RATE
22,800–36,400 / 45,500
PAST RABBINICAL LEADERS
Baal Shem Tov (18th century founder of
Vilna Gaon (of Lithuania)
Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin (19th century founder of the Lithuanian
Moses Sofer (18th–19th century leader of Eastern European
Rabbi Yisrael Meir HaCohen Kagan , the Chafetz Chaim
Rabbi Avrohom Mordechai Alter , Third Gerrer Rebbe, driving force
behind Agudas Yisroel in Poland
Moshe Feinstein , one of the foremost halakhic authorities
for much of the twentieth century
Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz (leader of Haredim in Israel)
Elazar Shach (leader of the Lithuanian community of Haredim
Aharon Kotler (founder of the Lakewood yeshivas in America)
Ovadia Yosef (leader of Israeli Sephardi Haredim)
Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv (leader of Israel's non-Hasidic
Ashkenazi Haredim until 2012)
PRESENT LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONS
Yitzhak Yosef (Israeli Sephardi Jews)
Aharon Yehuda Leib Shteinman (non-
Hasidic Lithuanian Jews)
Shmuel Auerbach (non-
Hasidic Lithuanian Jews)
Yaakov Aryeh Alter (heads largest single
Hasidic group in Israel)
World Agudath Israel (including Agudath
Israel of America )
Hasidic groups (including Belz ,
Bobov , Boyan , Breslov ,
Chabad Lubavitch , Ger ,
Satmar , and Vizhnitz )
Edah HaChareidis (representing Anti-Zionist
Haredi groups in and
around Jerusalem, including
Satmar , Dushinsky ,
Toldos Aharon ,
Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok ,
Neturei Karta , Mishkenos HoRoim , Spinka ,
Brisk and a section of other Litvish Haredim)
Toldos Yeshurun (organization for Russian Jews)
ISRAELI POLITICAL PARTIES
Shas (representing Mizrahi and
Sephardic Haredim )
Judaism (alliance representing Ashkenazi Haredim)
Agudat Yisrael (representing
* Degel Ha
Torah (representing Lithuanian
* Relationships between
Jewish religious movements
* Hasidim and Mitnagdim
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Markoe, Lauren (February 6, 2014). "Should
Jews be able to decide what they\'re called?".
_Washington Post_. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
* ^ Tatyana Dumova; Richard Fiordo (30 September 2011). _Blogging
in the Global Society: Cultural, Political and Geographical Aspects_.
Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 126. ISBN 978-1-60960-744-9 . Haredim regard
themselves as the most authentic custodians of Jewish religious law
and tradition which, in their opinion, is binding and unchangeable.
They consider all other expressions of Judaism, including Modern
Orthodoxy, as deviations from God's laws.
* ^ Nora L. Rubel (2010). _Doubting the Devout: The Ultra-Orthodox
in the Jewish American Imagination_.
Columbia University Press. p.
148. ISBN 978-0-231-14187-1 . Retrieved 24 July 2013. Mainstream Jews
have—until recently—maintained the impression that the
ultraorthodox are the 'real' Jews.
* ^ Ilan 2012 : "One of the main sources of power enabling Haredi
Jews' extreme behavior is the Israeli public's widely held view that
their way of life represents traditional Judaism, and that when it
comes to Judaism, more radical means more authentic. This is among the
most strongly held and unfounded myths in
* ^ For example: Arnold Eisen, _Rethinking Modern Judaism_,
Chicago Press, 1998. p. 3.
* ^ Batnitzky 2011 , pp. 184–185
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wertheimer, Jack. "What You Don’t Know About the
Ultra-Orthodox." _Commentary Magazine_. 1 July 2015. 4 September 2015.
* ^ Norman S. Cohen (1 January 2012). _The Americanization of the
Jews_. NYU Press. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-8147-3957-0 . Given the high
fertility and statistical insignificance of intermarriage among
ultra-Orthodox haredim in contrast to most of the rest of the Jews...
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Wise 2007
* ^ Buck, Tobias (2011-11-06). "Israel\'s secular activists start
to fight back". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ Eli Berman. ""Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist\'s
View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews"" (PDF). . National Bureau of Economic
Research Working Paper No. 6715. August 1998
* ^ Šelomo A. Dešen; Charles Seymour Liebman; Moshe Shokeid (1
January 1995). _Israeli Judaism: The Sociology of Religion in Israel_.
Transaction Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4128-2674-7 . The number of
baalei teshuvah, "penitents" from secular backgrounds who become
Ultraorthodox Jews, amounts to a few thousand, mainly between the
years 1975-87, and is modest compared with the natural growth of the
haredim; but the phenomenon has generated great interest in Israel.
* ^ Harris 1992 , p. 490: "This movement began in the US but is now
centred in Israel, where since 1967 many thousands of
consciously adopted an Ultra-Orthodox lifestyle."
* ^ Weintraub 2002 , p. 211: "Many of the Ultra-Orthodox Jews
Brooklyn are baaley tshuva,
Jews who have gone through a
repentance experience and have become Orthodox though they may have
been raised in entirely secular Jewish homes."
* ^ Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of Orthodox
Judaism, By M. Herbert Danzger: "A survey of
Jews in the New York
metropolitan area found that 24% of those who were highly observant
... had been reared by parents who did not share such scruples. The
ba'al t'shuva represents a new phenomenon for Judaism; for the first
time there are not only
Jews who leave the fold ... but also a
substantial number who "return." pg 2; and "Defined in terms of
observance, then, the number of newly Orthodox is about 100,000." pg.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Halkin, Hillel (2013-02-17). "Just How Orthodox Are
They?". _The Forward_. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Stadler 2009 , p. 4
* ^ Ben-Yehuda 2010 , p. 17
* ^ White, John Kenneth (1998). _Political Parties and the Collapse
of the Old Orders_.
State University of New York Press . p. 157.
* ^ Keysar, Ariela (2009). _Secularism, Women & the State: The
Mediterranean World in the 21st Century_. Institute for the Study of
Secularism in Society and Culture . p. 86.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ayalon, Ami (1999). "Language as a barrier to political
reform in the Middle East", _International Journal of the Sociology of
Language _, Volume 137, pp. 67–80: "Haredi" has none of the
misleading religious implications of "ultra-Orthodox": in the words of
Shilhav (1989: 53), "they are not necessarily more religious but
religious in a different way." and "'Haredi'… is preferable, being a
term commonly used by such
Jews themselves… Moreover, it carries
none of the venom often injected into the term 'ultra-Orthodox' by
Jews and, sadly, by the Western media…."
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sources describing the term as pejorative or derogatory
* Kobre, Eytan. _One People, Two Worlds. A Reform
Rabbi and an
Rabbi Explore the Issues That Divide Them_, reviewed by Eytan
Kobre, Jewish Media Resources, February 2003. Retrieved August 25,
2009. "'Indeed, the social scientist
Marvin Schick calls attention to
the fact that "through the simple device of identifying … as
"ultra-Orthodox", … pejorative term has become the standard
reference term for describing a great many Orthodox Jews…. No other
ethnic or religious group in this country is identified in language
that conveys so negative a message.'"
* Goldschmidt, Henry. _Race and religion among the chosen peoples of
Rutgers University Press , 2006, p. 244, note 26. "I
am reluctant to use the term 'ultra-orthodox,' as the prefix 'ultra'
carries pejorative connotations of irrational extremism."
* Longman, Chia. "Engendering Identities as Political Processes:
Discources of Gender Among Strictly Orthodox Jewish Women", in Rik
Pinxten, Ghislain Verstraete, Chia Longmanp (eds.) _Culture and
politics: identity and conflict in a multicultural world_, Berghahn
Books, 2004, p. 55. "Webber (1994: 27) uses the label 'strictly
Orthodox' when referring to haredi, seemingly more adequate as a
purely descriptive name, yet carrying less pejorative connotations
* Shafran, Avi . _Don\'t Call Us \'Ultra-Orthodox\'_, _The Jewish
Daily Forward _, February 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. "Considering
that other Orthodox groups have self-identified with prefixes like
“modern” or “open,” why can’t we Haredim just be, simply,
“Orthodox”? Our beliefs and practices, after all, are those that
most resemble those of our grandparents. But, whatever alternative is
adopted, “ultra” deserves to be jettisoned from media and
discourse. We Haredim aren’t looking for special treatment, or to be
called by some name we just happen to prefer. We’re only seeking the
mothballing of a pejorative."
* ^ Stolow, Jeremy (2010-01-01). _Orthodox by Design: Judaism,
Print Politics, and the ArtScroll Revolution_. University of
California Press. ISBN 9780520264250 .
* ^ Lipowsky, Josh. "Paper loses \'divisive\' term". _Jewish
Standard _. January 30, 2009. "…JTA faced the same conundrum and
decided to do away with the term, replacing it with 'fervently
Orthodox.' … 'ultra-Orthodox' was seen as a derogatory term that
* ^ Heilman, Samuel. "Ultra-Orthodox
Jews Shouldn\'t Have a
Monopoly on Tradition". _The Forward_. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
* ^ Heilman, Samuel C. (1976). _
Synagogue Life: A Study in Symbolic
Interaction_. Transaction Publishers. pp. 15–16. ISBN 1412835496 .
* ^ Ritzer, edited by George; Ryan, J. Michael (2011). _The concise
encyclopedia of sociology_. Chichester, West Sussex, UK:
Wiley-Blackwell. p. 335. ISBN 1444392646 . CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link )
* ^ Donna Rosenthal. _The Israelis: Ordinary People in an
Extraordinary Land_. Simon and Schuster, 2005. p. 183. "Dossim, a
derogatory word for Haredim, is Yiddish-accented Hebrew for
* ^ Nadia Abu El-Haj. _Facts on the ground: Archaeological practice
and territorial self-fashioning in Israeli society_. University of
Chicago Press, 2001. p. 262.
* ^ Benor,
Sarah Bunin (2012). _Becoming frum how newcomers learn
the language and culture of Orthodox Judaism_. New Brunswick, N.J.:
Rutgers University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0813553911 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rubel, Nora L. (2009-11-01). _Doubting the Devout: The
Ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish American Imagination_. Columbia
University Press. ISBN 9780231512589 .
* ^ Archived February 19, 2012, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "YIVO Schick, Mosheh". Yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved
* ^ "Kolmyya, Ukraine (Pages 41-55, 85-88)". Jewishgen.org.
2011-02-12. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ "
Shimon Sofer • "The Author of Michtav Sofer"".
Hevratpinto.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ "New Religious Party". Archive.jta.org. 1934-09-13. Retrieved
* ^ "Berlin Conference Adopts Constitution for World Union
Progressive Judaism". Archive.jta.org. 1928-08-21. Retrieved
* ^ "Agudah Claims 16,205 Palestine
Jews Favor Separate
Communities". Archive.jta.org. 1929-02-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ "Palestine Communities Ordinance Promulgated". Archive.jta.org.
1927-07-20. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ "
Rabbi Dushinsky Installed As
Rabbi of Orthodox
Agudath Israel". Archive.jta.org. 1933-09-03. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ Assaf,
David (2010). "Hasidism: Historical Overview". The YIVO
Jews in Eastern Europe. p. 2.
* ^ MacQueen, Michael (2014). "The Context of Mass Destruction:
Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania". _Holocaust
and Genocide Studies_. Oxford University Press. 12 (1): 27–48. ISSN
* ^ Weiss, Raysh. "Haredim (Chareidim)". myjewishlearning.com.
* ^ Lehmann, David; Siebzehner, Batia (August 2009). "Power,
Boundaries and Institutions: Marriage in Ultra-Orthodox Judaism".
_European Journal of Sociology_. 50 (2): 273–308. doi
* ^ Bob, Yonah Jeremy (19 April 2013). "Sephardi haredim complain
to court about \'ghettos\'". _The
Jerusalem Post _. Retrieved 22 June
* ^ Stadler 2009 , p. 79: "The economic situation of
Israel is unique. When comparing the
Haredi community in
that in the United States, Gonen (2000) found that
Haredi members in
United States (both Lithuanians and Hassidic) work and participate
in the labor market."
* ^ Stadler 2009 , p. 44: "The support of the yeshiva culture is
related also to the developments of Israel's welfare policy... This is
Israel today, Haredim live in relatively poorer conditions
(Berman 2000, Dahan 1998, Shilhav 1991), and large
Haredi families are
totally dependent on state-funded social support systems. This
situation is unique to Israel."
* ^ Stadler 2009 , pp. 77–78: "According to various surveys of
Haredi community, between 46 and sixty percent of its members do
not participate in the labor market and 25 percent have part-time jobs
(see Berman 1998; Dahan 1998). Members who work usually take specific
jobs within a very narrow range of occupations, mainly those of
teachers and clerical or administrative staff (Lupo 2003). In
addition, because Haredim encourage large families, half of them live
in poverty and economic distress (Berman 1998)."
* ^ הרב הראשי לתלמידי הישיבות: אל תצפו
בטלוויזיה בפיצוציות TO YESHIVA STUDENTS: DON\'T
WATCH TV IN KIOSKS]. _YNETNEWS_ (IN HEBREW). 29 JULY 2013. RETRIEVED
21 SEPTEMBER 2013.
* ^ Rosenblum, Jonathan (2004-12-15). "Proud to be Chareidi".
Jewish Media Resources. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Miller,
Rabbi Jason (8 June 2012). "Ultra-Orthodox Jews
are Correct About the Dangers of the Internet". _The Huffington Post
_. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
* ^ "Is that cellphone kosher?".
BBC News. 2008-10-06. Retrieved
* ^ "Ultra-Orthodox
Jews Rally to Discuss Risks of Internet". _The
New York Times _. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
* ^ Dress: Why do some Orthodox Jews, especially Chassidim, wear a
distinctive style of clothing (i. e., fur hats, black coats, gartel)?,
Soc.Culture.Jewish: "The style of hat varies by groups, and the black
hat is relatively modern. In the pre-war Lithuanian Yeshivot, grey
suits and grey fedoras were the style and many in the Litvish
tradition still wear grey and blue suits."
* ^ Hoffman 2011 , p. 90
* ^ _A_ _B_ "A long article explaining the characteristics of
Haredi dress inside and outside the house". Peopleil.org.
* ^ Galahar, Ari. "
Rabbi Yosef comes out against wig-wearing".
Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
* ^ Marx, Daliah (16 July 2007). זה לא צנוע לדבר על
צניעות (IN HEBREW). YNETNEWS . RETRIEVED 11 MARCH 2014.
* ^ Aryeh Spero (11 January 2013). "Orthodoxy Confronts Reform –
The Two Hundred Years’ War". In Dana Evan Kaplan. _Contemporary
Debates in American Reform Judaism: Conflicting Visions_. Routledge.
p. 119. ISBN 978-1-136-05574-4 .
Haredi citizenship is beneficial,
however, since it creates safe neighborhoods where robbery, mugging,
or rape will not be visited on strangers walking through it, and where
rules of modesty and civilized behavior are the expected norm.
* ^ Starr Sered 2001 , p. 196
* ^ Sharkansky 1996 , p. 145: "Modesty patrols" exist in Bnei Brak
and ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods of Jerusalem; their purpose is to
keep those areas free of immoral influences."
* ^ Ben-Yehuda 2010 , p. 115: "Women dressed in what is judged as
immodest may experience violence and harassment, and demands to leave
the area. Immodest advertising may cause
Haredi boycotts, and public
spaces that present immodest advertisement may be vandalized."
* ^ Melman 1992 , p. 128: "In one part of the city, Orthodox
platoons smash billboards showing half-naked fashion models."
* ^ Heilman 2002 , p. 322: "While similar sentiments about the
moral significance of "immodest" posters in public are surely shared
by American haredim, they would not attack images of scantily clad
models on city bus stops on their neighborhoods with the same alacrity
as their Israeli counterparts.
* ^ Calvin Klein bra advert ruled OK despite Charedi complaint,
Jennifer Lipman, January 18, 2012
Jews flee Rio during carnival, Kobi Nahshoni 15/02/13
* ^ Cohen 2012 , p. 159
* ^ Lidman, Melanie (2012-08-29). "Egged: We will not use people on
J\'lem bus ads". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ Egged bars J’lem ads featuring aliens _Times of Israel_ (June
* ^ Ban this offensive advert, Jewish leaders demand, By Chris
Hastings and Elizabeth Day 27/07/03Daily Telegraph
* ^ N. J. Demerath, III; Nicholas Jay Demerath (1 January 2003).
_Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics_. Rutgers
University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8135-3207-3 . To honor the
Sabbath, many government services are closed, and no state buses
operate from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday. Recent religious
Jerusalem have ranged from Sabbath road closings in Jewish
areas and relocating a sports stadium so that it would not disturb a
particular neighborhood's Sabbath to halting the sale of non-kosher
food in Jewish sectors.
* ^ Issa Rose (2004). _Taking Space Seriously: Law, Space, and
Society in Contemporary Israel_. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp.
101–105. ISBN 978-0-7546-2351-9 . The residents of the neighbourhood
considered traffic on the Sabbath an intolerable provocation directly
interfering with their way of life and began to demonstrate against it
* ^ Landau 1993 , p. 276
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ettinger 2011
* ^ _A_ _B_ Zeveloff 2011
* ^ Chavkin & Nathan-Kazis 2011
* ^ Rosenberg 2011
* ^ Sharon 2012
* ^ Heller 2012
* ^ _The Jewish Spectator_. School of the Jewish Woman. 1977. p. 6.
THE NEW YORK State Assembly has passed a law permitting segregated
seating for women on the buses chartered by ultra-Orthodox
the routes from their
Brooklyn and Rockland County (Spring Valley,
Monsey, New Square) neighborhoods to their places of business and work
in Manhattan. The buses are equipped with mehitzot which separate the
men's section from the women's. The operator of the partitioned buses
and the sponsors of the law which permits their unequal seating argued
their case by invoking freedom of religion.
* ^ Dashefsk & Sheskin 2012 , p. 129
* ^ Haughney 2011
* ^ Kobre, Eytan (28 December 2011). "In The Hot Seat". _Mishpacha
_. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
* ^ Katya Alder (24 April 2007). "Israel\'s \'modesty buses\' draw
* ^ "
El Al to launch kosher flights for haredim -
Scene, Ynetnews". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ "Israel: Selected Issues Paper; IMF Country Report 12/71; March
9, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-23.
* ^ Rotemfirst1=Tamar (4 September 2012). "Israel\'s ultra-Orthodox
community tackles the issue of sexual abuse". _HAARETZ_. HAARETZ.
Retrieved 3 March 2015.
* ^ Bryant 2012 : "
Haredi press rarely reports on deviance and
unconventionality among Haredim. Thus, most reports are based on the
secular Press. This is consistent with
Haredi press policy of 'the
right of the people not to know,' which aims to shield
from exposure to information about such issues as rape, robbery,
suicide, prostitution, and so on."
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rita James Simon (28 July 1978). _Continuity and
Change: A Study of Two Ethnic Communities in Israel_. CUP Archive. pp.
73–74. ISBN 978-0-521-29318-1 .
* ^ Cohen 2012 , p. 79
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cohen 2012 , p. 80
* ^ anonymous (BBC) 2009
* ^ Tessler 2013
* ^ "ynet ביטאון ש"ס צנזר את תמונת רחל
אטיאס - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ Cohen 2012 , p. 93
* ^ Cohen & Susser 2000 , p. 103: "The
Haredi press, for its part,
is every bit as belligerent and dismissive. Apart from the recurrent
images of drug-crazed, sybaritic, terminally empty-headed young
people, the secular world is also portrayed as spitefully
* ^ Cohen & Susser 2000 , p. 102: "Yet when the
present the world of secular Israeli youth as mindless, immoral,
drugged, and unspeakably lewd..."
* ^ Cohen & Susser 2000 , p. 103
* ^ Cohen 2012 , p. 110
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cohen 2012 , p. 111
David Sherman (1993). _
Judaism Confronts Modernity: Sermons and
David Sherman on the Meaning of Jewish Life and Ideals
Today_. D. Sherman. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-620-18195-2 . The establishment
of the State of
Israel was bitterly opposed by the ultra-orthodox who
still have great difficulty in accepting it. In Mea Shearim, Yom
Israel Independence Day, is treated as a day of mourning.
They act as if they would rather be under Arafat or Hussein.
* ^ Ruth Ebenstein (2003). "Remembered Through Rejection: Yom
HaShoah in the Ashkenazi
Haredi Daily Press, 1950-2000". _Israel
Studies_. Volume 8 (Number 3, Fall 2003 ed.). Indiana University
Press. p. 149. A few years later, in the late 1990s, we find a
striking twist to the
Haredi rejection of the day. Both _Ha-mod'ia_
and _Yated Ne'eman_ usher in Yom HaShoah with trepidation. No longer
was the day simply one they found offensive, but in their experience,
it now marked the start of a week-long assault on Haredim for not
observing the trilogy of secular Israel's national "holy days" — Yom
HaShoah, Yom Hazikaron Lehaleley Zahal (the Memorial Day for Israel's
war dead), and Yom Ha'atzmaut (Independence Day). Sparked, perhaps, by
media coverage of Haredim ignoring memorial sirens, Haredim now felt
attacked, even hunted down, for their rejection of the day during a
period described by both
Haredi newspapers with the Talmudic term
_byimey edeyhem_, referring to idolatrous holidays.
Hasidic leader Yaakov Friedman, the Admor of Sadigura, dies at
* ^ Lior Dattel (2012-02-10). "New project to integrate Haredim in
higher education". _Haaretz_. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
* ^ "משכורות בצה"ל: כמה הצבא מוציא
עליכם?". Mako.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "סל ההטבות לאברך: 17 אלף שקל ברוטו -
כללי - הארץ". Haaretz.co.il. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "An example for an academic program for
Haredi yeshiva students
at the Israeli Open University". Openu.ac.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ Only one academic institution allows this. Also, most soldiers
work over 9 hours a day, and cannot afford such studies time-wise, or
with their low monthly salary (see prior references to soldier's
* ^ "תורה מגינה ומצילה". Shabes.net. Retrieved
* ^ "הרב עמאר: "ישיבת ההסדר באשקלון
מגנה על העיר"". Srugim.co.il. 2011-09-13. Retrieved
* ^ "שר הפנים אלי ישי: צה"ל נכשל במלחמת
לבנון השנייה כי החיילים לא התפללו -
חינוך וחברה - הארץ". Haaretz.co.il. 2012-01-18.
* ^ Mordecai Richler. "This Year in Jerusalem". Chatto & Windus,
1994. ISBN 0701162724 . pg/ 73.
* ^ Amos Harel (2012-02-24). "IDF facing shortage of new soldiers".
_Haaretz_. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
* ^ Amos Harel (2012-03-01). "
Haaretz probe: Many in IDF\'s Haredi
track aren\'t really Haredi". _Haaretz_. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
* ^ Sheleg, Yair. 2000. _The new religious Jews: recent
developments among observant
Israel (HaDati'im haHadashim:
Mabat achshavi al haHevra haDatit b'Yisrael)_. Jerusalem: Keter (in
* ^ "
BBC News -
Israel ends ultra-Orthodox military service
exemptions". Bbc.com. 2014-03-12. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
* ^ "נשפיע - סקר: 68% מהחרדים בעד גיוס
תלמידי ישיבות לצבא". Nashpia.co.il. 2013-04-18.
* ^ "הרב חיים דרוקמן בעד גיוס חרדים:
"מצווה מהתורה"". Kikarhashabat.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "הרב עובדיה יוסף על סכנת הגיוס:
"נעזוב את הארץ"". Kikarhashabat.co.il. Retrieved
* ^ "צפו בוידאו שעורר סערה: הרב אייכלר
"אם תפגעו בנו נעזוב את הארץ לצמיתות"".
Kooker.co.il. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "News report of mainstream
Haredi Rabbis cursing and inciting
against Lapid". Globes.co.il. 2013-09-29. Archived from the original
on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "A news report regarding an incitement campaign against people
Haredi enlistment included a long comic book depicting
Haredim as sheep, and the Secular, Nationally-Religious and their
politicians as predatory animals who conspire to eat them".
Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "ynet די להסתה: גם אני חרד"ק גאה -
יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "ynet אזהרה: בקרוב עלול להירצח חייל
חרדי - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
* ^ "ynet ביום שאחרי: "אף חייל לא הותקף.
ספין של צה"ל" - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved
* ^ "ynet "החיים שלנו סיוט". עדויות של
חיילים חרדים - יהדות". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved
* ^ עיבודים מיוחדים של מינהל מחקר
וכלכלה ללסקר כ’א של הל׳מס 2000–2013
* ^ Hila Weisberg (2012-01-27). "Measures on Haredim vanish from
labor reform". _The Marker - Haaretz_. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
* ^ "
Haredi unemployment costs billions annually". Ynetnews.com.
1995-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
* ^ "
OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies
of Labour Market and Social Policies: Israel" (1). 22 January 2010:
286. first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help )
* ^ Lisa Cave and Hamutal Aboody (December 2010). "The Benefits and
Costs of Employment Programs for the Haredim Implemented by the Kemach
Foundation". _Myers JDC Brookdale Institute_.
* ^ Ran Rimon: Bank of Israel: 45% of Haredim worked in 2011 Ynet 3
* ^ Bartram, David. "Cultural Dimensions of Workfare and Welfare".
_Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis_, 7:3, 233–247, 2005
* ^ "A news report on the very large Israeli company Tnuva
censoring women in order to please
Haredi clients". Ynet.co.il.
* ^ "A news report (August 2013)". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved
* ^ Erlanger, Steven (November 2, 2007). "A Modern Marketplace for
Israel’s Ultra-Orthodox". _The New York Times_. Retrieved
* ^ Paul Morland (April 7, 2014). "Israeli women do it by the
numbers". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
* ^ Dov Friedlander (2002). "Fertility in Israel: Is the Transition
to Replacement Level in Sight?
Part of: Completing the Fertility Transition." (PDF). United Nations
, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. * ^
Ibenboim, Racheli. "Ultra-Orthodox feminism: Not a contradiction in
terms." _Jewish Journal_. 29 June 2016. 1 July 2016.
* ^ Newman, Marissa (30 March 2014). "Gov\'t: Employers
discriminate against Arabs, Haredim". _The Times of
Retrieved 22 June 2014.
* ^ "
Yad Sarah – 30 Years Old". _
Israel Today Magazine_. 9 July
2006. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
* ^ Marks, Abbey (22 June 2007). "Israel\'s
Yad Sarah Makes
Volunteering With Elderly A National Pastime". Jweekly.com. Retrieved
8 December 2011.
* ^ "Analysis of Nonresponse in a Social Survey with the Sharp
Bounds Method" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ Brown 2011
* ^ "Britain Sees Spike in Ultra-Orthodox Population –".
Forward.com. 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ari Paltiel, Michel Sepulchre, Irene Kornilenko, Martin
Maldonado: Long‐Range Population Projections for Israel: 2009‐2059
Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Baumel, Simon D. (2005). _Sacred speakers:
language and culture among the Haredim in Israel_. New York : Berghahn
Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-062-5 . LCCN 2005053085 .
OCLC 226230948 .
* ^ "CBS predicts Arab-haredi majority in 2059 -
Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
* ^ Berger, Joseph (June 11, 2012). "Aided by Orthodox, City’s
Jewish Population Is Growing Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 16
* ^ Goldberg, J.J. (June 15, 2012). "Time To Rethink the New York
Jew: Study Leaves Out Suburbs and Ignores Splits Among Orthodox". The
Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Debra, Nussbaum Cohen (Feb 19, 2013). "As New York Haredim
multiply, Jewish Federation faces a quandary". Haaretz. Retrieved 16
* ^ Shwayder, Maya (2013-09-20). "NY Jewish community wields
growing political power: High birthrate of ultra-Orthodox and hassidic
communities expected to have great impact on future votes.". The
Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Berger, Joseph (July 5, 2012). "Divisions in
Complicate Politics of
Brooklyn Hasidim". The New York Times.
Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Fox, Margalit (March 25, 2005). "Naftali Halberstam Dies at 74;
Bobov Hasidim\'s Grand Rabbi". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June
* ^ Brenner, Elsa (April 3, 1994). "Two Groups Contest Role in
Promoting Lubavitch Judaism\'s Cause in the County". The New York
Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ According to sociologists studying contemporary Jewry,
Chabad movement neither fits into the category of
Haredi or modern
Orthodox , the standard categories for Orthodox Jews. This is due in
part to the existence of the "non-Orthodox Hasidim" (of which include
former Israeli President
Zalman Shazar ), the lack of official
recognition of political and religious distinctions within
the open relationship with non-Orthodox
Jews represented by the
Chabad emissaries. See Liebman, Charles S. “Orthodoxy in
American Jewish Life.” The American Jewish Year Book (1965): 21-97;
Ferziger, Adam S. “Church/sect theory and American orthodoxy
reconsidered.”Ambivalent Jew—Charles S. Liebman in memoriam, ed.
Stuart Cohen and Bernard Susser (2007): 107-124.
* ^ Weichselbaum, Simone (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four
Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds: Growing Orthodox
families across the borough account for most of the increase". The New
York Daily News. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Heilman, Samuel C. (2006). _Sliding to the Right: The
Contest for the Future of American Jewish Orthodoxy_. Berkeley,
California: University of California Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN
9780520247635 . Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Machberes/Matzav.com (November 17, 2010). "Shea Rubenstein
Claims Marine Park is "Fastest-Growing Jewish Community in the World".
The Jewish Press/Matzav.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Helmreich, William B. (1982). _The World of the
Yeshiva: An Intimate Portrait of Orthodox Jewry_. New York, New York:
The Free Press - Macmillan Publishing Company/Republished by Ktav
Publishing (2000). pp. 200, 226–228, 236–238. ISBN 0881256420 .
* ^ Diner, Hasia R. Diner (2000). _
Lower East Side Memories: A
Jewish Place in America_. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0691095450 . Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Geberer, Raanan (March 28, 2013). "\'Ultra-Orthodox Jews\': who
Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "Neighbors riled as insular
Hasidic village seeks to expand".
_The Korea Times_. February 27, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
* ^ McKenna, Chris (2011-03-25). "CENSUS 2010: Orange population
growth rate 2nd highest in state, but lower than expected Sullivan and
Ulster also recorded increases". Times Herald-Record. Retrieved 16
* ^ Santos, Fernanda (August 27, 2006). "Reverberations of a Baby
Boom". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "New Square".
_jewishvirtuallibrary.org_. Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia
Judaica. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Rockland County".
_jewishvirtuallibrary.org_. Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia
Judaica. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Eisenberg, Carol (June 10, 2006). "A clash of cultures in the
Five Towns". US Newsday. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Landes,
David (June 5, 2013). "How Lakewood, N.J., Is
Redefining What It Means To Be Orthodox in America: Seventy years ago,
Aharon Kotler built an enduring community of yeshiva scholars by
making peace with capitalism". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 16 June
* ^ Lipman, Steve (2009-11-11). "A
Haredi Town Confronts Abuse From
The Inside: Passaic, N.J., is waging a lonely fight against
molestation in the Orthodox community. Will its example spread?". The
New York Jewish Week. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Cohler-Esses, Larry (July 28, 2009). "An Inside Look at a
Syrian-Jewish Enclave: Solidarity Forever, or ‘Medieval Minds in
Armani Designs’?". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Lubman Rathner, Janet (October 15, 2005). "An Orthodox
Destination". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Klein, Amy (November 9, 2006). "Two neighborhoods reveal
Orthodox community’s fault lines: Pico-Robertson vs. Hancock Park".
Jewish Journal. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Tavory, Iddo. "The Hollywood shtetl: From ethnic enclave to
religious destination (2010)". _academia.edu_. sagepublications.com.
Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Wax, Burton (Spring 2012). "Orthodoxy/Traditional
Chicago (June 10, 2012) PDF" (PDF). _
Chicago Jewish Historical
Society_. 36, No 1 (
Chicago Jewish History): 15–16. Retrieved 16
Denver West Side Jewish Community
* ^ Wittenberg, Ed (August 23, 2013). "Telshe
Yeshiva hidden gem in
Cleveland Jewish News. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Encyclopedia of
Cleveland History/Case Western Reserve
Yeshiva - The Encyclopedia of
(13 Mar 2011)". _ech.case.edu_. The Encyclopedia of
Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Graham & Vulkan 2010
* ^ Pinter 2010
* ^ Wynne-Jones 2006
* ^ "Shtetls of the mind". _The Economist_. 13 June 2015. Retrieved
17 December 2015.
* ^ Ultra-Orthodox
Jews launch million-pound fundraising bid to
stop children living with \'irreligious parents\'
* ^ _A_ _B_ Graham & Vulkan 2008
* Batnitzky, Leora (2011). _How
Judaism Became a Religion: An
Introduction to Modern Jewish Thought_.
Princeton University Press .
ISBN 9781400839711 .
* anonymous (BBC) (April 3, 2009). "Papers alter
BBC _. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
* Ben Yehuda, Nachman (2010). _Theocratic Democracy: The Social
Construction of Religious and Secular Extremism_. Oxford University
Press . ISBN 9780199813230 .
* Brown, Mick (February 25, 2011). "Inside the private world of
London\'s ultra-Orthodox Jews". _
The Daily Telegraph _. Retrieved 2
* Bryant, Clifton D. D. (2012). _The Handbook of Deviant Behavior_.
Routledge International Handbooks. CRC Press. ISBN 1134015577 .
* Chavkin, Sasha; Nathan-Kazis, Josh (November 4, 2011). "Outside
New York City, Sexes Separated on State-Funded Bus". _New York World
The Jewish Daily Forward _. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
* Cohen, Asher; Susser, Bernard (2000). _
Israel and the Politics of
Jewish Identity: The Secular-Religious Impasse_. JHU Press. ISBN
* Cohen, Yoel (2012). "Mikva News". _God,
Jews and the Media:
Religion and Israel's Media_.
Routledge Jewish Studies Series.
Routledge . pp. 77–95. ISBN 1136338586 .
* Dashefsk, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira M. (2012). _American Jewish Year
Book 2012_. Springer. ISBN 9789400752047 .
* Ettinger, Yair (April 21, 2011). "Four surveys yield different
Haredi population". _
Haaretz _. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
* Ettinger, Yair (September 23, 2011). "Israel\'s Dead Sea to get
its first gender-divided beach". _
Haaretz _. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
* Graham, David; Vulkan, Daniel (June 2008). "Population Trends
among Britain\'s Strictly Orthodox Jews" (PDF). _
Board of Deputies _.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 9
* Graham, David; Vulkan, Daniel (May 2010). "
Synagogue Membership in
United Kingdom in 2010" (PDF). _Institute for Jewish Policy
Research ">(PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
* Harris, Ian Charles (1992). _Contemporary Religions: A World
Guide_. Longman Current Affairs. ISBN 978-0-582-08695-1 .
* Haughney, Christine (October 19, 2011). "At Front of
a Clash of Religious and Women’s Rights". _
New York Times _.
Retrieved 2 August 2013.
* Heller, Moshe (August 6, 2012). "Beit Shemesh: Signs excluding
women still up". _
Yedioth Ahronoth _. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
* Hoffman, Seymour (2011). _"Two Are Better Than One": Case Studies
of Brief Effective Therapy_. Mondial. ISBN 9781595691965 .
* Melman, Yossi (1992). _The new Israelis: an intimate view of a
changing people_. Carol Pub. Co. ISBN 9781559721295 .
* Heilman, Samuel C. (2002). "Haredim and the Public Square". In
Mittleman, Alan L.; Licht, Robert A.; Sarna, Jonathan D. _Jewish
Polity and American Civil Society: Communal Agencies and Religious
Movements in the American Public Sphere_. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN
* Ilan, Shahar (July 12, 2012). "The myth of
Haredi moral authority:
Judaism isn\'t our forefathers\' religion, but a radical and
dangerous new cult". _
Haaretz _. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
David (1993). _Piety and Power: The World of Jewish
Fundamentalism_. Secker & Warburg. ISBN 9780436241567 .
Abraham (June 24, 2010). "Alderman should face facts".
The Jewish Chronicle _. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
* Rosenberg, Oz (October 16, 2011). "
Israel High Court upholds ban
Sukkot gender segregation in Jerusalem". _
Haaretz _. Retrieved 7
* Sharkansky, Ira (1996). "Religion and Public Policy". _Rituals of
Conflict: Religion, Politics, and Public Policy in Israel_. Lynne
Rienner. ISBN 9781555876784 .
* Sharon, Jeremy (April 10, 2012). "\'Mea She\'arim not enforcing
gender separation\'". _
Jerusalem Post _. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
* Stadler, Nurit (2009). _
Yeshiva Fundamentalism: Piety, Gender, and
Resistance in the Ultra-Orthodox World_. NYU Press. p. 4. ISBN
* Starr Sered, Susan (2001). "Replaying the Rape of Dinah: Women's
Bodies in Israeli Cultural Discourse". In Frankel, Jonathan. _
Gender: The Challenge to Hierarchy_. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Tessler, Yitzhak (March 28, 2013). "
Haredi weekly censors female
Holocaust victims". _
Yedioth Ahronoth _. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
* Weintraub, Aviva (2002). "Poultry in Motion: The Jewish Atonement
Ritual of Kapores". In Abramovitch, Ilana; Galvin, Seán. _
Brooklyn_. Brandeis series in American Jewish history, culture, and
life. UPNE. ISBN 9781584650034 .
* Wise, Yaakov (July 23, 2007). "\'Majority of
Jews will be
Ultra-Orthodox by 2050\'". _
University of Manchester _. Retrieved 9
* Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (November 26, 2006). "Is this the last
generation of British Jews?". _
Daily Telegraph _. Retrieved 9 August
* Zeveloff, Naomi (October 28, 2011). "Sex-Segregation Spreads Among
Orthodox: Buses, Public Sidewalks and Streets Split Between Men and
The Jewish Daily Forward _. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
* Hirshman, Yechezkel (2007). _One Above and Seven Below: A
Consumer's Guide to Orthodox
Judaism from the Perspective of the
Chareidim_. MAZO PUBLISHERS. ISBN 9789657344385 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAREDI JUDAISM _.
* Benjamin Brown , "Orthodox Judaism", in: The Blackwell Companion
to Judaism, 2001.
Haredi and technology
Haredi Jewish population growth
* Map of the main
Haredi Communities in Jerusalem
* Dei\'ah Vedibur – Online
* Kemach Foundation
* Greek Orthodox
* Roman Catholic
* Syriac Orthodox
* Aramean Syriac
* Assyrian Syriac
OTHER ABRAHAMIC FAITHS