Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The UEP that defines this clade is the SNP known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184. As a primary branch of haplogroup LT (a.k.a. K1), the basal, undivergent haplogroup T* currently has the alternate phylogenetic name of K1b and is a sibling of haplogroup L* (a.k.a. K1a). (Before 2008, haplogroup T and its subclades were known as haplogroup K2.[2] The name K2 has since been reassigned to a primary subclade of haplogroup K.) It has two primary branches: T1 (T-L206) and T2 (T-PH110).

T-M184 is unusual in that it is both geographically widespread and relatively rare (considering that it originated around 40,000 years ago).[3][4][5]

A living male from Armenia is reportedly the only known case of basal T* (T-M184*).[6] (That is, an example of T-M184* that does not including mutations identifying T-L206 or T-PH110.)

As a whole, T-M184, is found at its highest frequencies among some populations in parts of the Horn of Africa, East India, Madagascar, Kazakhstan and Sicily. Some sources suggest that the arrival of the lineage in these regions is due to relatively recent[vague] migrations.[7][8] T-M184 occurs at frequencies of greater than 30% (in large samples) from populations as diverse as Dir clan ethnic Somalis of Djibouti, Antemoro of Madagascar, Bauri, and Yerukula of East India, Argyns from Kazakhstan and rural Sciaccensis from Sicily.

T2 (T-PH110) is very rare and has been found in three distinct geographical regions: the North European Plain, the Kura-Araks Basin of the Caucasus, and Bhutan.[3][4][9] None of these regions, however, now appears to feature populations with high frequencies of haplogroup T-M184.[3][10]

T1 (T-L206) – the numerically dominant primary branch of T-M184 – appears to have originated in Western Asia, possibly somewhere between northeastern Anatolia and the Zagros Mountains,[citation needed] and spread from there into the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, South Asia, Southern Europe and adjoining regions. T1* may have expanded with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Most males who now belong to haplogroup T-L206 carry the subclade T-M70 (T1a), a primary branch of T-M206. Now most commonly found in North Africa and the Middle East, T-M70 nevertheless appears to have long been present in Europe, having possibly arrived there in the Neolithic epoch with the first farmers.[2] This is supported by the discovery of several members of T1a1 (CTS880) at a 7,000 year old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany and two members in 5800-5400Bc neolithic site in Malak Preslavets, Bulgaria.[11][12] Autosomal analysis of these remains suggest that some were closely related to modern Southwest Asian populations.[11][13]


A tree showing the structure of subclades within haplogroup T-M184.
Subclade structure of Haplogroup T (M184).[14]
  • T1 (L206)
    • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662)
      • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L454)
        • T1a1a (L208/Page2)
          • T1a1a1 (CTS11451)
          • T1a1a2 (Y16897)
            • T1a1a2a (Z19963)
      • T1a2 (L131)
        • T1a2a (PH141/Y13244)
        • T1a2b (L446)
      • T1a3 (FGC1350/Y11151 )
        • T1a3a (Y11675/Z9798)
        • T1a3b (FGC1340/Y8614)
  • T2 (PH110)



Haplogroup T is found at high levels in isolated pockets as far apart as Central Asia, Northeast and Eastern India, Northern Asia, Central Africa, and South Africa. The clade is borne by a majority of Dir clan Somalis in the Horn of Africa;[15] among Kurru, Bauris & Lodha in South Asia; among Toubou in Chad; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; general Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fula (Fulbe) in north Cameroon; people from the Chian, Aquilani, Saccensi, Ibizan (Eivissenc) and Mirandese regions in Europe; Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris in the Middle East, and Nenets and Kazakhs (especially Momyns and Argyns) in Siberia/Central Asia.[citation needed]

The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T-M184 is observed among Somalis in the Dire Dawa area[16] and Djibouti,[15] where it accounts for approximately 82% of the Somali male lineages[16] to 100% of the Somali Dir male lineages, respectively.[15] Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of T on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 BP and 9,000 BP, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 BP). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.[17]

Prevalence of T-M184 in Armenians from Sasun
Interestingly, haplogroup T-M184, which is relatively rare in other Near Eastern populations, as well as in three of the Armenian collections tested here, represents the most prominent descent in Sasun, comprising 20.1% of the samples. The presence of this haplogroup in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, by contrast, is more limited, composing only 3.6%, 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively, of the individuals from those collections.[...]Sasun, however, exhibits statistically significant divergence from the remaining Armenian populations, most likely as the result of the prominence in Sasun of lineages (T-M184 and R2a-M124) found at substantially lower frequencies in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van.

Kristian J Herrera, 2012

In the Caucasus and Anatolia it makes up to 4% of the population in southeast and northwest Caucasus as well as in southeast and western Anatolia, peaking up to 20% in Armenians from Sasun. In Middle East it makes up to 4% of the population around the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf as well as around the Taurus Mountains and the Levant basin, peaking up to 10% in Zoroastrians from Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Assyrians from Azerbaijan, Abudhabians, Armenians from Historical Southwestern Armenia and Druzes from Galilee. In Eastern Africa it makes up to 4% of the population on Upper Egypt and Somalia, peaking up to 10% in Luxor, Jijiga and Dire Dawa.

Haplogroup T is rare almost everywhere in Europe. According to Mendez et al. (2011), "the occurrence in Europe of lineages belonging to both T1a1 (old T1a) and T1a2 (old T1b) subclades probably reflects multiple episodes of gene flow. T1a1* haplogroups in Europe likely reflect older gene flow".[2] It makes up to 4% of the population on Central Italy, Western Sicily, Northwest Corsica, Northwestern Iberian Peninsula, Western Andalucia, Western Alps, Eastern Crete, and Macedonia, frequencies up to 10% in Ibiza, Miranda de I Douro, Eastern Oviedo, Cádiz, Badajoz, Balagna, Norma and Ragusa, and peaking at 20% in Sciacca, L'Aquila and some German regions[which?]. T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia.[18] The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.

T1 (T-L206)

Population Language Location Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Sejenane 1/47 2.1% [19]
Syrians Unspecified Syria 1/95 1.1% [2]
Macedonians Macedonian
Macedonia 1/201 0.5% [20] Macedonians Orthodox Christians

T1 is the most common descent of T-M184 haplogroup, being the lineage of more than 95% of all Eurasian T-M184 members. One of their descent lineages is found in high frequencies among northern Somali Clans. However, it appears to have originated somewhere around the northern Mediterranean Basin, perhaps somewhere between Greece to the Zagros mountains.

The basal T1* subclade appears to have spread from northeastern Anatolia, into the Levant at least, with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Although it is rare in modern populations, T1* has been found in a Berber individual from Tunisia, a male in Syria, and one sequence among ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia.[2][19][20]

Initial research into T1a (T-M70; previously known as K2)
K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe 18%( [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999])

J. R. Luis et al. 2004, [17]

T1a (M70)

Mendez et al. (2011) points to an ancient presence for T1a-M70 in Europe may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers.[2]


Pityusans: one of three genetically distinct populations in the Balearic Islands
The population of the Pityusic Islands does present a clear genetic divergence in relation to the Mallorcan and Menorcan populations. Neither shows a confluence with the Catalan and Valencian populations like do the Mallorcan and Menorcan. With the comparison of the data provided by the Pityusic population with other circumediterranean populations surprises that practically there is no convergence with any of these populations, not even with the North African populations. The Pityusic case is paradigmatic: for some markers shows affinities with Oriental populations (some mtDNA variables), but diverges from these populations when considering other markers. Is a separate case, a island, not in the geographical sense but genetical.

Misericòrdia Ramon Juanpere et al., 1998-2004

Recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany.[11][12]

The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement has the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.[11] T1a1 (T-L162/Page21; also known as T-L162(xL208) and T-L454), which emerged 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70. An individual with T1a1 was first identified in a paper by Tomas et al. in 2006, among a sample of Ibizans (Eivissencs) from the Balearic Islands of Spain.[21] T-L162(xL208) has also been reported in at least one male with a Pontic Greek background.[citation needed]

A subgroup of Ibizans – the Pityusans of the Pityusic Islands – have been found by three different studies to possess T1a1 at relatively high levels of 6.7–16.7%. Tomàs et al. (2006) found three cases amongst a sample of 45 (6.7%).[21] Zalloua et al. (2008) found nine examples that were L454+ (an SNP equivalent to L162/Page21) from a sample of 54 (i.e. a rate of 16.7%).[22][23] Rodriguez et al. (2009) found seven cases of L454+ in a sample of 96 (7.3%).[24]

The Pontic Greeks of Anatolia are also reported to possess T1a1. In 2009, a male with the surname Metaxopoulos and a Pontic Greek background was reported to be T-L162(xL208) – according to the Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project administered by Adriano Squecco.[citation needed] Greeks from the Giresun (originally Choerades Κερασοῦς; later Kerasous) reportedly migrated in antiquity from Sinope, which was itself colonised by Ionians (from Miletus). Another ancient Ionian colony in north-west Anatolia, Lámpsakos (Lampsacus), had onomastic links to the Pityusic Islands (see above) – Lámpsakos was originally an Ionian colony known as Pityussa.

T1a1a (L208)

This lineage, formed 14,200-11,000 BP, is the largest branch downstream T1a1-L162. Firstly discovered and reported at August 2009 in a 23andMe customer of Iberian ancestry that participated in the public Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project and appearing there as "Avilés" and as "AlpAstur" in 23andMe. Named as "L208" at November 2009.

T1a1a1a1b1a1* (T-Y3782*)

One Sardinian male from a sample of 187 (a nominal rate of 0.53%) – a resident of the Province of Cagliari (Sardinian: Casteddu) – has been found to have T-Y3782(xY3836), also known T1a1a1a1b1a1(xT1a1a1a1b1a1a).[25]

T1a1a1a1b1a1a (T-Y3836)

T-Y3836 Phylogeny. Using 19 Y-STR markers.

This lineage is mostly found among individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, where the subclade also has its highest diversity. The first Y-STR haplotype of this lineage, characterized by DYS437=13, was found in the public FTDNA Y-DNA Haplogroup T project, appearing there at April 2009 as kit E8011. However, is not until June 2014 when the Y-SNP Y3836 was discovered in the public YFULL project among two of their participants of Iberian ancestry, appearing there as YF01637 and YF01665.

Actually, two subclades can be clearly discriminated. The first, found mainly in post-colonial Puerto Rico, with DYS391=10 and the second, found mainly in Panamá where their Iberian descendants could have the entrance point to America, with DYS439=12.

Some members of Y3836 are found among different communities of the Sephardic diaspora but they are found to be extremely rare in the total percentage of some of these communities as seen in Nogueiro et al. This probably could mean that these members could be integrated by these communities through the contact with other native Iberian populations as seen in Monteiro et al. where this lineage was found among native Astur-Leonese speakers.

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 1/30 3.3% [26]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Caldas 2/75 2.7% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 1/43 2.3% [26]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Castilian (Romance languages) Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/50 2% [27] YHRD Admixed population
Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican Castilian (Romance languages) Southeast Puerto Rico 2/110 1.8% [28]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança, Argozelo, Carção, Mogadouro, and Vilarinho dos Galegos 1/57 1.8% [29][30][31]
Native Mirandese speakers Mirandese Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 1/58 1.7% [32][33]
Dominicans Dominican Castilian (Romance languages) Dominican Republic 4/261 1.5% [34]
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [26]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 2/200 1% [35]
Mestizos Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Bogotá 2/195 1% YHRD
Mestizos Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Valle del Cauca 1/103 1% YHRD
Mestizos Ecuadorian Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 1/102 1% [36]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 1/111 0.9% [37]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Central Region 1/115 0.9% [38]
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) São Paulo 1/120 0.8 YHRD European descents
Ecuadorians Ecuadorian Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 1/120 0.8% [39]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Antioquia 6/777 0.7% [40]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Mérida 1/159 0.6% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Alhama de Granada, Baza, Huéscar, Loja, Montefrío and Órgiva 1/180 0.6% [41]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Santander 1/193 0.5% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Chileans Chilean Castilian (Romance languages) Concepción 1/198 0.5% YHRD
Catalans Not reported Metropolitan area of Barcelona 1/224 0.5% [42]
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Guadalajara 1/246 0.4% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 1/255 0.4% [43]

T2 (PH110)

 This lineage could have arrived in the Levant through the PPNB expansion from northeastern Anatolia.

A 2014 study found T-PH110 in one ethnic Bhutanese male, out of a sample of 21, possibly implying a rate of 4.8% in Bhutan.[3] Also have been found in a German individual and another two from Caucasus. The Bhutanese and the German haplotypes seems to cluster together.

Possible cases from older research

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Altaians Altai (Turkic) Kurmach-Baygol 2/11 18.2% [44] K* (xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)
Altaians Altai (Turkic) Turochak 2/19 10.5% [44] K(xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 1/13 7.7% [9][45] K(xT1a-M70, L1-M22, P-92R7)
Ossetian Irons Iron (Iranian) South Ossetia 1/21 4.8% [9][46] No further details available.
Cordobeses Andalusian (Romance) Córdoba 1/27 3.7% [9][47] No further details available.
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 2/60 3.3% [9][47] No further details available.
Tharus Tharu (Indo-Aryan) Morang 1/37 2.7% [48] K(xT1a-M70, L-M20, NO-M214, P-M74)
Cherkessians Besleney (Northwest Caucasian) Circassia 2/126 1.6% [9][46] No further details are available.
Bizkaians Bizkaiera (Isolate language) Bizkaia 1/72 1.4% [9][47] No further details are available.
Europeans English (Germanic) Australia 1/1078 0.9% [49] No further details are available.

Geographical distribution

Northern Asia

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kazakhs Kazakh (Turkic) Southwestern Altai 1/30 3.3% [50] T1a-M70
Evens Even (Tungusic) eastern Siberia 1/61 1.6% [51]
Barghuts Barga (Mongolic) different localities of Hulun Buir Aimak 1/76 1.3% [51] T1a-M70. In the 12–13th centuries, the Barga (Barghuts) Mongols appeared as tribes near Lake Baikal, named Bargujin.


Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Marchigianos Marchigiano dialect (Italian) Arquata del Tronto and Apiro 2/2 100% [52]
Cretans and southern Aegeans Southeastern Greek Crete and southern Aegean 2/6 33.3% [53]
Rural Saccensi Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 6/20 30% [54]
Chians Southeastern Greek Khíos 4/16 25% [55]
Stilfser (Tyrolese) Southern Austro-Bavarian (German) Stilfs, South Tyrol, Italy 4/17 23.5% [56]
Sephardic Levites 7/31 22.6% [57] Among Ashkenazi Levites found at 3.3% but different haplotype.
Venetians Venetian (Romance) Vigasio and Povegliano Veronese 2/9 22.2% [58]
Abruzzesi Neapolitan language (Romance) L'Aquila 6/30 20% [59] macro-haplogroup LT is 30% in L'Aquila population. This was the land of Samnium inhabited by the Caraceni
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 9/50 18% [60] According to Martinez2007 only can belong to T1a-M70
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 5/28 17.9% [61]
Urban Ragusani Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 3/19 15.8% [54]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança, Argozelo, Carção, Mogadouro, and Vilarinho dos Galegos 9/57 15.7% [29][30][31] T have been found to be the second largest lineage in the Mirandês speaking population of Miranda do Douro too. Haplogroup T was not found in a sample of Belmonte Jews.
Albanians Albanian Brescia (Lombardia) 12/83 14.5% [62] The haplogroup tested is K*(xNOP), is assumed as LT and most probably are members of T
Rural Normensi Italian (Romance) Norma 1/7 14.3% [54]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Balagne (region of Corsica suprana) 3/24 12.5% [63]
Rural Piazzesi Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 3/24 12.5% [54]
Frosinonensis Central Italian language (Romance) Filettino 2/17 11.8% [64] Isolated mountain community
Vellepetrianis Central Italian language (Romance) Vallepietra 2/18 11.1% [64] Isolated mountain community
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 2/18 11.1% [65] All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the geographical origin of their grandparents and their speaking dialect.
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Matelica 1/9 11.1% [52]
Gaditanos Andalusian (Romance) Cádiz 3/28 10.7% [66]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 6/58 10.4% [32][33]
Pacenses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Badajoz 3/29 10.3% [45]
Asturianos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Eastern Uviéu 1/10 10% [67]
Murcianos Murcian (Romance) Murcia 1/10 10% [68]
Aquilanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Cappadocia 5/54 9.3% [64] Isolated mountain community
Rural Alcamesi Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/22 9.1% [54]
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 2/23 8.7% [69]
Ligurians and Tuscans Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia / Massa 2/24 8.3% [59]
Lugueses Galician language (Romance) Lugo 1/12 8.3% [45]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) West Campania 7/84 8.3% [70]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Cilento 4/48 8.3% [60]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/24 8.3% [61]
Lebaniegos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Liébana 3/37 8.1% [71]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Corte (region of Corsica suprana) 5/62 8.1% [63]
Segovianos Castilian language (Romance) Segovia 2/25 8% [45]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Offida 3/38 7.9% [72]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 9/114 7.9% [61]
Saracinescanis Central Italian language (Romance) Saracinesco 2/18 7.7% [64] Isolated mountain community
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Mljet Island 3/39 7.7% [73]
Northern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Vila Real 3/39 7.7% [74]
Materanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Matera and Policoro 4/52 7.7% [75]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Campania 8/108 7.4% [76]
Cretans Cretan Greek Oropedio Lasithiou 3/41 7.3% [69]
Latinensis Neapolitan language (Romance) (Romance) Norma and Sezze 3/41 7.3% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 2/28 7.1% [61]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 2/28 7.1% [61]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Trapani 3/43 7% [63]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 3/43 7% [75]
Leccesis Salentino language (Romance) Vaste and Ugento 3/46 6.5% [75]
Walloons Walloon (Romance) Wallonia 3/47 6.4% [77]
Ascolanis Marchigiano (Romance) Offida and Ascoli Piceno 3/47 6.4% [75]
Asturianos Eonavian (Romance) Navia-Eo 2/31 6.5% [67]
Gagauzes Gagauz (Turkic) Kongaz 3/48 6.3%
Solàndris Solànder (Rhaeto-Romance) Val de Sól 4/65 6.2% [78]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Aveiro 4/66 6.1%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 10/167 6% [41]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/34 5.9%
Corsicans Corsican Corsica 2/34 5.9%
Panteschis Sicilian with Siculo-Arabic influences (Romance) Pantelleria 1/17 5.9% [79]
Extremadurans Astur-Leonese and Castilian (Romance) Extremadura 3/52 5.8%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Unspecified Bulgarian region 4/69 5.8% [80]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) Tuscany 3/53 5.7% [81]
Dutch Hollandic (West Germanic) North Holland 1/18 5.6%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 1/18 5.6% [63]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Mazara del Vallo 1/18 5.6%
Southern Italians Italian (Romance) South Apulia 4/71 5.6%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 4/74 5.4% [82]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) South Sicily 3/55 5.4%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 7/131 5.3%
Hutterites Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) South Tyrol 4/75 5.3% [83]
Peloponnesians Southern Greek Peloponnese 1/19 5.3% [53]
Gutes Gutnish (North Germanic) Gotland 2/40 5%
Alsatians Alsatian (Upper German) Strossburi 4/80 5%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 1/20 5%
Italian speakers Italian (Romance) Bozen 3/59 5%
Ladin Stilfser/Tyrolese Ladin (Romance) Stelvio 1/20 5%
Gaditanos Andalusian language (Romance) Cadiz 1/20 5% [45]
Malacitanos Andalusian language (Romance) Málaga 1/20 5% [45]
Macedonians and Thracians Northern Greek East Macedonia and Thrace 1/21 4.8% [53]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Razgrad 1/21 4.8% [80]
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Trás os Montes 3/64 4.7%
Corsicans Gallurese (Romance languages) Tempiu 4/86 4.7% [25]
Sardinians Sassarese (Romance) Sassari 2/43 4.7% [63]
Jennesis Central Italian language (Romance) Jenne 3/65 4.6% [64] Isolated mountain community
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Buccheri 1/22 4.6% [75]
Casteddammaresis Sicilian (Romance) Casteddammari 1/22 4.6% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 4/87 4.6%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 1/22 4.5% [66]
West Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Sevilla 7/155 4.5% [66]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Santiago 2/46 4.4%
Palentinos Castilian language (Romance) Palencia 1/23 4.4% [45]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Aragó 1/23 4.4% [84]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) Central Liguria 2/45 4.4% [72]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Penedès 7/164 4.3% [84]
Greeks Greek Athens 4/92 4.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese Beira Litoral 5/116 4.3%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 2/46 4.3% [72]
South Italians Salentino (Romance) North Apulia 2/46 4.3%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/70 4.3% [66]
Cimbrians Cimbrian (West Germanic languages) Lessinia 1/24 4.2% [78]
Pincianos Castilian language (Romance) Valladolid 1/24 4.2% [45]
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Zadar Hinterland 1/25 4% [73]
Macedonians Northern Greek Central Macedonia 1/25 4% [53]
Madrileños Castilian language (Romance) Madrid 2/50 4% [45]
Germans German (West Germanic) Berlin 4/103 3.9%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Braga 2/51 3.9%
Beneventanis Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio la Molara 1/26 3.9% [75]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) South Tuscany 3/79 3.8%
Riojans Riojan and Castilian (Romance) La Rioja 2/54 3.7% [65]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Apennines Marche 1/27 3.7%
Calabrians Southern Italian (Romance) West Calabria 1/27 3.7% [72]
Urban Biellesi Piedmontese (Romance) Bièla 3/81 3.7% [54]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Kharkiv Oblast 2/55 3.6% [85]
Native Sayaguese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Sayago 1/28 3.6% [32]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Montes Baixo Miño 1/28 3.6%
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Ajaccio (region of Corsica sutana) 1/28 3.6% [63]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sassari and Orgosolo 2/56 3.6% [86]
Southern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Évora 1/29 3.5%
Cretans Cretan Greek Khania 1/29 3.5% [60]
Canarians Canarian Spanish (Romance) La Palma 3/85 3.5%
Scanians Scanian dialects (South Scandinavian) Malmö 1/29 3.4%
Auvergnats Auvergnat (Romance) Clermont-Ferrand 3/89 3.4%
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Eastern Azores 3/87 3.4% [87]
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Uviéu 6/182 3.3% [82]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Lugo 2/61 3.3%
Albanians Albanian dialects Albania 1/30 3.3%
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 1/30 3.3% [29]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Viseu 1/30 3.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Guarda 1/30 3.3%
Catanzaresis southern Calabrese (Romance) Catanzaro 1/30 3.3% [75]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) West Sicily 4/122 3.3%
Leoneses Astur-leonese language (Romance) Leon 7/221 3.2% [45]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) West Aukstaiciai 1/31 3.2%
Euboeans Thessalian (Hellenic) Euboea 3/93 3.2% [75]
Greeks Northern Greek Western Greece 1/31 3.2% [53]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio La Molara 1/31 3.2% [72]
Valencians Catalan and Castilian (Romance) Valencia 1/31 3.2% [66]
Southern Tyroleans Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Lower Vinschgau 1/32 3.1%
Rhinelanders Ripuarian (Central Franconian) Köln 3/96 3.1%
Swedes Swedish dialects (East Scandinavian) Örebro 1/32 3.1%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/98 3.1% [88]
Albaceteño Castilian language (Romance) Albacete 1/32 3.1% [45]
Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Madeira 4/129 3.1%
Asturianos Astur-Leonese language (Romance) Asturias 1/33 3% [45]
Lentinesi Sicilian (Romance) Lentini 1/33 3% [75]
Shetlanders with Aboriginal surnames Scots language and Norn Language (Germanic) Shetland 1/35 2.9% Shetland Project
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Siracusa 4/138 2.9% [75]
Baslers Basel German (West Germanic) Basel-Stadt 18/643 2.8% [82]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Smolensk Oblast 3/107 2.8% [85]
Gienenses Castilian language (Romance) Jaen 1/36 2.8% [45]
Native Alistano speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Aliste 1/36 2.8% [32]
Germans German (Germanic) Germany 1/37 2.7% Karafet15
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 3/110 2.7% [85]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/150 2.7% [89]
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Central Azores 2/76 2.6% [87]
Augustanis Sicilian (Romance) Augusta 1/38 2.6% [75]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Vysocina 1/40 2.5% [90]
Fiemmeses Fiamazzo (Romance) Val de Fiem 1/41 2.4% [78]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Turnhout 1/42 2.4% [91] ‘1675’ data set
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 1/42 2.4%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Haskovo 1/41 2.4% [80]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/41 2.4% [92]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/48 2.1% [93]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Tongeren 1/43 2.3% [94] T1a1a-L208
Sardinians Sardinian, Corsican (Romance) Sardinia 28/1204 2.3% [95]
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Dubrovnik 4/179 2.2% [73]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Kursk Oblast 1/45 2.2% [85]
Sardinians Gallurese (Romance) Gaddùra 1/46 2.2% [63]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sardinia 27/1204 2.2% [95]
Belvederesi Neapolitan language (Romance) Belvedere Marittimo 1/45 2.2% [75]
Fascians Fascian (Rhaeto-Romance) Fascia 1/47 2.1% [78]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Lipetsk Oblast 1/47 2.1%
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Chernihiv Raion 2/96 2.1% [85]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance) Trexenta 1/47 2.1% [63]
Sardinians Logudorese (Romance languages) Benetuti 1/48 2.1% [93]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) western Aukštaitija 1/50 2% [85]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Sumy Oblast 2/101 2% [85]
Zamoranos Castilian (Romance) Campos - Pan 1/50 2% [32]
Southwestern Almerians Andalusian (Romance) Laujar de Andarax, Ohanes, Berja and Adra 1/50 2% [96]
Alpujarreños Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra de la Sierra 1/50 2%
Corinthians Ionian-Peloponesian and Albanian (Hellenic) Corinthia 2/104 1.9% [75]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/211 1.9% [97]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Sòrgono 2/103 1.9% [25]
Catalans Catalan language (Romance language) Camp de Tarragona 4/214 1.9% [84]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Cherkasy Raion 2/114 1.8% [85]
Adigeses Italian (Romance) Val d'Adige 1/56 1.8% [78]
Bosch surname members Catalan language (Romance language) Països Catalans 1/56 1.8% [98]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Southwestern Gipuzkoa 1/57 1.8% [65]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Gipuzkoa 1/58 1.7% [99]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Noord-Brabant 2/119 1.7% [91] ‘1775’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia 1/59 1.7% [80]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Lovech 1/62 1.6% [80]
Balearics Majorcan (Romance) Majorca 2/129 1.6% [84]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Plzen 1/62 1.6% [90]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 3/200 1.5% [35]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Belgorod Oblast 2/143 1.4% [85]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Castelló 2/146 1.4% [84]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Plovdiv 2/159 1.3% [80]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Montana, Bulgaria 1/80 1.3% [80]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Central Catalonia 3/230 1.3% [84]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Barcelona 3/231 1.3% [84]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Barcelona Periphery 3/235 1.3% [84]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Eastern Belarus 1/86 1.2% [100]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Usti nad Labem 1/86 1.2% [90]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Penza Oblast 1/81 1.2%
Faroese Faroese (Germanic) Faroe Islands 1/89 1.1% [101] Grandfathers originated from various Faroese islands.
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Casteddu 2/187 1.1% [25]
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 2/180 1.1% [41]
Moravian Valachs Romanian language (Romance languages) Moravian Wallachia 1/94 1.1% [102]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Eastern Polesie 1/96 1% [100]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia 2/209 1% [103]
Austrians Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Salzburg (state) 2/200 1% [104]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Lviv Oblast 1/101 1% [85]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/200 1% [82]
Castellonenses Catalan language (Romance) Castelló 5/515 1% [45]
Bavarians Bavarian (Germanic) Bavaria 2/218 0.9% [105] T1a1a1a1b1-PF7445
Austrian Germans Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Upper Austria 2/225 0.9% [104]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) South Moravia 2/216 0.9% [90]
Croatians Croatian (West Slavic) Zagreb 1/114 0.9%
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Girona 2/219 0.9% [84]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Western Polesie 1/121 0.8% [100]
Mecklenburger Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch (Germanic) Mecklenburg 1/138 0.8% [105] T1a2b-L446(xCTS11984) DYS437=15
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia Province 2/257 0.8% [80]
Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) HuelvaSevilleCórdobaJaénMalagaCadizGranadaAlmeria 1/144 0.7% [106]
Romanians Romanian (Romance) Romania 1/178 0.6% [103]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) València 1/173 0.6% [84]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/164 0.6% [105]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Prague 3/595 0.5% [90]
Germans German (West Germanic) area of Halle 1/234 0.4% [107]
Individuals living in Catalonia Catalan language (Romance) Barcelona metropolitan area 1/247 0.4% [108]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/473 0.2% [109]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl,[110] 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera,[60] 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano,[60] 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal,[60] 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara,[60] 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benevento,[60] 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium,[70] 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola,[60] 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy,[111] 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia,[112] 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania,[113] 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella,[114] 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba,[66] 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León,[66] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua,[114] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià,[114] 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria,[24] 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast,[115] 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia,[116] 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza,[24] 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade,[117] 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov,[110] 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga,[110] 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc,[118] 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese,[114] 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia,[119] 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania,[120] 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro,[121] 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche,[116] 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro,[24] 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece,[122] 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area,[123] 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium,[116] 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden,[124] 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina),[125] 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie[126]

Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%).[127][128][129][130][131][132][70][74][133][101][134][135][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][52][96][149][150][151] According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup.[152] Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.[153]

Middle East and Caucasus

Haplogroup T has some significant frequencies in southeast and eastern Anatolia, the Zagros Mountains and both sides of the Persian Gulf. Out of 867 recorded by the FTDNA Haplogroup T Project, 284 (32%) are from this area, almost 50% of those from eastern Saudi Arabia.[154]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Khashuri 1/3 33.3% [155]
Priest Zoroastrians Persian Shiraz, Tehran and Yazd 2/8 25% [156] Not specified if Herbad or Mobad
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 7/32 21.9% [2] 12.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.4% T1a3-Y11151
Armenian Sasuntzis Western Armenian dialect, Kurmanji and Dimli (Northwestern Iranian) languages Sasun 21/104 20.2% [10] T1a1 and T1a2 subclades
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Sighnaghi and Gurjaani 2/10 20% [155]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Kharagauli 1/5 20% [155]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Daghestani lowlands 2/10 20% [157] Reported as K* but according to Karafet16 and Yunusbayev12 only T fits.
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 19/99 19.2% [158]
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 9/50 18% [2] 10% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 8% T1a1-L162
Druzes Palestinian Arabic (Central Semitic) Galilee 7/40 17.5% [159]
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) refugees in Armenia 16/106 15.1% [160] Their homeland in the areas around Urmia.
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) Unknown 4/28 14.3% [161]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Dusheti 1/7 14.3% [155]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 3/22 13.6% [2] 4.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.1% T1a3-Y11151
Zoroastrians Persian Kerman 5/37 13.5% [162]
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 13/99 13.1% [163]
Bakhtiaris Bakhtiari (Southwestern Iranian (Perside)) Izeh 13/103 12.6% [164][165]
Mountain Jews Judeo-Tat (Southwestern Iranian) Derbentsky District 2/17 11.8% [161] All belong to T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77
Armenians Western Armenian dialect Historical Southwestern Armenia 11/96 11.5% [166]
Abudhabians Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Abu Dhabi 21/191 11% [Research 1]
Assyrians Assyrian (Central Semitic) West Azerbaijan Province 4/39 10.3% [167]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 5/49 10.2% [163]
Persian Muslims Persian Shiraz 5/51 9.8% [162]
Persian Muslims Persian Kerman 6/66 9.1% [162]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Al-Qadisiyah 6/69 8.7% [168]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 35/413 8.5% [103]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 5/59 8.5% [167]
Omani Arabs Omani Arabic (Semitic) Oman 10/121 8.3% [17]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 2/25 8% [169]
Azeris Azeri (Oghuz) West Azerbaijan Province 5/63 7.9% [167]
Mazanderanis Mazanderan (Western Iranian) Mazandaran 1/13 7.7% [169]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/41 7.3% [109]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 10/139 7.2% [170]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 3/42 7.1% [133]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 3/43 7% [171]
Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 10/143 7% [172]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Fars 3/44 6.8% [167]
Christian Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 3/44 6.8% [173]
Western Armenians Armenian Eastern Turkey 6/90 6.7% [174]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Yazd 3/46 6.5% [167]
Armenians Armenian Gardman 6/96 6.3% [10]
Yezidis Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) refugees in Armenia 12/196 6.1% [160] Their homeland in the areas around Laliş.
Muslim Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 7/119 5.9% [173]
Zahedan, Baluchestan, Iran 6/103 5.8% [175]
Northern Armenians Armenian Northern Armenia, southern Georgia (Bolnisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe) and northwestern Azerbaijan (around Gyanja) 10/189 5.3% [174]
Armenians Armenian Tehran 2/38 5.3% [162]
Eastern Armenians Armenian Karabakh 11/215 5.1% [174]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Khorasan 3/59 5.1% [167]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 8/157 5.1% [176]
Armenians Armenian Syunik 7/140 5% [174]
Emiratis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) United Arab Emirates 8/164 4.9%
Lebanese Muslims Lebanese Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 28/568 4.9% [177]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Lemesos 6/126 4.8% [178]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Khasavyurtovsky District 1/21 4.8% [161]
Avars Avar (Northeast Caucasian) southeastern Dagestan 2/42 4.8% [46]
Kurds Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) Anatolia 12/251 4.8% [179]
Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 6/126 4.8% [Research 2]
Anizes Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 1/21 4.7% [180]
Lebaneses Levantine Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 43/914 4.7%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/65 4.6%
Maronites Lebanese Arabic and Syriac (Semitic) Lebanon 24/518 4.6% [177]
Armenians Armenian Ararat 2/44 4.6% [174]
Muslim Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 4/95 4.2% [158]
Qeshmis Qishmi (southwestern Iranian) Qeshm 2/49 4.1% [167]
Lurs Luri (Southwestern Iranian) Lorestan 2/50 4% [167]
Sadats Languages of Iran Different cities of Iran 2/50 4% [181]
Persians Persian Eastern Iran 3/77 3.9% [182]
Armenians Armenian Lake Van 4/103 3.9% [10]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 4/106 3.8% [109]
Turkish Cypriots Cypriot Turkish 138 different villages, towns or cities from Cyprus 14/380 3.7% [183] Paternal lineages originating from the traditional Turkish Cypriot settlements throughout the island
Birjand, South Khorasan, Iran 1/27 3.7% [175] All T1a3-Y12871
Armenians Armenian Ararat Valley 4/110 3.6% [10]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 2/57 3.5% [46]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Omalo 1/29 3.5% [155]
Iranians Languages of Iran South Iran 4/117 3.4% [128]
Ionians Greek Phokaia 1/31 3.2% [184]
Bandaris Bandari (Southwestern Iranian) Bandar Abbas 4/131 3.1% [167]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Larnaka 2/67 3% [178]
Alans Karachay-Baksan-Chegem (Turkic) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/69 2.9% [46]
Jordanians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Jordania 8/273 2.9%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Ammochostos 3/122 2.5% [178]
Lezghins Lezgian (Northeast Caucasian) Southern Dagestan 2/81 2.5% [185]
Turks Turkish Turkey 13/523 2.5%
Persians Persian (Southwestern Iranian) Esfahan 1/13 2.4% [169]
Iranians Languages of Iran Iran 7/324 2.2% [177]
Azerbaijani Muslims Azerbaijani (Turkic) Uromia 2/91 2.2% [162]
Yemenite Jews Hebrew and Arabic Yemen 2/94 2.1% [163]
Andis Andi (Northeast Caucasian) western Dagestan 1/49 2% [46]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Paphos 2/105 1.9% [178]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Nicosia 3/161 1.9% [178]
Assyrians Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Semitic) Uromia and Tehran 1/55 1.8% [162]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/58 1.7% [185]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 2/117 1.7% [186]
Greek Orthodox Koine Greek Lebanon 2/116 1.7% [177]
Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran 2/129 1.6% [175] 0.8% T1a3-Y11151 (xY8614)
Aeolians Greek Smyrna 1/68 1.5% [184]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Georgia 1/66 1.5% [103]
Turkmens Turkmen (Oghuz) Golestan 1/68 1.5% [167]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Northern Dagestan 1/73 1.4% [46]
Kuban Nogays Nogai (Turkic) north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk 1/87 1.2% [46]
Ossetian Digors Digorian (Scythian) North Ossetia 1/127 0.8% [185]
Yemeni Arabs Sanaani Arabic (Semitic) Sana'a 1/129 0.8% [Research 3]
Syrians Syrian Arabic (Semitic) Syria 4/518 0.8% [177]
Kabardins Kabardian (Northwest Caucasian) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/140 0.7% [46]
Circassians Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) Republic of Adygea 1/142 0.7% [185]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/162 0.6% [46]

There are also unconfirmed reports of T-M70+ amongst 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan,[164] 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul,[187] 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan,[164] 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga,[187] 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey,[188] 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine,[189] 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz,[190] 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir,[187] 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia,[188] 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran,[164][191] 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village,[189] 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine,[189] 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia,[164][191] 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan,[164][191] 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan,[191] 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia,[164][191] 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel[189] and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.[191]


Fossils excavated at the Late Neolithic site of Kelif el Boroud in Morocco, which have been radiocarbon-dated to around 3,000 BCE, have been found to belong to haplogroup T-M184.[192]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Somalis (Dir clan) Somali (East Cushitic) Djibouti 24/24 100% [15] Dir Somali clan members in Djibouti. Also, T1a-M70 has been found in only 1 sample belonging to a member of the Hawiye clan (1/1), and in 0/9 (0%) samples belonging to the Isaaq clan.
Somalis (Dire Dawa) Somali (East Cushitic) Dire Dawa 14/17 82.4% [16] Dire Dawa Somalis.
Anteony Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 22/37 59.5% [193] The Anteony are the descendants of aristocrats, from whom the Antemoro king is chosen. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Somalis (Dir clan) and Afars Somali and Afar(Cushitic) Djibouti 30/54 56.6% [194] Mixed sample of Somali and Afar individuals.[not in citation given]
Somalis (Ethiopia) Somali (East Cushitic) Shilavo (woreda) (Ogaden) 5/10 50% [15] The geographic location of this Ethiopia sample as seen in Fig.1.
Toubou Toubou Chad 31% [195] All belonging to the T1a-PF5662 subclade
Afars Afar language (East Cushitic) Djibouti 5/20 25% [15]
Akie Akie people (Nilotic) Tanzania 3/13 23.1% [Hirbo et al.] Akie people have remnants of a Cushitic language
Somalis Somali (East Cushitic) Jijiga (Ogaden) 19/83 22.9% [16] Jijiga Somalis.
Arabs from Somalia Somali (East Cushitic) immigrants in Yemen 7/33 21.2% [196]
Lemba Venda and Shona (Bantu) South Africa 6/34 17.6% [2] Exclusively belong to T1a2* (old T1b*). Possible recent founder effect. Low frequency of T1a2 has been observed in Bulgarian Jews and Turks but is not found in other Jewish communities. Y-str Haplotypes close to some T1a2 Armenians.
Rangi Rangi Language (Bantu) Tanzania 5/32 15.6% [Hirbo et al.]
- Somalia 15/105 14.3% [197][198]
Iraqw Iraqw language (Cushitic) Tanzania 6/47 12.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Wachagga Kichagga (Niger-Congo) Dār as-Salām 3/24 12.5% [159] Mixed with Rift Southern Cushites.
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Norway 12/104 11.5% [199]
Bench Bench(northern Omotic) Bench Maji Zone 14/126 11.4% [16]
Kores (Cushitic) SNNP 2/18 11.1% [16]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 1/9 11.1% [200]
Fulbe Fula northern Cameroon 3/27 11.1% [201][202]
Gorowa Gorowa language (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/19 10.5% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Denmark 21/201 10.4% [203][8]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Luxor Governorate 3/29 10.3% [22][204]
Kontas Konta language (Omotic) Konta special woreda 11/107 10.3% [16]
Rendille Rendille language (Cushitic) Marsabit County 3/31 9.7% [Hirbo et al.]
Datogs Rendille language (Cushitic) Tanzania 3/31 9.7% [205]
Gewadas Gewada language (east Cushitic) SNNP 11/116 9.5% [16]
Antalaotra Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 4/43 9.3% [193] The Antalaotra are in charge of the magical and religious domains; they have the ability to read and write Sorabe. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Aswan Governorate 1/11 9.1% [206]
N’Djamena Mix Mix N’Djamena 5/55 9.1% Marc Haber 2016 All belonging to the T1a-PF5662 subclade
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Assiut Governorate 6/70 8.6% [206]
Konsos (Semitic) Konso special woreda 2/24 8.3% [16]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Sweden 12/147 8.2% [207]
Arabs and Berbers Egyptian Arabic and Siwi Lower Egypt 12/147 8.2% [17]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Sohag Governorate 4/52 7.7% [206]
Egyptians Erythraic (Cushitic) Egypt 7/92 7.6% [198][200] If the K* sample is M184+ then 8.7%
Tigrayans Tigrinya (South Semitic) SNNP 2/30 6.7% [16]
Dirashas Dirasha (east Cushitic) Dirashe special woreda 5/79 6.3% [16]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Tenerife 11/178 6.2%
Kordofanians Kordofanian Kurdufan 4/69 5.8% [189]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Qena Governorate 3/52 5.8% [206]
Tuareg Tuareg (Berber) Gorom-Gorom 1/18 5.6% [208]
Afars Afar (East Cushitic) Afar Region 6/111 5.4% [16]
Ethiopians Ethiopian languages Ethiopia 4/74 5.4% [171]
Mashiles Mashile language (Cushitic) SNNP 7/130 5.4% [16]
Gurages Gurage languages (South Semitic) SNNP 6/118 5.1% [16]
Turu Nyaturu (Bantu) Tanzania 1/20 5% [205]
Moroccan Jews Haketia (Romance) Israel 1/20 5% [209]
Gedeos Gedeo (east Cushitic) SNNP 6/122 4.9% [16]
Wairak Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/41 4.9% [17]
Western Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli region 7/142 4.9% [210]


Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sfax 5/105 4.8% [212]
Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli area 3/63 4.8% [213]
Kanuri Kanuri Cameroon 1/21 4.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Iraqw[214] Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/43 4.7%
Yems Yemsa (Omotic) SNNP 5/107 4.7% [16]
Jews (Semitic) Ethiopia 1/22 4.5% [15]
Gobeze Cushitic SNNP 5/113 4.4% [16]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Minya Governorate 1/23 4.3% [206]
Konsos Konso language (East Cushitic) Konso special woreda 4/94 4.3% [16]
Kembaatas East Cushitic Kembata Tembaro Zone 4/102 3.9% [16]
Tigrinyas Tigrinya (South Semitic) Eritrea 1/28 3.6% [15]
Tigrinyas Tigrinya (South Semitic) Eritrea 1/31 3% [194]
Amharas Amharic (Semitic) Ethiopia 1/34 2.9% [15]
Hutus Rwanda-Rundi (Niger-Congo) Rwanda 1/39 2.6% [215]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Mansoura 1/44 2.2% [22][204]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Siwa Oasis 2/93 2.2% [209][216]
Berbers Jerba Berber (Berber) Djerba 1/47 2.1% [217]
Meru Meru (Northeast Bantu) Tanzania 2/99 2% [218]
Itam Ibibio Obong Itam (Southeast Nigeria) 1/50 2% [219][220]
Cape Verdeans Cape Verdean Creole (Portuguese Creole) Windward islands São Nicolau, São Vicente, and Santo Antão 2/101 2% [221]
Ovimbundo Umbundu and Portuguese Angola 1/53 1.9% [222]
Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Tunis 1/54 1.9% [223]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Asni 1/54 1.9% [209][216]
Eastern Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Benghazi 4/214 1.9% [224]
Algerians Algerian Arabic (Semitic) Algeria 3/164 1.8% [189]
Baribas Baatonum (Niger–Congo) Benin 1/57 1.8% [225] T1a-M70(xT1a2-L131)
Bokoras Karamojong (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/59 1.7% [211]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Cairo 1/63 1.6% [226]
Tumbuka Tumbuka (Niger-Congo) northern Malawi 1/61 1.6% [220]
Mozabites Mozabite (Berber) Ghardaia 1/68 1.5% [227]
Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) South Tunisia 3/200 1.5% [228]
Soussians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sousse 3/220 1.4% [229]
Chewa Chewa (Niger-Congo) Malawi 1/92 1.1% [220]
Maasai Maasai (Eastern Nilotic) Kinyawa (Mashuru) 1/100 1% YHRD
Bantu Narrow Bantu (Niger-Congo) Pretoria 1/98 1% [220]
Nilotes Ateker (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/118 0.8% [211]
Andalusians Andalusian Arabic (Semitic) Testour, El Alia, Gualaat-El-Andalous, Slouguia 1/132 0.8% [223] Refugees from Al-Andalus following the capitulation of the Islamic kingdoms in Valencia and Granada
Bantus Bantu Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/140 0.7% [230] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group
Basothos Sesotho (Niger-Congo) Lesotho 1/181 0.6% [231]
Moroccans Moroccan Arabic (Semitic) Casablanca metropolitan area 1/166 0.6% [232] The industrial capital of Morocco where the urban growth is maintained by immigration from all parts of Morocco
Khoisans Khoisan Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/371 0.3% [230] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group

South Asia

Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected at very high levels in some parts of eastern India.

T1a-M70 in India has been considered to be of West Eurasian origin.[7]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kurru Yerukala (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 10/18 55.6%
Bauris Bengali (Indo-Aryan) West Bengal 10/19 52.6% K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) West Bengal 2/4 50%
Rajus Telugu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/19 15.9%
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) West Bengal 2/13 15.3%
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/20 15% K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%
Kare Vokkal Kannada (Dravidian) Uttara Kannada 4/30 13.3% [233] K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/18 11.1%
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) South Uttar Pradesh 4/38 10.6% [234]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) Madhya Pradesh 10/139 7.2% [234]
Indians languages of India South India 18/305 5.9%
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/38 5.3% [235] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/61 4.9% [139] Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/53 3.8% [139] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Indians languages of India East India 14/367 3.8%
Gujaratis Gujarati (Indo-Aryan) Gujarat 1/29 3.4% [139]
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/71 2.8% [235][236] Three samples from different studies grouped together
Sahariyas Saharia (Munda) Madhya Pradesh 2/73 2.7% [237]
Tamtas (Indo-Aryan) Bageshwar 1/34 2.9% [7]
Kshatriyas (Indo-Aryan) Pithoragarh 2/79 2.5% [7]
Aryas Arya (Indo-Aryan) Nainital 1/46 2.2% [7]
Laotians Lao (Tai-Kadai) Laos 1/53 1.9% [159]
Maravars Tamil (Dravidian) Ramanathapuram 1/80 1.3% [238] Dry Land Farmers
Garos Garo (Sino-Tibetan) Tangail 1/120 0.8% [239] Likely P77+

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada,[240] 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh,[241] 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam,[241] 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India,[242] 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh,[243] 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh,[241] 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir,[234] 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir,[234] 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh,[241] 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India,[244] 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad,[243] 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar,[234] 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh,[241] 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh,[241] (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra,[234] 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat,[234] 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh,[245] 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru,[241] and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.[243]

Also in Desasth-Brahmins in Maharashtra (1/19 or 5.3%) and Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (1/21 or 4.8%), Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (2/66 or 3%).

Central Asia & East Asia

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Momyns Old Basmyl/Kazakh (Turkic) Argyn tribe, Kazakhstan 6/100 6.3% [246] The outlier Babasan subclan is excluded from "sample size" and "percentage". 5 out of 6 Clans and 13 out of 19 Subclans have T-M184 members.
Meyrams Old Basmyl/Kazakh (Turkic) Argyn tribe 1/10 6% [246] 5 out of 5 Clans and 11 out of 16 Subclans have T-M184 members.
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang, China 1/8 12.5% [236][247]
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 3/32 9.4% [248]
Hans - Ili 3/32 9.4% [249] K* (xNOP)
Bajo sea Nomads Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian) Sulawesi, Indonesia 2/27 7.4% [250] T1a-M70
Yugurs Eastern Yugur and Western Yugur Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, Gansu, China 2/32 6.3% [248] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Samangan Province, Afghanistan 1/16 6.3% [169]
Khampas Khams Tibetan (Sino-Tibetan) Markham 1/18 5.6% [251] T-M272
Adis Adi (Sino-Tibetan) Arunachal Pradesh, India 3/55 5.5% [252]
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) (not stated) 2/41 4.9% [249] K* (xNOP)
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia, China 2/45 4.4% [249] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Afghanistan 2/56 3.6% [253]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Sar-e Pol Province, Afghanistan 1/28 3.6% [169]
Sherpas Sherpa (Sino-Tibetan) Khumjung, Namche, Chaurikharka and Lukla 5/157 3.2% [254] K-M9 (xM-P256, NO-M214, P-M45) Parents and grandparents were reported to be Sherpas. Individuals unrelated for at least three generations.
Oroqen Oroqen (Tungusic) (not stated) 1/31 3.2% [249] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Takhar Province, Afghanistan 1/35 2.9% [169] Manchu Manchu (Tungusic) (not stated) 1/35 2.9% [249] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Ferghana 1/35 2.9% [255]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Dromo, Tibet 1/39 2.6% [251] T-M272
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 1/48 (1/4 samples) 2.1% [256]
Tu Monguor (Mongolic) Qinghai, China 1/50 2% [248] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) Kunduz Province, Afghanistan 1/53 1.9% [169]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Mongolia 1/65 1.5% [249] K* (xNOP)
Kozha Kazakhs (Steppe Clergy) Kazakh (Turkic) Kazakhstan 1/71 1.4% [257] T1a-M70
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 3/284 1.1% [258]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Jawzjan Province, Afghanistan 1/94 1.1% [169]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia, China 1/100 1% [258]
Ethnic Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) mainly Kandahar Province, Afghanistan province of 1/141 0.7% [259]
Yousafzai Pashto (Eastern Iranian) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Afghanistan 1/146 0.7% [260]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang, China 3/478 0.6% [261]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Qüxü, Tibet 1/203 0.5% [251] T-M272
Han Chinese Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Jilin, China 1/196 0.5% [262]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Ordos (city), China 1/258 0.4% [263] Could be 0.8% (2/258)
Han Chinese Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Qujing, Yuxi and Honghe County, China 1/320 0.3% [264] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 2% (4/204) of Hui in Liaoning (China),[265] and 0.9% (1/113) of Bidayuh in Sarawak.[266]

Americas (post-colonisation)

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panchos Castilian (Romance) Panchimalco 3/11 27.3% [267][26] T-M184
Quechuas Quechua Lima Region 3/11 27.3% [159] Predicted but possible convergence with Q markers.
Movimas Movima language (Language isolate) Beni 1/5 20% [268]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 9/51 17.6% [269]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aranzazu, Caldas 22/190 11.6% [269][270]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 3/30 10% [26]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) San Luis 3/30 10% [27]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 6/61 9.8% [270] Antioquia except Marinilla and its zone of influence
Napu runas Kichwa Ecuadorian Amazon 2/21 9.5% [271] Predicted but possible convergence with Q markers.
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Soplaviento 1/11 9.1% [272] T1a-M70
Yanesha Yanesha Yurinaqui (Peruvian Amazon) 1/12 8.3% [273]
Yanesha Yanesha Mayme (Peruvian Amazon) 1/12 8.3% [273]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Huila 3/42 7.1% [274]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Long Island 3/43 7% [275]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 3/43 7% [26]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 6/86 7% [276]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Tucumán 2/29 6.9% [277][278]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Tucumán 2/30 6.7% [27]
Tule Kuna (Chibchan languages) Kuna Yala 1/16 6.3% [26] According to Hamilton 2014, around 2% of Tule people in Kuna Yala are Albinos. This is the highest known frequency in the world
Basques Basque (Isolate language) Nevada 1/16 6.3% [Research 4]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Marinilla, El Peñol, Antioquia, El Santuario, Cocorná, El Carmen de Viboral, Granada, Antioquia and Guatapé 15/246 6.1% [270]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of La Rioja (Capital) 5/87 5.7% [276]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/18 5.6% [279]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aburrá Valley and Rionegro (Antioquia) 3/55 5.5% [280]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Tolima 2/41 4.9% [274]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Caracas 3/62 4.8% [37]
Yanesha Yanesha Ñagazu (Peruvian Amazon) 1/21 4.8% [273]
Northeast Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Corrientes 1/21 4.8% [281]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cundinamarca 1/22 4.5% [269]
Mestizos Guatemalan Castilian Guatemala 5/115 4.4% [282][26] T-M184
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Jujuy 2/50 4% [27]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Concepción 8/198 4% [283]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of Mendoza (Capital) 3/75 4% [276]
Mayas Guatemalan Castilian Guatemala 1/110 3.6% [282][26] T-M184
Yanesha Yanesha 7 de Junio - Villa América (Peruvian Amazon) 1/29 3.5% [273]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Serra, Espírito Santo 1/29 3.5% [284]
Ecuadorians Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 4/120 3.3% [39]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) La Pampa 1/30 3.3% [27]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Córdoba 1/31 3.2% [27]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Temuco 6/194 3.1% [283]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Herrera Province 1/36 2.8% [26]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 3/111 2.7% [37]
Chachapoyas Chacha northeastern Peruvian Andes 3/122 2.5% [285]
Nicas Nicaraguan Castilian Nicaragua 4/165 2.4% [286] Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Piendamó, Silvia, Puracé, Jambaló, Páez, Popayán, El Tambo, Sotará, La Vega, Cauca, San Sebastián, Cauca and Bolivar 1/48 2.1% [287] Mix sample of Ethnicities
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 5/255 2% [43]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Santiago de Chile 4/196 2% [283]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Buenos Aires 3/150 2% [281]
Palenques Palenquero (Castilian-Bantu) Palenque de San Basilio (Arriba moiety) 1/52 1.9% [220]
Quechuas Quechua Bolivia 1/55 1.8% [288]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Eleuthera 1/60 1.7% [275]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Querétaro 2/121 1.7% [289] Mestizo individuals
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Guanajuato 1/63 1.6% [289] Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Peque (Antioquia) 1/62 1.6% [269]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Punta Arenas 3/194 1.6% [283]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cartagena 1/61 1.6% [272] T1a-M70
Salvadorans Castilian (Romance) El Salvador 2/150 1.3% [290]
Jamaicans Jamaican Patois (English creole) Jamaica 2/159 1.3% [291]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cartagena 2/173 1.2% [292]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [26]
Ticos Costa Rican Castilian Costa Rica 1/100 1% [293]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Santa Catarina 1/109 0.9% [294]
Virgin islanders Virgin Islands Creole English (Germanic) Saint Thomas (Virgin Islands) 1/134 0.8% [295]
Hondurans Honduran Castilian Honduras 1/128 0.8% [296] Mestizo individuals
Admixed population - Macapá 1/138 0.7% [297]
Belizeans Belizean Castilian and Belizean Creole Belize 1/157 0.6% [298]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Iquique 1/207 0.5% [283]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Espírito Santo 1/253 0.4% [299]

Ancient DNA

Ancient DNA from Karsdorf

Karsdorf LBK individuals I0795 KAR6 Feature 170 Musm.no. 2006:14423a I0797 KAR16a Feature 611 Musm.no. 2004:26374a
Y DNA T1a1-CTS880 (xT1a1a1b1a-Y13381, T1a1a1a2a-Y18474, T1a1a1a1b2-Y15724, T1a1a1a1b1a2a-Y10911, T1a1a1a1a2a-Y18145, T1a1a1a1a1-CTS8512, T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77) T1a-M70 (xT1a1-Y3789, T1a2a1a-Z19909, T1a2a2-Y7391, T1a3a-Y9217)
Population Early EN Early EN
Language Paleo-European Paleo-European
Inferred cultural
Date (YBP) 7079 ± 88 7125 ± 325
House/location S / Karsdorf ( North European Plain ) H / Karsdorf ( North European Plain )
Number (sample size) 1/2 1/2
Percentage 50% 50%
mtDNA H1* or H1au1b H46b
Isotope Sr Native to Unstruttal Native to Unstruttal
Eye color Likely gray or blue eyes Likely gray or blue eyes
Hair color Likely non-dark hair Likely non-red hair
Skin pigmentation Rs1042602 (C;C)
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B Rs8176719 (T;T)
Diet (d13C%0 or d15N%0) -20.0 / 9.0 (higher Animal Protein) -20.2 / 9.1 (higher Animal Protein)
FADS activity rs174554 (A;A) rs174574 (A;A)
Likely lactose-intolerant
DNA shared
with Oase-1
34.06% 18.06%
DNA shared
with Ostuni1 remains
12.49% 2.43%
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.26
3.81% 1.08%
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.25
2.13% 1.79%
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.16
1.71% 0%
Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 70.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 19.86%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.34%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 0.24% Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.23%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 16.56%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 14.19%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 9.64%, Neolithic Iran: 2.54%
puntDNAL K12 Ancient 59% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 24% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 10% European Hunter-Gatherer + 7% Near Eastern 60% Anatolia Neolithic Farmer + 27% European Hunter-Gatherer + 9% Near Eastern + 2% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer + 2% Sub-Saharan
Dodecad [dv3] 69.1% Mediterranean + 21% West European + 10% Southwest Asian 64.2% Mediterranean + 17.4% West European + 10.5% Southwest Asian + 4.2% West Asian + 3.7% Northwest African
Eurogenes [K=36] 56.9% Italian + 31.9% West Mediterranean + 6.3% Iberian + 2.1% Basque + 1.3% North African + 0.9 East Balkan + 0.3% East Mediterranean + 0.3% Arabian 37.1% Italian + 21% West Mediterranean + 16.9% Iberian + 11.8 East Balkan + 7.7% Armenian + 5.5% East Mediterranean + 0.05% North African
Dodecad [Globe13] 67.4% Mediterranean + 16.5% Southwest Asian + 16% North European 61% Mediterranean + 19.7% Southwest Asian + 19.2% North European
Genetic distance 98.6cM in chr 8 98.6cM in chr 8
MRCA = 1.1 generations MRCA = 1.1 generations
Age at death 45-60 24-26
Death position Flexed Left Stretched Dorsal
SNPs 107.480 95.833
Read Pairs 5.279.657 7.128.606
Sample Tooth / Rib Tooth / Rib
Source [12][300][301] [12][300][301]
Notes Goseck circle Goseck circle

Haplogroup T-PF5604, an as-yet unnamed subclade of T1 (upstream from T1a),[302] has been found in the remains of two males who lived 7500–6800 BP, at Karsdorf, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. Both T1a skeletal remains belong to the Linienbandkeramische Kultur (LBK). T1a from Karsdorf constitutes 22.2% of all ancient samples between 7500 and 6800 ybp in Germany. The remainder belong to other clades: 22.2% are H2 carriers from Derenburg, and the remaining 55.6% are G2a bearers from Halberstadt and Derenburg. These ancient specimens' mtDNA haplogroups have been found to be H1*/H1au1b and H46b. Their autosomal ancestral components also consist of around 70% Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 30% Basal Eurasian.[11]

According to strontium isotope analysis, there are two distinct groups of individuals in Karsdorf but neither were exotic; there was no indication of individuals who grew up in geologically distinct uplands or further north in central Germany. The first group, composed of the majority of the males, could grew up in households that cultivated plots on calcareous soils, very probably in the Unstrut valley in the near vicinity of the settlement. The second group, composed of most of the females, could grew up in households that predominantly cultivated plots on loess, possibly beyond the landmarks of the Unstrut River or about 80m above the site on the Querfurt plateau 1–2 km away. Sex-specific tendencies, the combination of the Sr isotope data with the results of previous carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and the similarity of the Sr isotope data of the youngest child with the majority of the males may be evaluated as being in agreement with the predominance of patrilocal residential rules.

In 2015 a published study by Mathieson et al. test several individuals from two Neolithic sites in northwest Anatolia, the results showed that Haplogroup T1a-M70, previously found in LBK sites from Germany, was not present in Barcin nor Mentese Neolithic settlements. This fact together with the absence of the mtDNA lineages carried by both of the T1a individuals from Karsdorf and the occurrence of G2a and the mtDNA lineages carried by all of these G2a individuals, could mean that the Early European Neolithic T1a-M70 had a different migration pattern and, therefore, a different geographical origin.

The autosomal data of I0797 showed the lowest frequency of Anatolian Neolithic component and the highest frequency of an unknown ancient human population for any studied LBK individual. This reinforces the hypothesis of a possible different geographical origin for this T1a tribe instead of the Greco-Anatolian origin of other human groups found in the LBK like G2a.

By his side, I0795 showed higher autosomal admixture frequencies of surrounding populations like Hunter Gatherer Europeans I2a (West Hunter Gatherers) and Aegean-Anatolian Neolithics G2a and H2. However, I0795 have the highest frequency of shared DNA with Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals from Central Europe found in any Early Neolithic population. Further comparisons show that I0795 has similar frequencies like Oase-1 when compared with Vindija Neanderthals. When I0795 and I0797 are compared to Oase-1, they both share a very high percentage of DNA 34% and 18% respectively and I0795 12% with Ostuni1. This could mean that the T1a1 individuals from Karsdorf were closest to Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers than to Mesolithic haplogroups.

Ancient DNA from Malak Preslavets

Malak Preslavets
SKC individuals
I0700 MP5 MP8 I1108 MP1
Y DNA T1a1a-CTS4916 T1a1-PF5658
Population Early EN Early EN
Language Paleo-European Paleo-European
Inferred cultural
Starčevo-Kőrös-Criș culture (SKC) SKC
Date (YBP) 7550 ± 200 7550 ± 200
House/burial/location 13 / Malak Preslavets ( Wallachian Plain ) 4 / Malak Preslavets ( Wallachian Plain )
Number (sample size) 1/5 1/5
Percentage 20% 20%
mtDNA T2e T2e
Isotope Sr
Eye color
Hair color
Skin pigmentation
ABO Blood Group
Diet (d13C%0 or d15N%0)
FADS activity
DNA shared
with Oase-1
DNA shared
with Ostuni1 remains
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.26
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.25
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.16
35% EHG+WHG (highest among Early Balkan Neolithic samples)
puntDNAL K12 Ancient
Dodecad [dv3]
Eurogenes [K=36]
Dodecad [Globe13]
Genetic distance
Consanguinity First-degree relatives First-degree relatives
Age at death Adult Juvenile
Death position Disturbed grave. Perhaps was a flexed burial on the right side Crouched on the right side, with head to west
SNPs 364928 273662
Read Pairs
Sample Left Femur Left Tibia
Source [303] [303]
Notes Cattle bone was discovered next to the feet Freshwater mussel shells

Ancient DNA from 'Ain Ghazal

Ain Ghazal PPNB individual Ghazal-I I1707 AG83_5 Poz-81097
Y DNA T1-PF5610 (xT1a1-Z526, T1a1a-CTS9163, T1a1a-CTS2607, T1a2-S11611, T1a2-Y6031, T1a2a1-P322, T1a3a-Y9189)
Population Neolithic Farmers
Inferred cultural
Late Middle PPNB
Date (YBP) 9573 ± 39
House/location Ain Ghazal
Number (sample size) 1/2
Percentage 50%
mtDNA R0a
Isotope Sr
Eye color Likely non-Dark
Hair color Likely non-Dark
Skin pigmentation Light
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B
Diet (d13C%0 or d15N%0)
FADS activity rs174551 (T), rs174553 (G), rs174576 (A)
Likely lactose-intolerant
DNA shared
with Oase-1
DNA shared
with Ostuni1 remains
SDNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.26
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.25
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.16
components (AC)
Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.82%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 24.09%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 12.51%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 4.16%, Sub Saharan: 2.04%, East European Hunter: 0.37%
puntDNAL K12 Ancient
Dodecad [dv3]
Eurogenes [K=36]
Dodecad [Globe13]
Genetic distance
Age at death
Death position
SNPs 152.234
Read Pairs
Source Lazaridis 2016[304]
Notes Evidence of a northerly origin for this population, possibly indicating an influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia.

Haplogroup T is found among the later middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) inhabitants from the 'Ain Ghazal archaeological site (in modern Jordan). It was not found among the early and middle PPNB populations. It is thought that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B population is mostly composed of two different populations: members of early Natufian civilisation and a population resulting from immigration from the north, i.e. north-eastern Anatolia. However, Natufians have been found to belong mostly to the E1b1b1b2 lineage – which is found among 60% of the whole PPNB population and 75% of the 'Ain Ghazal population, being present in all three middle PPNB stages.

As was previously found in the early Neolithic settlement from Karsdorf (Germany) a subclade of mtDNA R0 was found with Y-DNA T at 'Ain Ghazal.

Later middle PPNB populations in the Southern Levant were already witnessing severe changes in climate that would have been exacerbated by large population demands on local resources. Beginning at 8.9 cal ka BP we see a significant decrease in population in highland Jordan, ultimately leading to the complete abandonment of almost all central settlements in this region.[305]

The 9th millennium Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period in the Levant represents a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier.

'Ain Ghazal (" Spring of the Gazelles") is situated in a relatively rich environmental setting immediately adjacent to the Wadi Zarqa, the longest drainage system in highland Jordan. It is located at an elevation of about 720m within the ecotone between the oak-park woodland to the west and the open steppe-desert to the east.

Evidence recovered from the excavations suggests that much of the surrounding countryside was forested and offered the inhabitants a wide variety of economic resources. Arable land is plentifull within the site's immediate environs. These variables are atypical of many major neolithic sites in the Near East, several of which are located in marginal environments. Yet despite its apparent richness, the area of 'Ain Ghazal is climatically and environmentally sensitive because of its proximity throughout the Holocene to the fluctuating steppe-forest border.

The Ain Ghazal settlement first appear in the middle PPNB, which is split into two phases. Phase 1 starts 10300 yBP and ends 9950 yBP, phase 2 ends 9550 yBP.

The estimated population of the middle PPNB site from ‘Ain Ghazal is of 259-1,349 individuals with an area of 3.01-4.7 ha. Is argued that at its founding at the commencement of the middle PPNB ‘Ain Ghazal was likely 2 ha in size and grew to 5 ha by the end of the middle PPNB. At this point in time their estimated population was 600-750 people or 125-150 people per hectare.

Notable haplogroup members

Elite endurance runners

Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T[306]

According to further studies,[2] T1a1a* (L208) was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.[307]

Thomas Jefferson

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson (most distant known ancestor "MDKA" is Samuel Jefferson, Born 11 October 1607 in Pettistree, Suffolk, England). The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British.

Phylogenetic tree

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup T-M184 & closely related macro-lineages (ISOGG 2015)
  (43,900 BP)  
LT* (basal subclade)

 (LTxM184, M20; all cases without M184 or M20.)

  (39,300-45,100 BP)  

 All cases without L206 or PH110

  (26,600 BP)  

  (19,000-30,000 BP)[2]  
 (xL162, L131, Y11151) 

 All cases without L162, L131 or Y11151

  (15,400 BP)  

  (14,800 BP)  
 (xCTS11451, Y16897) 

 All cases without CTS11451 or Y16897

  (9,500 BP)  
 (xY4119, Y6671) 

 All cases without Y4119 or Y6671

  (9,200 BP)  

 All cases without CTS2214

  (8,900 BP)  

  (8,900 BP)  


  (9,200 BP)  


  (9,500 BP)  


  (15,400 BP)  


  (15,400 BP)  



 (Mostly South Asia and Central Asia.)


 (The highest diversity and incidence of this rare lineage is found in Europe.)

Nomenclatural history

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012 ISOGG 2013
T-M184 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K T T K2 K2 T T T T T T
K-M70/T-M70 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T T1 K2 K2 T T T T1 T1a T1a
T-P77 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T2 T1a2 K2 K2 T2 T2 T2a1 T1a1b T1a1a1 T1a1a1

Original research publications

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001

β Underhill 2000

γ Hammer 2001

δ Karafet 2001

ε Semino 2000

ζ Su 1999

η Capelli 2001

Y-DNA backbone tree

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313                K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
N O Q     R


Original research

  1. ^ W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
  2. ^ Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
  3. ^ Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
  4. ^ Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),

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