1 Origin 2 Distribution 3 Subclades
4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External links
Projected spatial distribution of haplogroup L1 in Africa.
Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to
170,000 years ago. Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of
L1-6 and genetic marker changes are 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178 and
Although it is typically used to denote a group of lineages found
within Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6. The
latter is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of
Africa-based clades and all haplogroups centered outside of the
continent. Haplogroup L1-6 is the macrohaplogroup that includes
subclades L1, L2, L4, L5, L6, and also L3, which gave rise to the two
non-African haplogroups M and N. Haplogroup L1-6 and its only sibling
haplogroup L0 are united by the matrilineal most recent common
ancestor, (MRCA) of all living humans, Mitochondrial Eve. The
existence of these two lineages, implies that
Mitochondrial Eve had at least two daughters, one of whom is the maternal common ancestor of haplogroup L1-6 lineages. Distribution Haplogroup L1 is found most commonly in Central Africa
Central Africa and West Africa. It reaches its highest frequency among the Mbenga Pygmies. Haplogroup L1 has been observed among specimens at the island cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800). An ancient Beaker culture
Beaker culture individual at the Camino de las Yeseras in Spain
Spain (San Fernando de Henares, Madrid; [I4245 / RISE695] F) has also been found to carry the L1b1a mitochondrial haplogroup. Subclades
Interpolation maps for haplogroup L1b and L1c.
L1 has two branches:[Note 1]
Haplogroup L1b is most frequent in West Africa, particularly in Ghana
(50%-54%). It has also been found in
Mozambique (1%), Ethiopia (2%), Egypt
Egypt (1%), the Nile Valley
Nile Valley (4%), Kung (1%), Cape Verde
Cape Verde (8%), Senegal
Senegal (17%-20%), Niger/ Nigeria
Nigeria (15%), Guinea Bissau
Guinea Bissau (11%), Morocco (4%-5%), and Algeria
Algeria (1%-2%). Haplogroup L1c reaches its highest frequencies in West and Central Africa, notably among the Mbenga Pygmy
Pygmy peoples. (see map). Among the Mbenga, it is carried by 100% of Ba-Kola, 97% of Ba-Benzélé, and 77% of Biaka. Other populations in which L1c is particularly prevalent include the Tikar (100%), Baka people from Gabon
Gabon (97%) and Cameroon
Cameroon (90%), the Bakoya (97%), and the Ba-Bongo (82%). Common also in São Tomé
São Tomé (20%) and Angola
Tree This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L1 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.
Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
L1b1a5 L1b1a6 L1b1b7
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA).
Genealogical DNA test Genetic Genealogy Human mitochondrial genetics Population Genetics Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6
CZ D E G Q O A S R I W X Y
C Z B F R0 pre-JT P U
HV JT K
H V J T
^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito;
Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay;
Martin B. Richards (4 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for
Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock".
The American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 82–93.
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979 .
^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated
comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA
variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394.
doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved
^ Sirak, Kendra; Frenandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Van Gerven, Dennis;
Pinhasi, Ron (2016). Abstract Book of the IUAES Inter-Congress 2016 -
A community divided? Revealing the community genome(s) of Medieval
Kulubnarti using next- generation sequencing. IUAES. CS1 maint:
Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Iñigo Olalde et al. The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic
Transformation Of Northwest Europe, 2017
^ Fendt, Liane et al. (2012). "MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic
and phylogeographic view" (PDF). Forensic Science International:
Genetics. 6 (2): 247. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.05.011. Retrieved 5
June 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint:
Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ Rosa, Alexandra et al. (2004). "MtDNA profile of West Africa
Guineans: towards a better understanding of the Senegambia region"
(PDF). Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (4): 344.
doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00100.x. Retrieved 5 June 2017. CS1
maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
^ a b Quintana-Murci et al. 2008. Maternal traces of deep common
ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between
Pygmy hunter–gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America'. 105(5): 1599 ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195 ^ Lluis Quintana-Murci et al. MtDNA diversity in Central Africa: from hunter-gathering to agriculturalism. CNRS-Institut Pasteur, Paris ^ Batini, Chiara et al 2006, Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial L1c haplogroup: Genetic signatures of the prehistory of Central Africa
^ The formerly named L1 branches (L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f) have been re-classified into haplogroup L0 as L0d, L0k, L0a and L0f.
PhyloTree.org - mtDNA subtree L, van Oven & Kayser M. 2009. Spread of Haplogroup L1, from National Geographic African Haplogroup L mtDNA Sequences Show Violations of Clock-like Evolution Ian Logan's Haplogroup L1b. Ian Logan's Hap