In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in
Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin When a foreign writing system with one set of coding/decoding system is taken to write a language, certain compromises may have to be made. The result is that the decoding systems used in some foreign languages will enable non-native speakers to produce sounds more closely resembling the target language than will the coding/decoding system used by other foreign languages. Native speakers of English will decode pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of Mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of English: j [tɕ], q [tɕʰ], x [ɕ], z [ts], c [tsʰ], zh [ʈʂ], ch [ʈʂʰ], sh [ʂ], h [x], and r [ɻ] exhibiting the greatest discrepancies. In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic, though not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages. For example, the aspiration distinction between b, d, g and p, t, k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English (in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing), but not to that of French. Letters z and c also have that distinction, pronounced as [ts] and [tsʰ] (whilst reminiscent of both of them being used for the phoneme /ts/ in the German language and Latin script-using Slavic languages respectively). From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch. Although this introduces the novel combination zh, it is internally consistent in how the two series are related, and reminds the trained reader that many Chinese people pronounce sh, zh, ch as s, z, c (and English-speakers use zh to represent /ʒ/ in foreign languages such as Russian anyway). In the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. Pinyin
Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages. The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), a nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant).
1.1 Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949
1.1.1 Wade–Giles 1.1.2 Sin Wenz 1.1.3 Yale romanization
1.2 Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin
2 Initials and finals
2.1 Initials 2.2 Finals
2.2.1 The ü sound
2.3 Approximation from English pronunciation
2.3.1 Pronunciation of initials 2.3.2 Pronunciation of finals
3.1 Numerals in place of tone marks 3.2 Rules for placing the tone mark
3.2.1 Phonological intuition
3.3 Using tone colors 3.4 Third tone exceptions
4 Orthographic rules
4.1 Letters 4.2 Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation
5 Comparison with other orthographies
5.1 Comparison charts
7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links
Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949
In 1605, the
Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji (《西字奇蹟》; Xīzì Qíjī; Hsi-tzu Ch'i-chi; 'Miracle of Western Letters') in Beijing. This was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit
Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi (《西儒耳目資》; Hsi Ju Erh-mu Tzu; 'Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati') at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi (方以智; Fāng Yǐzhì; Fang I-chih; 1611–1671). The first late Qing reformer to propose that China
China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu (1862–1910). A student of the great scholars Yu Yue
Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script. While Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts.
Main article: Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and
further improved by
Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. It was popular and used in English-language publications outside China
China until 1979.
Main article: Latinxua Sin Wenz
In the early 1930s,
Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters which had been developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was originally intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East.[note 1] This Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy (in characters) for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Dr. Sun Yat-sen's son, Sun Fo; Cai Yuanpei, the country's most prestigious educator; Tao Xingzhi, a leading educational reformer; and Lu Xun. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies (including Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplin), some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and completely replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, however, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, and therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years.
Main article: Yale romanization of Mandarin
In 1943, the U.S. military engaged
Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is very close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways; for example, pinyin x for [ɕ] is written as sy in the Yale system. Medial semivowels are written with y and w (instead of pinyin i and u), and apical vowels (syllabic consonants) with r or z. Accent marks are used to indicate tone.
Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is often called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China
China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China in 1949. He became an economics professor in Shanghai, and in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang
Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz
Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo). "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later; "I'm the son of pinyin. It's [the result of] a long tradition from the later years of the Qing dynasty down to today. But we restudied the problem and revisited it and made it more perfect." A draft was published on February 12, 1956. The first edition of Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin was approved and adopted at the Fifth Session of the 1st National People's Congress on February 11, 1958. It was then introduced to primary schools as a way to teach Standard Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy rate among adults. Beginning in the early 1980s, Western publications addressing Mainland China
China began using the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin romanization system instead of earlier romanization systems; this change followed the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC
PRC in 1979. In 2001, the PRC
PRC Government issued the National Common Language Law, providing a legal basis for applying pinyin. The current specification of the orthographic rules is laid down in the National Standard GB/T 16159-2012.
Initials and finals Unlike European languages, clusters of letters — initials (声母; 聲母; shēngmǔ) and finals (韵母; 韻母; yùnmǔ) — and not consonant and vowel letters, form the fundamental elements in pinyin (and most other phonetic systems used to describe the Han language). Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable (see below, and see erhua). The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications. Even though most initials contain a consonant, finals are not always simple vowels, especially in compound finals (复韵母; 複韻母; fùyùnmǔ), i.e. when a "medial" is placed in front of the final. For example, the medials [i] and [u] are pronounced with such tight openings at the beginning of a final that some native Chinese speakers (especially when singing) pronounce yī (衣, clothes, officially pronounced /í/) as /jí/ and wéi (围; 圍, to enclose, officially pronounced /uěi/) as /wěi/ or /wuěi/. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below.
Initials In each cell below, the bold letters indicate pinyin and the brackets enclose the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
y [j]/[ɥ]1 and w [w]
1 y is pronounced [ɥ] (a labial-palatal approximant) before u.2 The letters w and y are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials i, u and ü when no initial is present. When i, u, or ü are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled yi, wu, and yu, respectively. The conventional lexicographical order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system ("bopomofo"), is:
b p m f
d t n l
g k h
j q x
zh ch sh r
z c s
Standard Chinese vowels (with IPA and Pinyin)
i ⟨i⟩ • y ⟨ü⟩
ɤ ⟨e⟩ • o ⟨o⟩
In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates
pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates
pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified
by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of
all possible finals.1
The only syllable-final consonants in
Standard Chinese are -n and -ng, and -r, the last of which is attached as a grammatical suffix. A Chinese syllable ending with any other consonant either is from a non-Mandarin language (a southern Chinese language
Chinese language such as Cantonese, or a minority language of China; possibly reflecting final consonants in Old Chinese), or indicates the use of a non-pinyin romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones).
∅ /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
[ɨ]-i [ɤ]e-e [a]a-a
[ʊŋ]-ong [əŋ]eng-eng [aŋ]ang-ang
[i]yi-i [je]ye-ie [ja]ya-ia
[jʊŋ]yong-iong [iŋ]ying-ing [jaŋ]yang-iang
[u]wu-u [wo]wo-uo 3 [wa]wa-ua
[y]yu-ü 2 [ɥe]yue-üe 2
[yn]yun-ün 2 [ɥɛn]yuan-üan 2
1 [aɚ̯] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final r, please see Erhua#Rules. 2 ü is written as u after j, q, or x. 3 uo is written as o after b, p, m, f, or w. Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (欸; 誒) and syllabic nasals m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯, 𠮾) are used as interjections.
The ü sound
An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the
initials l and n when necessary in order to represent the sound [y].
This is necessary in order to distinguish the front high rounded vowel
in lü (e.g. 驴; 驢; 'donkey') from the back high rounded vowel in
lu (e.g. 炉; 爐; 'oven'). Tonal markers are added on top of the
umlaut, as in lǘ.
However, the ü is not used in the other contexts where it could
represent a front high rounded vowel, namely after the letters j, q,
x, and y. For example, the sound of the word 鱼/魚 (fish) is
transcribed in pinyin simply as yú, not as yǘ. This practice is
opposed to Wade–Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin,
which always uses yu. Whereas
Wade–Giles needs of using the umlaut
to distinguish between chü (pinyin ju) and chu (pinyin zhu), this
ambiguity does not arise with pinyin, so the more convenient form ju
is used instead of jü. Genuine ambiguities only happen with nu/nü
and lu/lü, which are then distinguished by an umlaut.
Many fonts or output methods do not support an umlaut for ü or cannot
place tone marks on top of ü. Likewise, using ü in input methods is
difficult because it is not present as a simple key on many keyboard
layouts. For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention.
For example, it is common for cellphones to use v instead of ü.
Additionally, some stores in
China use v instead of ü in the transliteration of their names. The drawback is that there are no tone marks for the letter v. This also presents a problem in transcribing names for use on passports, affecting people with names that consist of the sound lü or nü, particularly people with the surname 吕 (Lǚ), a fairly common surname, particularly compared to the surnames 陆 (Lù), 鲁 (Lǔ), 卢 (Lú) and 路 (Lù). Previously, the practice varied among different passport issuing offices, with some transcribing as "LV" and "NV" while others used "LU" and "NU". On 10 July 2012, the Ministry of Public Security standardized the practice to use "LYU" and "NYU" in passports. Although nüe written as nue, and lüe written as lue are not ambiguous, nue or lue are not correct according to the rules; nüe and lüe should be used instead. However, some Chinese input methods (e.g. Microsoft Pinyin
Pinyin IME) support both nve/lve (typing v for ü) and nue/lue.
Approximation from English pronunciation
This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Media help.
Most rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximations, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.
Pronunciation of initials
Pinyin IPA English approximation Explanation
b [p] spit unaspirated p, as in spit
p [pʰ] pay strongly aspirated p, as in pit
m [m] may as in English mummy
f [f] fair as in English fun
d [t] stop unaspirated t, as in stop
t [tʰ] take strongly aspirated t, as in top
n [n] nay as in English nit
l [l] lay as in English love
g [k] skill unaspirated k, as in skill
k [kʰ] kay strongly aspirated k, as in kill
h [x], [h] loch Varies between hat and Scottish loch.
j [tɕ] churchyard Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English, but similar to an unaspirated "-chy-" sound when said quickly. Like q, but unaspirated. Is similar to the English name of the letter G, but curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth. Not like the s in vision despite the common English pronunciation of "Beijing". The sequence "ji" word-initially is the similar to the Japanese pronunciation of じ(ジ) ji, but unvoiced unless toneless.
q [tɕʰ] punch yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like punch yourself, with the lips spread wide as when one says ee. Curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth and strongly aspirate. The sequence "qi" word-initially is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of ち(チ) chi.
x [ɕ] push yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like -sh y-, with the lips spread as when one says ee and with the tip of the tongue curled downwards and stuck to the back of the teeth. The sequence "xi" is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of し(シ) shi.
zh [ʈʂ] nurture Unaspirated ch. Similar to hatching but retroflex, or marching in American English. Voiced in a toneless syllable.
ch [ʈʂʰ] church Similar to chin, but retroflex.
sh [ʂ] shirt Similar to shoe but retroflex, or marsh in American English.
r [ɻ~ʐ] ray No equivalent in English, but similar to the r in reduce, but with the tongue curled upward against the top of the mouth (i.e. retroflex).
z [ts] pizza unaspirated c, similar to something between suds but voiceless, unless in a toneless syllable.
c [tsʰ] hats like the English ts in cats, but strongly aspirated, very similar to the Czech, Polish, and Slovak c.
s [s] say as in sun
w [w] way as in water. Before an e or a it is sometimes pronounced like v as in violin.*
y [j], [ɥ] yea as in yes. Before a u, pronounced with rounded lips.*
* Note on y and w
Y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see
below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial
consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while
fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to *fang-uan). With this
convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a,
e, or o:
Xi'an (two syllables: [ɕi.an]) vs. xian (one syllable: [ɕi̯ɛn]). In addition, y and w are added to fully vocalic i, u, and ü when these occur without an initial consonant, so that they are written yi, wu, and yu. Some Mandarin speakers do pronounce a [j] or [w] sound at the beginning of such words—that is, yi [i] or [ji], wu [u] or [wu], yu [y] or [ɥy],—so this is an intuitive convention. See below for a few finals which are abbreviated after a consonant plus w/u or y/i medial: wen → C+un, wei → C+ui, weng → C+ong, and you → C+iu.
** Note on the apostrophe
The apostrophe (') (隔音符號; géyīn fúhào; 'syllable-dividing
mark') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in
a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word,
unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. For
example, 西安 is written as
Xi'an or Xī'ān, and 天峨 is written as Tian'e or Tiān'é, but 第二 is written "dì-èr", without an apostrophe. This apostrophe is not used in the Taipei Metro names.
Pronunciation of finals This table may be a useful reference for IPA vowel symbols The following is a list of finals in Standard Chinese, excepting most of those ending with r. To find a given final:
Remove the initial consonant. Zh, ch, and sh count as initial consonants. Change initial w to u and initial y to i. For weng, wen, wei, you, look under ong, un, ui, iu. For u after j, q, x, or y, look under ü.
Pinyin IPA Form with zero initial Explanation
-i [ɹ̩~z̩], [ɻ̩~ʐ̩] (n/a) -i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-. (In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)
a [a] a like English father, but a bit more fronted
e [ɤ] (listen) e a back, unrounded vowel (similar to English duh, but not as open). Pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ].
ai [ai̯] ai like English eye, but a bit lighter
ei [ei̯] ei as in hey
ao [au̯] ao approximately as in cow; the a is much more audible than the o
ou [ou̯] ou as in North American English so
an [an] an like British English ban, but more central
en [ən] en as in taken
ang [aŋ] ang as in German Angst. (Starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in some dialects of American English)
eng [əŋ] eng like e in en above but with ng appended
ong [ʊŋ] (n/a) starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing. Varies between [oŋ] and [uŋ] depending on the speaker.
er [aɚ̯] er Similar to the sound in bar in American English. Can also be pronounced [ɚ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with i- (y-)
i [i] yi like English bee
ia [ja] ya as i + a; like English yard
ie [je] ye as i + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
iao [jau̯] yao as i + ao
iu [jou̯] you as i + ou
ian [jɛn] yan as i + an; like English yen. Varies between [jen] and [jan] depending on the speaker.
in [in] yin as i + n
iang [jaŋ] yang as i + ang
ing [iŋ] ying as i + ng
iong [jʊŋ] yong as i + ong. Varies between [joŋ] and [juŋ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with u- (w-)
u [u] wu like English oo
ua [wa] wa as u + a
uo, o [wo] wo as u + o where the o (compare with the o interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter (spelled as o after b, p, m or f)
uai [wai̯] wai as u + ai, as in English why
ui [wei̯] wei as u + ei
uan [wan] wan as u + an
un [wən] wen as u + en; as in English won
uang [waŋ] wang as u + ang
(n/a) [wəŋ] weng as u + eng
Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)
u, ü [y] (listen) yu as in German über or French lune. (Pronounced as English ee with rounded lips)
ue, üe [ɥe] yue as ü + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
uan [ɥɛn] yuan as ü + an. Varies between [ɥen] and [ɥan] depending on the speaker.
un [yn] yun as ü + n
ê [ɛ] (n/a) as in bet
o [ɔ] (n/a) approximately as in British English office; the lips are much more rounded
io [jɔ] yo as i + o
Relative pitch changes of the four tones
The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of
Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the
syllable nucleus, unless that letter is missing (see below).
Many books printed in
China use a mix of fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font from the surrounding text, tending to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance. This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice, e.g. the use of a Latin alpha
Latin alpha (ɑ) rather than the standard style (a) found in most fonts, or g often written with a single-story ɡ. The rules of Hanyu Pinyin, however, specify no such practice.(220.127.116.11:8)
The first tone (Flat or High Level Tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel: ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ The second tone (Rising or High-Rising Tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ): á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ The third tone (Falling-Rising or Low Tone) is marked by a caron/háček (ˇ). It is not the rounded breve (˘), though a breve is sometimes substituted due to font limitations. ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ The fourth tone (Falling or High-Falling Tone) is represented by a grave accent (ˋ): à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ The fifth tone (Neutral Tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark: a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü In dictionaries, neutral tone may be indicated by a dot preceding the syllable; for example, ·ma. When a neutral tone syllable has an alternative pronunciation in another tone, a combination of tone marks may be used: zhī·dào (知道). These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center text-align:center;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center The four main tones of Standard Mandarin, pronounced with the syllable ma.
Traditional characters: .mw-parser-output ruby>rt,.mw-parser-output ruby>rtc font-feature-settings:"ruby"1 .mw-parser-output ruby.large font-size:250% .mw-parser-output ruby.large>rt,.mw-parser-output ruby.large>rtc font-size:.3em 媽 (mā) 麻 (má) 馬 (mǎ) 罵 (mà) 嗎 (·ma)
Simplified characters: 妈 (mā) 麻 (má) 马 (mǎ) 骂 (mà) 吗 (·ma)
The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particle, respectively.
Numerals in place of tone marks Before the advent of computers, many typewriter fonts did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables. For example, tóng is written tong². The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.g. ma⁵ for 吗／嗎, an interrogative marker.
Tone Tone Mark Number added to end of syllablein place of tone mark Example usingtone mark Example usingnumber IPA
First macron ( ◌̄ ) 1 mā ma1 ma˥
Second acute accent ( ◌́ ) 2 má ma2 ma˧˥
Third caron ( ◌̌ ) 3 mǎ ma3 ma˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent ( ◌̀ ) 4 mà ma4 ma˥˩
"Neutral" No mark or middle dot before syllable ( ·◌ ) no number50 ma·ma mama5ma0 ma
Rules for placing the tone mark
Briefly, the tone mark should always be placed by the order—a,
o, e, i, u, ü, with the only exception being iu, where the tone mark
is placed on the u instead.
Pinyin tone marks appear primarily above the nucleus of the syllable, for example as in kuài, where k is the initial, u the medial, a the nucleus, and i the coda. The exception is syllabic nasals like /m/, where the nucleus of the syllable is a consonant, the diacritic will be carried by a written dummy vowel. When the nucleus is /ə/ (written e or o), and there is both a medial and a coda, the nucleus may be dropped from writing. In this case, when the coda is a consonant n or ng, the only vowel left is the medial i, u, or ü, and so this takes the diacritic. However, when the coda is a vowel, it is the coda rather than the medial which takes the diacritic in the absence of a written nucleus. This occurs with syllables ending in -ui (from wei: (wèi → -uì) and in -iu (from you: yòu → -iù.) That is, in the absence of a written nucleus the finals have priority for receiving the tone marker, as long as they are vowels: if not, the medial takes the diacritic. An algorithm to find the correct vowel letter (when there is more than one) is as follows:
If there is an a or an e, it will take the tone mark If there is an ou, then the o takes the tone mark Otherwise, the second vowel takes the tone mark Worded differently,
If there is an a, e, or o, it will take the tone mark; in the case of ao, the mark goes on the a Otherwise, the vowels are -iu or -ui, in which case the second vowel takes the tone mark If the tone is written over an i, the tittle above the i is omitted, as in yī.
Phonological intuition The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, o, and u appears, can also be inferred from the nature of the vowel sound in the medial and final. The rule is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a (near-)semi-vowel. The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the second spelled vowel. Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i (as in ia) or u (as in ua), which serves as a near-semi-vowel, this letter does not take the tone marker. Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel (as in ao or ou), this letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, o, and u (with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllable), the first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker (as in iao or uai or iou). But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle (non-semi-vowel) sound (as in ui or iu), then the tone marker goes on the final (second) vowel letter.
Using tone colors In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use.
Dummitt's color scheme was one of the first to be used. It is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - orange, tone 3 - green, tone 4 - blue, and neutral tone - black. The Unimelb color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - purple, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey The Hanping color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - orange, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey. The Pleco color scheme is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - blue, tone 4 - purple, neutral tone - grey The Thomas color scheme is tone 1 - green, tone 2 - blue, tone 3 - red, tone 4 - black, neutral tone - grey Third tone exceptions In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Additionally, when two third tones appear consecutively, such as in 你好 (nǐhǎo, hello), the first syllable is pronounced with the second tone — this is called tone sandhi. In pinyin, words like "hello" are still written with two third tones (nǐhǎo).
Syllables starting with u are written as w in place of u (e.g., *uan
is written as wan). Standalone u is written as wu.
Syllables starting with i are written as y in place of i (e.g., *ian
is written as yan). Standalone i is written as yi.
Syllables starting with ü are written as yu in place of ü (e.g.,
*üe is written as yue).
ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu, and
xu), but written as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such
as lü and nü). In such situations where there are corresponding u
syllables, it is often replaced with v on a computer, making it easier
to type on a standard keyboard.
When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu,
ui, and un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation).
As in zhuyin, what are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo
are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo.
The apostrophe (') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a,
o, or e) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start
the word (which is most commonly realized as [ɰ]), unless the
syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. This
is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which
consists of the two syllables xi (西) an (安), compared to such
words as xian (先). (This ambiguity does not occur when tone marks
are used: The two tone marks in "Xīān" unambiguously show that the
word consists of two syllables. However, even with tone marks, the
city is usually spelled with an apostrophe as "Xī'ān".)
Eh alone is written as ê; elsewhere as e.
Schwa is always written as e. zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as ẑ, ĉ, and ŝ (z, c, s with a circumflex). However, the shorthands are rarely used due to difficulty of entering them on computers and are confined mainly to Esperanto keyboard layouts. Early drafts and some published material used diacritic hooks below instead: ᶎ (ȥ/ʐ), ꞔ, ʂ
ʂ (ᶊ). ng has the uncommon shorthand of ŋ (which was also used in early drafts). Early drafts also contained the letter ɥ
ɥ or ч, borrowed from the Cyrillic script, in place of later j. The letter v is unused (except in spelling foreign languages, languages of minority nationalities, and some dialects), despite a conscious effort to distribute letters more evenly than in Western languages. However, sometimes, for ease of typing into a computer, the v is used to replace a ü. Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words of more than one syllable in pinyin. For example, uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian; uen-ian, uen-i-an, and u-en-i-an are all possible combinations whereas wenyan is unambiguous because we, nya, etc. do not exist in pinyin. See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones).
Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation
Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is a polysyllabic language. Spacing in pinyin is usually based on words, and not on single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word. The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography (汉语拼音正词法基本规则; 漢語拼音正詞法基本規則; Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Zhèngcífǎ Jīběn Guīzé) were put into effect in 1988 by the National Educational Commission (国家教育委员会; 國家教育委員會; Guójiā Jiàoyù Wěiyuánhuì) and the National Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會; Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì). These rules became a Guobiao standard in 1996 and were updated in 2012.
Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up
of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together
and not capitalized: rén (人, person); péngyou (朋友, friend);
qiǎokèlì (巧克力, chocolate)
Combined meaning (2 or 3 characters): Same goes for words combined of
two words to one meaning: hǎifēng (海风; 海風, sea breeze);
wèndá (问答; 問答, question and answer); quánguó (全国;
全國, nationwide); chángyòngcí (常用词; 常用詞, common
Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more
characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning
if possible: wúfèng gāngguǎn (无缝钢管; 無縫鋼管, seamless
steel-tube); huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (环境保护规划;
環境保護規劃, environmental protection planning);
gāoměngsuānjiǎ (高锰酸钾; 高錳酸鉀, potassium
AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén (人人,
everybody), kànkan (看看, to have a look), niánnián (年年,
ABAB: Two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiū
yánjiū (研究研究, to study, to research), xuěbái xuěbái
(雪白雪白, white as snow)
AABB: Characters in the AABB schema are written together:
láiláiwǎngwǎng (来来往往; 來來往往, come and go),
qiānqiānwànwàn (千千万万; 千千萬萬, numerous)
Prefixes (前附成分; qiánfù chéngfèn) and Suffixes
(后附成分; 後附成分; hòufù chéngfèn): Words accompanied by
prefixes such as fù (副, vice), zǒng (总; 總, chief), fēi (非,
non-), fǎn (反, anti-), chāo (超, ultra-), lǎo (老, old), ā
(阿, used before names to indicate familiarity), kě (可, -able),
wú (无; 無, -less) and bàn (半, semi-) and suffixes such as zi
(子, noun suffix), r (儿; 兒, diminutive suffix), tou (头; 頭,
noun suffix), xìng (性, -ness, -ity), zhě (者, -er, -ist), yuán
(员; 員, person), jiā (家, -er, -ist), shǒu (手, person skilled
in a field), huà (化, -ize) and men (们; 們, plural marker) are
written together: fùbùzhǎng (副部长; 副部長, vice minister),
chéngwùyuán (乘务员; 乘務員, conductor), háizimen
(孩子们; 孩子們, children)
Nouns and names (名词; 名詞; míngcí)
Words of position are separated: mén wài (门外; 門外, outdoor),
hé li (河里; 河裏, under the river), huǒchē shàngmian
(火车上面; 火車上面, on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán
(黄河以南; 黃河以南, south of the Yellow River)
Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang (天上, in
the sky or outerspace), dìxia (地下, on the ground), kōngzhōng
(空中, in the air), hǎiwài (海外, overseas)
Surnames are separated from the given names, each capitalized: Lǐ
Huá (李华; 李華), Zhāng Sān (张三; 張三). If the surname
and/or given name consists of two syllables, it should be written as
one: Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明).
Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng
bùzhǎng (王部长; 王部長, Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng
(李先生, Mr. Li), Tián zhǔrèn (田主任, Director Tian), Zhào
tóngzhì (赵同志; 趙同志, Comrade Zhao).
The forms of addressing people with prefixes such as Lǎo (老), Xiǎo
(小), Dà (大) and Ā (阿) are capitalized: Xiǎo Liú (小刘;
小劉, [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li),
Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo Qián (老钱; 老錢, [senior] Mr.
Qian), Lǎo Wú (老吴; 老吳, [senior] Mr. Wu)
Exceptions include Kǒngzǐ (孔子, Confucius), Bāogōng (包公,
Judge Bao), Xīshī (西施, Xishi), Mèngchángjūn (孟尝君;
孟嘗君, Lord Mengchang)
Geographical names of China: Běijīng Shì (北京市, city of
Beijing), Héběi Shěng (河北省, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng
(鸭绿江; 鴨綠江, Yalu River), Tài Shān (泰山, Mount Tai),
Dòngtíng Hú (洞庭湖, Dongting Lake), Táiwān Hǎixiá
Taiwan Strait) Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are written together with their related part: Dōngsì Shítiáo (东四十条; 東四十條, Dongsi 10th Alley) Common geographical nouns that have become part of proper nouns are written together: Hēilóngjiāng (黑龙江; 黑龍江, Heilongjiang) Non-Chinese names are written in Hanyu Pinyin: Āpèi Āwàngjìnměi (阿沛·阿旺晋美; 阿沛·阿旺晉美, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme); Dōngjīng (东京; 東京, Tokyo) Verbs (动词; 動詞; dòngcí): Verbs and their suffixes -zhe (着; 著), -le (了) or -guo ((过; 過) are written as one: kànzhe (看着; 看著, seeing), jìnxíngguo (进行过; 進行過, have been implemented). Le as it appears in the end of a sentence is separated though: Huǒchē dào le. (火车到了; 火車到了, The train [has] arrived). Verbs and their objects are separated: kàn xìn (看信, read a letter), chī yú (吃鱼; 吃魚, eat fish), kāi wánxiào (开玩笑; 開玩笑, to be kidding). If verbs and their complements are each monosyllabic, they are written together; if not, they are separated: gǎohuài (搞坏; 搞壞, to make broken), dǎsǐ (打死, hit to death), huàwéi (化为; 化為, to become), zhěnglǐ hǎo (整理好, to sort out), gǎixiě wéi (改写为; 改寫為, to rewrite as) Adjectives (形容词; 形容詞; xíngróngcí): A monosyllabic adjective and its reduplication are written as one: mēngmēngliàng (矇矇亮, dim), liàngtángtáng (亮堂堂, shining bright) Complements of size or degree such as xiē (些), yīxiē (一些), diǎnr (点儿; 點兒) and yīdiǎnr (一点儿; 一點兒) are written separated: dà xiē (大些), a little bigger), kuài yīdiǎnr (快一点儿; 快一點兒, a bit faster) Pronouns (代词; 代詞; dàicí) Personal pronouns and interrogative pronouns are separated from other words: Wǒ ài Zhōngguó. (我爱中国。; 我愛中國。, I love China); Shéi shuō de? (谁说的？; 誰說的？, Who said it?) The demonstrative pronoun zhè (这; 這, this), nà (那, that) and the question pronoun nǎ (哪, which) are separated: zhè rén (这人; 這人, this person), nà cì huìyì (那次会议; 那次會議, that meeting), nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (哪张报纸; 哪張報紙, which newspaper) Exception—If zhè, nà or nǎ are followed by diǎnr (点儿; 點兒), bān (般), biān (边; 邊), shí (时; 時), huìr (会儿; 會兒), lǐ (里; 裏), me (么; 麼) or the general classifier ge (个; 個), they are written together: nàlǐ (那里; 那裏, there), zhèbiān (这边; 這邊, over here), zhège (这个; 這個, this) Numerals (数词; 數詞; shùcí) and measure words (量词; 量詞; liàngcí) Numbers and words like gè (各, each), měi (每, each), mǒu (某, any), běn (本, this), gāi (该; 該, that), wǒ (我, my, our) and nǐ (你, your) are separated from the measure words following them: liǎng gè rén (两个人; 兩個人, two people), gè guó (各国; 各國, every nation), měi nián (每年, every year), mǒu gōngchǎng (某工厂; 某工廠, a certain factory), wǒ xiào (我校, our school) Numbers up to 100 are written as single words: sānshísān (三十三, thirty-three). Above that, the hundreds, thousands, etc. are written as separate words: jiǔyì qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshíliù (九亿七万二千三百五十六; 九億七萬二千三百五十六, nine hundred million, seventy-two thousand, three hundred fifty-six). Arabic numerals are kept as Arabic numerals: 635 fēnjī (635 分机; 635 分機, extension 635) According to 汉语拼音正词法基本规则 18.104.22.168, the dì (第) used in ordinal numerals is followed by a hyphen: dì-yī (第一, first), dì-356 (第 356, 356th). The hyphen should not be used if the word in which dì (第) and the numeral appear does not refer to an ordinal number in the context. For example: Dìwǔ (第五, a Chinese compound surname). The chū (初) in front of numbers one to ten is written together with the number: chūshí (初十, tenth day) Numbers representing month and day are hyphenated: wǔ-sì (五四, May fourth), yīèr-jiǔ (一二·九, December ninth) Words of approximations such as duō (多), lái (来; 來) and jǐ (几; 幾) are separated from numerals and measure words: yībǎi duō gè (一百多个; 一百多個, around a hundred); shí lái wàn gè (十来万个; 十來萬個, around a hundred thousand); jǐ jiā rén (几家人; 幾家人, a few families) Shíjǐ (十几; 十幾, more than ten) and jǐshí (几十; 幾十, tens) are written together: shíjǐ gè rén (十几个人; 十幾個人, more than ten people); jǐshí (几十根钢管; 幾十根鋼管, tens of steel pipes) Approximations with numbers or units that are close together are hyphenated: sān-wǔ tiān (三五天, three to five days), qiān-bǎi cì (千百次, thousands of times) Other function words (虚词; 虛詞; xūcí) are separated from other words Adverbs (副词; 副詞; fùcí): hěn hǎo (很好, very good), zuì kuài (最快, fastest), fēicháng dà (非常大, extremely big) Prepositions (介词; 介詞; jiècí): zài qiánmiàn (在前面, in front) Conjunctions (连词; 連詞; liáncí): nǐ hé wǒ (你和我, you and I/me), Nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (你来还是不来？; 你來還是不來？, Are you coming or not?) "Constructive auxiliaries" (结构助词; 結構助詞; jiégòu zhùcí) such as de (的/地/得), zhī (之) and suǒ (所): mànmàn de zou (慢慢地走), go slowly) A monosyllabic word can also be written together with de (的/地/得): wǒ de shū / wǒde shū (我的书; 我的書, my book) Modal auxiliaries at the end of a sentence: Nǐ zhīdào ma? (你知道吗？; 你知道嗎？, Do you know?), Kuài qù ba! (快去吧！, Go quickly!) Exclamations and interjections: À! Zhēn měi! (啊！真美！), Oh, it's so beautiful!) Onomatopoeia: mó dāo huòhuò (磨刀霍霍, honing a knife), hōnglōng yī shēng (轰隆一声; 轟隆一聲, rumbling) Capitalization The first letter of the first word in a sentence is capitalized: Chūntiān lái le. (春天来了。; 春天來了。, Spring has arrived.) The first letter of each line in a poem is capitalized. The first letter of a proper noun is capitalized: Běijīng (北京, Beijing), Guójì Shūdiàn (国际书店; 國際書店, International Bookstore), Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會, National Language Commission) On some occasions, proper nouns can be written in all caps: BĚIJĪNG, GUÓJÌ SHŪDIÀN, GUÓJIĀ YǓYÁN WÉNZÌ GŌNGZUÒ WĚIYUÁNHUÌ If a proper noun is written together with a common noun to make a proper noun, it is capitalized. If not, it is not capitalized: Fójiào (佛教, Buddhism), Tángcháo (唐朝, Tang dynasty), jīngjù (京剧; 京劇, Beijing
Beijing opera), chuānxiōng (川芎, Szechuan lovage) Initialisms Single words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each character of the word: Beǐjīng (北京, Beijing) → BJ A group of words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each word in the group: guójiā biāozhǔn (国家标准; 國家標準, Guobiao standard) → GB Initials can also be indicated using full stops: Beǐjīng → B.J., guójiā biāozhǔn → G.B. When abbreviating names, the surname is written fully (first letter capitalized or in all caps), but only the first letter of each character in the given name is taken, with full stops after each initial: Lǐ Huá (李华; 李華) → Lǐ H. or LǏ H., Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明) → Zhūgě K. M. or ZHŪGĚ K. M. Line Wrapping Words can only be split by the character:guāngmíng (光明, bright) → guāng-míng, not gu-āngmíng Initials cannot be split:Wáng J. G. (王建国; 王建國) → WángJ. G., not Wáng J.-G. Apostrophes are removed in line wrapping:Xī'ān (西安, Xi'an) → Xī-ān, not Xī-'ān When the original word has a hyphen, the hyphen is added at the beginning of the new line:chēshuǐ-mǎlóng (车水马龙; 車水馬龍, heavy traffic: "carriage, water, horse, dragon") → chēshuǐ--mǎlóng Hyphenation: In addition to the situations mentioned above, there are four situations where hyphens are used. Coordinate and disjunctive compound words, where the two elements are conjoined or opposed, but retain their individual meaning: gōng-jiàn (弓箭, bow and arrow), kuài-màn (快慢, speed: "fast-slow"), shíqī-bā suì (十七八岁; 十七八歲, 17–18 years old), dǎ-mà (打骂; 打罵, beat and scold), Yīng-Hàn (英汉; 英漢, English-Chinese [dictionary]), Jīng-Jīn (京津, Beijing-Tianjin), lù-hǎi-kōngjūn (陆海空军; 陸海空軍, army-navy-airforce). Abbreviated compounds (略语; 略語; lüèyǔ): gōnggòng guānxì (公共关系; 公共關係, public relations) → gōng-guān (公关; 公關, PR), chángtú diànhuà (长途电话; 長途電話, long-distance calling) → cháng-huà (长话; 長話, LDC). Exceptions are made when the abbreviated term has become established as a word in its own right, as in chūzhōng (初中) for chūjí zhōngxué (初级中学; 初級中學, junior high school). Abbreviations of proper-name compounds, however, should always be hyphenated: Běijīng Dàxué (北京大学; 北京大學, Peking University) → Běi-Dà (北大, PKU). Four-syllable idioms: fēngpíng-làngjìng (风平浪静; 風平浪靜), calm and tranquil: "wind calm, waves down"), huījīn-rútǔ (挥金如土; 揮金如土, spend money like water: "throw gold like dirt"), zhǐ-bǐ-mò-yàn (纸笔墨砚; 紙筆墨硯, paper-brush-ink-inkstone [four coordinate words]). (The AA-BB reduplication above is an instance of this.) Other idioms are separated according to the words that make up the idiom: bēi hēiguō (背黑锅; 背黑鍋, to be made a scapegoat: "to carry a black pot"), zhǐ xǔ zhōuguān fànghuǒ, bù xǔ bǎixìng diǎndēng (只许州官放火，不许百姓点灯; 只許州官放火，不許百姓點燈, Gods may do what cattle may not: "only the official is allowed to light the fire; the commoners are not allowed to light a lamp") Punctuation The Chinese full stop (。) is changed to a western full stop (.) The hyphen is a half-width hyphen (-) Ellipsis can be changed from 6 dots (......) to 3 dots (...) The enumeration comma (、) is changed to a normal comma (,) All other punctuation marks are the same as the ones used in normal texts Comparison with other orthographies Pinyin
Pinyin is now used by foreign students learning Chinese as a second language, as well as Bopomofo. Pinyin
Pinyin assigns some Latin letters sound values which are quite different from that of most languages. This has drawn some criticism as it may lead to confusion when uninformed speakers apply either native or English assumed pronunciations to words. However, this problem is not limited only to pinyin, since many languages that use the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet natively also assign different values to the same letters. A recent study on Chinese writing and literacy concluded, "By and large, pinyin represents the Chinese sounds better than the Wade–Giles system, and does so with fewer extra marks." Because Pinyin
Pinyin is purely a representation of the sounds of Mandarin, it completely lacks the semantic cues and contexts inherent in Chinese characters. Pinyin
Pinyin is also unsuitable for transcribing some Chinese spoken languages other than Mandarin, languages which by contrast have traditionally been written with Han characters allowing for written communication which, by its unified semanto-phonetic orthography, could theoretically be readable in any of the various vernaculars of Chinese where a phonetic script would have only localized utility.
Vowels a, e, o
a o ê e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
eh ê/o ên êng ung êrh
ㄚ ㄛ ㄝ ㄜ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄨㄥ ㄦ
阿 哦 呗/唄 俄 艾 黑 凹 偶 安 恩 昂 冷 中 二
Vowels i, u, y
yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun
i/yi yeh yu yen yung wên wêng yü yüeh yüan yün
ㄧ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ
一 也 又 言 音 英 用 五 我 位 文 翁 玉 月 元 云/雲
b p m feng diu dui dun te nü lü ger ke he
fong diou duei nyu lyu
p pʻ fêng tiu tui tun tʻê nü lü kor kʻo ho
ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ
玻 婆 末 封 丟 兑/兌 顿/頓 特 女 旅 歌儿/歌兒 可 何
jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
jyong cin syuan jhe jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih
chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jê jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ sê ssŭ
ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄓ ㄔㄜ ㄔ ㄕㄜ ㄕ ㄖㄜ ㄖ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄗ ㄘㄜ ㄘ ㄙㄜ ㄙ
件 窘 秦 宣 哲 之 扯 赤 社 是 惹 日 仄 左 字 策 次 色 斯
mā má mǎ mà ma
ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma
ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)
妈/媽 麻 马/馬 骂/罵 吗/嗎
A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese
is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.
Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. The ISO adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for modern Chinese in 1982 (ISO 7098:1982, superseded by ISO 7098:2015). The United Nations followed suit in 1986. It has also been accepted by the government of Singapore, the United States's Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions.[failed verification] The spelling of Chinese geographical or personal names in pinyin has become the most common way to transcribe them in English. Pinyin
Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo
Bopomofo is most commonly used. Families outside of Taiwan
Taiwan who speak Mandarin as a mother tongue use pinyin to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know. Chinese families outside of Taiwan
Taiwan who speak some other language as their mother tongue use the system to teach children Mandarin pronunciation when they learn vocabulary in elementary school. Since 1958, pinyin has been actively used in adult education as well, making it easier for formerly illiterate people to continue with self-study after a short period of pinyin literacy instruction. Pinyin
Pinyin has become a tool for many foreigners to learn Mandarin pronunciation, and is used to explain both the grammar and spoken Mandarin coupled with Chinese characters
Chinese characters (汉字; 漢字; Hànzì). Books containing both Chinese characters
Chinese characters and pinyin are often used by foreign learners of Chinese. Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic"). The tone-marking diacritics are commonly omitted in popular news stories and even in scholarly works. This results in some degree of ambiguity as to which words are being represented.
Computer input systems
Simple computer systems, able to display only 7-bit
ASCII text (essentially the 26 Latin letters, 10 digits, and punctuation marks), long provided a convincing argument for using unaccented pinyin instead of Chinese characters. Today, however, most computer systems are able to display characters from Chinese and many other writing systems as well, and have them entered with a Latin keyboard using an input method editor. Alternatively, some PDAs, tablet computers, and digitizing tablets allow users to input characters graphically by writing with a stylus, with concurrent online handwriting recognition. Pinyin
Pinyin with accents can be entered with the use of special keyboard layouts or various character map utilities. X keyboard extension includes a " Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin (altgr)" layout for AltGr-triggered dead key input of accented characters.
Pinyin in Taiwan See also: Chinese language
Chinese language romanization in Taiwan Taiwan
Taiwan (Republic of China) adopted Tongyong Pinyin, a modification of Hanyu Pinyin, as the official romanization system on the national level between October 2002 and January 2009, when it decided to promote Hanyu Pinyin. Tongyong Pinyin
Tongyong Pinyin ("common phonetic"), a romanization system developed in Taiwan, was designed to romanize languages and dialects spoken on the island in addition to Mandarin Chinese. The Kuomintang
Kuomintang (KMT) party resisted its adoption, preferring the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin system used in Mainland China
Mainland China and in general use internationally. Romanization
Romanization preferences quickly became associated with issues of national identity. Preferences split along party lines: the KMT and its affiliated parties in the pan-blue coalition supported the use of Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin while the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party and its affiliated parties in the pan-green coalition favored the use of Tongyong Pinyin. Tongyong Pinyin
Tongyong Pinyin was made the official system in an administrative order that allowed its adoption by local governments to be voluntary. Locales in Kaohsiung, Tainan
Tainan and other areas use romanizations derived from Tongyong Pinyin
Tongyong Pinyin for some district and street names. A few localities with governments controlled by the KMT, most notably Taipei, Hsinchu, and Kinmen County, overrode the order and converted to Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin before the January 1, 2009 national-level decision, though with a slightly different capitalization convention than mainland China. Most areas of Taiwan adopted Tongyong Pinyin, consistent with the national policy. Today, many street signs in Taiwan
Taiwan are using Tongyong Pinyin-derived romanizations, but some, especially in northern Taiwan, display Hanyu Pinyin-derived romanizations. It is not unusual to see spellings on street signs and buildings derived from the older Wade–Giles, MPS2 and other systems. The adoption of Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin as the official romanization system in Taiwan
Taiwan does not preclude the official retention of earlier spellings. International familiarity has led to the retention of the spelling Taipei
Taipei ("Taibei" in pinyin systems) and even to its continuation in the name of New Taipei, a municipality created in 2010. Personal names on Taiwanese passports honor the choices of Taiwanese citizens, who often prefer the Wade–Giles romanization of their personal names, though the official online conversion tool lists pinyin before other systems. Transition to Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin in official use is also necessarily gradual. Universities and other government entities retain earlier spellings in long-established names, and budget restraints preclude widespread replacement of signage and stationery in every area. Primary education in Taiwan
Taiwan continues to teach pronunciation using zhuyin (MPS or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols).
Pinyin for other languages See also: SASM/GNC romanization, Tibetan pinyin, and Guangdong Romanization Pinyin-like systems have been devised for other variants of Chinese. Guangdong Romanization is a set of romanizations devised by the government of Guangdong
Guangdong province for Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka (Moiyen dialect), and Hainanese. All of these are designed to use Latin letters in a similar way to pinyin. In addition, in accordance to the Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages (少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法; 少數民族語地名漢語拼音字母音譯寫法) promulgated in 1976, place names in non-Han languages like Mongolian, Uyghur, and Tibetan are also officially transcribed using pinyin in a system adopted by the State Administration of Surveying and Mapping and Geographical Names Committee known as SASM/GNC romanization. The pinyin letters (26 Roman letters, plus ü and ê) are used to approximate the non-Han language in question as closely as possible. This results in spellings that are different from both the customary spelling of the place name, and the pinyin spelling of the name in Chinese:
Official (pinyin for local name)
Traditional Chinese name
Simplified Chinese name
Pinyin for Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê 日喀則 日喀则 Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 烏魯木齊 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa 拉薩 拉萨 Lāsà
Hohhot Hohhot 呼和浩特 呼和浩特 Hūhéhàotè
Golmud Golmud 格爾木 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
Qiqihar Qiqihar 齊齊哈爾 齐齐哈尔 Qíqíhā'ěr
Tongyong Pinyin was developed in Taiwan
Taiwan for use in rendering not only Mandarin Chinese, but other languages and dialects spoken on the island such as Taiwanese, Hakka, and aboriginal languages.
Cyrillization of Chinese
Pinyin input method Romanization
Romanization of Japanese Tibetan pinyin Transcription into Chinese characters Comparison of Chinese transcription systems Notes
^ This was part of the Soviet program of Latinization meant to reform alphabets for languages in that country to use Latin characters.
^ a b c d e Margalit Fox (14 January 2017). "Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111". The New York Times..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
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^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation –
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^ a b "Government to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008.
^ Copper, John F. (2015). Historical Dictionary of
Taiwan (Republic of China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xv. ISBN 9781442243064. Retrieved 4 December 2017. But some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan
Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC.
^ The online version of the canonical[clarification needed "According to which group?"] Guoyu Cidian (《國語辭典》) defines this term as: 標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統，足以明確紀錄某一種語言。 'a system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language'. See this entry online.[permanent dead link] Retrieved 14 September 2012.
^ Sin, Kiong Wong (2012). Confucianism, Chinese History and Society. World Scientific. p. 72. ISBN 9814374474. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Brockey, Liam Matthew (2009). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0674028813. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ a b Chan, Wing-tsit; Adler, Joseph (2013). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 303, 304. ISBN 0231517998. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Mair, Victor H. (2002). "Sound and Meaning in the History of Characters: Views of China's Earliest Script Reformers". In Erbaugh, Mary S. (ed.). Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing. Colombus, Ohio: Ohio State University National East Asian Language Resource Center.
^ Ao, Benjamin (1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. 4.
^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0521296536. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Jensen, Lionel M.; Weston, Timothy B. (2007). China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XX. ISBN 074253863X.
^ Chen, Ping (1999). Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521645727. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ John DeFrancis, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 246-247.
"Father of pinyin".
China Daily. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2009. Reprinted in part as Simon, Alan (21–27 January 2011). "Father of Pinyin". China
China Daily Asia Weekly. Hong Kong. Xinhua. p. 20.
^ "Obituary: Zhou Youguang, Architect Of A Bridge Between Languages, Dies At 111". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound Principles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ Rohsenow, John S. 1989. Fifty years of script and written language reform in the PRC: the genesis of the language law of 2001. In Zhou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, eds. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, p. 23
^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound principles". The Guardian. London.
^ a b "
Hanyu Pinyin system turns 50". Straits Times. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ "GB/T 16159-2012". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
^ You can hear recordings of the Finals here
^ Huang, Rong. 公安部最新规定 护照上的"ü"规范成"YU". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
^ Li, Zhiyan. "Archived copy" "吕"拼音到怎么写？ 公安部称应拼写成"LYU". Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ Shea, Marilyn. "
Pinyin / Ting - The Chinese Experience". hua.umf.maine.edu.
^ a b "Apostrophes in Hanyu Pinyin: when and where to use them".
^ 怪 北捷景安站 英譯如「金幹站」. Apple Daily (Taiwan). 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019. 北市捷運局指出，目前有7大捷運站名英譯沒有隔音符號，常讓外國人問路鬧烏龍，如大安站「Daan」被誤唸為丹站、景安站「Jingan」變成金幹站等，捷運局擬加撇號「’」或橫線「-」，以利分辨音節。
^ Tung, Bobby; Chen, Yijun; Liang, Hai; LIU, Eric Q.; Zhang, Aijie; Wu, Xiaoqian; Li, Angel; Ishida, Richard. "Requirements for Chinese Text Layout". W3C. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
^ Section 7.3 of the current standard GB/T 16159-2012 Archived 17 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Swofford, Mark. "Where do the tone marks go?". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ Nathan Dummitt, Chinese Through Tone & Color (2008)
^ "Hanping Chinese Dictionary color scheme". 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
^ a b "Microsoft Word - N4782.docx" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
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China Education and Research Network. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
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^ 现代汉语规范词典(第3版). [A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese (Third Edition).]. Beijing: 外语教学与研究出版社 [Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press]. May 2014. p. 294. ISBN 978-7-513-54562-4. 【第五】 dìwǔ 名 复姓。
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^ Taylor, Insup and Maurice M. Taylor (1995), Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Volume 3 of Studies in written language and literacy, John Benjamins, p. 124.
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^ 劉婉君 (15 October 2018). 路牌改通用拼音？
Liberty Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2019. 基進黨台南市東區市議員參選人李宗霖今天指出，台南市路名牌拼音未統一、音譯錯誤等，建議統一採用通用拼音。對此，台南市政府交通局回應，南市已實施通用拼音多年，將全面檢視路名牌，依現行音譯方式進行校對改善。
^ Eryk Smith (27 November 2017). "OPINION:
Hanyu Pinyin Should Not Be Political, Kaohsiung". Retrieved 13 July 2019. why does Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung City insist on making visitors guess what 'Shihcyuan' is supposed to represent? Especially when a few blocks away, the same road has somehow morphed into 'Shiquan' (十全路) Road? Move away from Kaohsiung's city center and streets, neighborhoods or townships can have several romanized names ... sometimes on the same signage. ... The refusal to adopt Hanyu in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung seems based on nothing more than groundless fear of loss of identity or diminished regional autonomy. Listen, Kaohsiung: we won't lose our identity or our freedom by changing the romanized spelling of Singjhong Road (興中)to Xingzhong.
Gao, Johnson K (2005).
Pinyin shorthand: a bilingual handbook. Jack Sun. ISBN 9781599712512. Kimball, Richard L. (1988). Quick reference Chinese : a practical guide to Mandarin for beginners and travelers in English, Pinyin romanization, and Chinese characters. China
China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 9780835120364. Pinyin
Pinyin Chinese-English dictionary. Beijing: Commercial Press. 1979. ISBN 9780471867968. Yǐn Bīnyōng (尹斌庸); Felley, Mary (1990). Hànyǔ Pīnyīn hé Zhèngcífǎ (汉语拼音和正词法) [Chinese romanization: pronunciation and orthography]. ISBN 9787800521485. External links Pinyinat's sister projectsDefinitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata
Wikisource has original text related to this article: 汉语拼音方案
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Pinyin
The Wikibook Chinese (Mandarin) has a page on the topic of: Pinyin Pronunciation
Basic rules of the Chinese phonetic alphabet orthography—The
official standard GB/T 16159-2012 in Chinese. PDF version from the
Chinese Ministry of Education. (in Chinese)
HTML version on Pinyin.info (in Chinese) Chinese phonetic alphabet spelling rules for Chinese names—The official standard GB/T 28039-2011 in Chinese. PDF version from the Chinese Ministry of Education (in Chinese) Pinyin-Guide.com Pronunciation and FAQs related to Pinyin Pinyin-Editor.com Online editor to create Pinyin
Pinyin with tones
Preceded byGwoyeu Romatzyh
Official romanization adopted by the People's Republic of China1958–
de facto used romanization by the People's Republic of China1978–
Romanization used by the United Nations1986–
Preceded byTongyong Pinyin
Official romanization adopted by the Republic of China (Taiwan)2009–
vteISO standards .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal by standard numberList of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 17 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 361 428 500 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 657 668 690 704 732 764 838 843 860 898 965 999 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1155 1413 1538 1629 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2033 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2533 2709 2711 2720 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3601 3602 3864 3901 3950 3977 4031 4157 4165 4217 4909 5218 5426 5427 5428 5725 5775 5776 5800 5807 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 6943 7001 7002 7010 7027 7064 7098 7185 7200 7498 -1 7637 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 7942 8000 8093 8178 8217 8373 8501-1 8571 8583 8601 8613 8632 8651 8652 8691 8805/8806 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9036 9075 9126 9141 9227 9241 9293 9314 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9592/9593 9594 9660 9797-1 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16355-1 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19407 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26262 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 37001 38500 40500 42010 45001 50001 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3
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Chengyu (Chinese Four Character Idiom) Xiehouyu Input method Pinyin
Pinyin input method Bopomofo Cangjie input method Four-Corner method Boshiamy method Wubi method History Old Chinese Eastern Han Middle Chinese Old Mandarin Middle Mandarin Proto-Min Ba–Shu Gan Literary formsOfficial Classical Adoption in Vietnam Vernacular Other varieties Written Cantonese Written Dungan Written Hokkien Written Sichuanese ScriptsStandard Simplified Traditional Chinese punctuation Styles Oracle bone Bronze Seal Clerical Semi-cursive Cursive Braille Cantonese
Cantonese Braille Mainland Chinese Braille Taiwanese Braille Two-cell Chinese Braille Phonetic Cyrillization Dungan Cyrillic Romanization Gwoyeu Romatzyh Hanyu Pinyin MPS II Postal Tongyong Pinyin Wade–Giles Yale Bopomofo Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols Taiwanese kana Taiwanese Hangul Xiao'erjing Nüshu List of varieties of Chinese Authority control