Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese in mainland China
China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, and was followed by the United Nations
United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan
Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes. But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan
Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use. The word Hànyǔ (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語) means 'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn (拼音) literally means 'spelled sounds'.
In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in
1.1 Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949
1.1.1 Wade–Giles 1.1.2 Sin Wenz 1.1.3 Yale romanization
1.2 Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin
2 Initials and finals
2.1 Initials 2.2 Finals
2.2.1 The ü sound
2.3 Approximation from English pronunciation
2.3.1 Pronunciation of initials 2.3.2 Pronunciation of finals
3.1 Numerals in place of tone marks 3.2 Rules for placing the tone mark
3.2.1 Phonological intuition
3.3 Using tone colors 3.4 Third tone exceptions
4 Orthographic rules
4.1 Letters 4.2 Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation
5 Comparison with other orthographies
5.1 Comparison charts
7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links
Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949
In 1605, the
Main article: Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and
further improved by
Main article: Latinxua Sin Wenz
In the early 1930s,
Communist Party of China
Main article: Yale romanization of Mandarin
In 1943, the U.S. military engaged
Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin
Initials and finals Unlike European languages, clusters of letters — initials (声母; 聲母; shēngmǔ) and finals (韵母; 韻母; yùnmǔ) — and not consonant and vowel letters, form the fundamental elements in pinyin (and most other phonetic systems used to describe the Han language). Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable (see below, and see erhua). The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications. Even though most initials contain a consonant, finals are not always simple vowels, especially in compound finals (复韵母; 複韻母; fùyùnmǔ), i.e. when a "medial" is placed in front of the final. For example, the medials [i] and [u] are pronounced with such tight openings at the beginning of a final that some native Chinese speakers (especially when singing) pronounce yī (衣, clothes, officially pronounced /í/) as /jí/ and wéi (围; 圍, to enclose, officially pronounced /uěi/) as /wěi/ or /wuěi/. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below.
Initials In each cell below, the bold letters indicate pinyin and the brackets enclose the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
y [j]/[ɥ]1 and w [w]
1 y is pronounced [ɥ] (a labial-palatal approximant) before u.2 The letters w and y are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials i, u and ü when no initial is present. When i, u, or ü are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled yi, wu, and yu, respectively. The conventional lexicographical order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system ("bopomofo"), is:
b p m f
d t n l
g k h
j q x
zh ch sh r
z c s
i ⟨i⟩ • y ⟨ü⟩
ɤ ⟨e⟩ • o ⟨o⟩
In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates
pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates
pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified
by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of
all possible finals.1
The only syllable-final consonants in
∅ /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
[ɨ]-i [ɤ]e-e [a]a-a
[ʊŋ]-ong [əŋ]eng-eng [aŋ]ang-ang
[i]yi-i [je]ye-ie [ja]ya-ia
[jʊŋ]yong-iong [iŋ]ying-ing [jaŋ]yang-iang
[u]wu-u [wo]wo-uo 3 [wa]wa-ua
[y]yu-ü 2 [ɥe]yue-üe 2
[yn]yun-ün 2 [ɥɛn]yuan-üan 2
1 [aɚ̯] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final r, please see Erhua#Rules. 2 ü is written as u after j, q, or x. 3 uo is written as o after b, p, m, f, or w. Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (欸; 誒) and syllabic nasals m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯, 𠮾) are used as interjections.
The ü sound
An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the
initials l and n when necessary in order to represent the sound [y].
This is necessary in order to distinguish the front high rounded vowel
in lü (e.g. 驴; 驢; 'donkey') from the back high rounded vowel in
lu (e.g. 炉; 爐; 'oven'). Tonal markers are added on top of the
umlaut, as in lǘ.
However, the ü is not used in the other contexts where it could
represent a front high rounded vowel, namely after the letters j, q,
x, and y. For example, the sound of the word 鱼/魚 (fish) is
transcribed in pinyin simply as yú, not as yǘ. This practice is
opposed to Wade–Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin,
which always uses yu. Whereas
Wade–Giles needs of using the umlaut
to distinguish between chü (pinyin ju) and chu (pinyin zhu), this
ambiguity does not arise with pinyin, so the more convenient form ju
is used instead of jü. Genuine ambiguities only happen with nu/nü
and lu/lü, which are then distinguished by an umlaut.
Many fonts or output methods do not support an umlaut for ü or cannot
place tone marks on top of ü. Likewise, using ü in input methods is
difficult because it is not present as a simple key on many keyboard
layouts. For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention.
For example, it is common for cellphones to use v instead of ü.
Additionally, some stores in
Approximation from English pronunciation
This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Media help.
Most rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximations, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.
Pronunciation of initials
Pinyin IPA English approximation Explanation
b [p] spit unaspirated p, as in spit
p [pʰ] pay strongly aspirated p, as in pit
m [m] may as in English mummy
f [f] fair as in English fun
d [t] stop unaspirated t, as in stop
t [tʰ] take strongly aspirated t, as in top
n [n] nay as in English nit
l [l] lay as in English love
g [k] skill unaspirated k, as in skill
k [kʰ] kay strongly aspirated k, as in kill
h [x], [h] loch Varies between hat and Scottish loch.
j [tɕ] churchyard Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English, but similar to an unaspirated "-chy-" sound when said quickly. Like q, but unaspirated. Is similar to the English name of the letter G, but curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth. Not like the s in vision despite the common English pronunciation of "Beijing". The sequence "ji" word-initially is the similar to the Japanese pronunciation of じ(ジ) ji, but unvoiced unless toneless.
q [tɕʰ] punch yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like punch yourself, with the lips spread wide as when one says ee. Curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth and strongly aspirate. The sequence "qi" word-initially is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of ち(チ) chi.
x [ɕ] push yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like -sh y-, with the lips spread as when one says ee and with the tip of the tongue curled downwards and stuck to the back of the teeth. The sequence "xi" is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of し(シ) shi.
zh [ʈʂ] nurture Unaspirated ch. Similar to hatching but retroflex, or marching in American English. Voiced in a toneless syllable.
ch [ʈʂʰ] church Similar to chin, but retroflex.
sh [ʂ] shirt Similar to shoe but retroflex, or marsh in American English.
r [ɻ~ʐ] ray No equivalent in English, but similar to the r in reduce, but with the tongue curled upward against the top of the mouth (i.e. retroflex).
z [ts] pizza unaspirated c, similar to something between suds but voiceless, unless in a toneless syllable.
c [tsʰ] hats like the English ts in cats, but strongly aspirated, very similar to the Czech, Polish, and Slovak c.
s [s] say as in sun
w [w] way as in water. Before an e or a it is sometimes pronounced like v as in violin.*
y [j], [ɥ] yea as in yes. Before a u, pronounced with rounded lips.*
* Note on y and w
Y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see
below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial
consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while
fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to *fang-uan). With this
convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a,
e, or o:
** Note on the apostrophe
The apostrophe (') (隔音符號; géyīn fúhào; 'syllable-dividing
mark') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in
a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word,
unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. For
example, 西安 is written as
Pronunciation of finals This table may be a useful reference for IPA vowel symbols The following is a list of finals in Standard Chinese, excepting most of those ending with r. To find a given final:
Remove the initial consonant. Zh, ch, and sh count as initial consonants. Change initial w to u and initial y to i. For weng, wen, wei, you, look under ong, un, ui, iu. For u after j, q, x, or y, look under ü.
Pinyin IPA Form with zero initial Explanation
-i [ɹ̩~z̩], [ɻ̩~ʐ̩] (n/a) -i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-. (In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)
a [a] a like English father, but a bit more fronted
e [ɤ] (listen) e a back, unrounded vowel (similar to English duh, but not as open). Pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ].
ai [ai̯] ai like English eye, but a bit lighter
ei [ei̯] ei as in hey
ao [au̯] ao approximately as in cow; the a is much more audible than the o
ou [ou̯] ou as in North American English so
an [an] an like British English ban, but more central
en [ən] en as in taken
ang [aŋ] ang as in German Angst. (Starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in some dialects of American English)
eng [əŋ] eng like e in en above but with ng appended
ong [ʊŋ] (n/a) starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing. Varies between [oŋ] and [uŋ] depending on the speaker.
er [aɚ̯] er Similar to the sound in bar in American English. Can also be pronounced [ɚ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with i- (y-)
i [i] yi like English bee
ia [ja] ya as i + a; like English yard
ie [je] ye as i + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
iao [jau̯] yao as i + ao
iu [jou̯] you as i + ou
ian [jɛn] yan as i + an; like English yen. Varies between [jen] and [jan] depending on the speaker.
in [in] yin as i + n
iang [jaŋ] yang as i + ang
ing [iŋ] ying as i + ng
iong [jʊŋ] yong as i + ong. Varies between [joŋ] and [juŋ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with u- (w-)
u [u] wu like English oo
ua [wa] wa as u + a
uo, o [wo] wo as u + o where the o (compare with the o interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter (spelled as o after b, p, m or f)
uai [wai̯] wai as u + ai, as in English why
ui [wei̯] wei as u + ei
uan [wan] wan as u + an
un [wən] wen as u + en; as in English won
uang [waŋ] wang as u + ang
(n/a) [wəŋ] weng as u + eng
Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)
u, ü [y] (listen) yu as in German über or French lune. (Pronounced as English ee with rounded lips)
ue, üe [ɥe] yue as ü + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
uan [ɥɛn] yuan as ü + an. Varies between [ɥen] and [ɥan] depending on the speaker.
un [yn] yun as ü + n
ê [ɛ] (n/a) as in bet
o [ɔ] (n/a) approximately as in British English office; the lips are much more rounded
io [jɔ] yo as i + o
Relative pitch changes of the four tones
The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of
Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the
syllable nucleus, unless that letter is missing (see below).
Many books printed in
The first tone (Flat or High Level Tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel: ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ The second tone (Rising or High-Rising Tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ): á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ The third tone (Falling-Rising or Low Tone) is marked by a caron/háček (ˇ). It is not the rounded breve (˘), though a breve is sometimes substituted due to font limitations. ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ The fourth tone (Falling or High-Falling Tone) is represented by a grave accent (ˋ): à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ The fifth tone (Neutral Tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark: a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü In dictionaries, neutral tone may be indicated by a dot preceding the syllable; for example, ·ma. When a neutral tone syllable has an alternative pronunciation in another tone, a combination of tone marks may be used: zhī·dào (知道). These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center text-align:center;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center The four main tones of Standard Mandarin, pronounced with the syllable ma.
Traditional characters: .mw-parser-output ruby>rt,.mw-parser-output ruby>rtc font-feature-settings:"ruby"1 .mw-parser-output ruby.large font-size:250% .mw-parser-output ruby.large>rt,.mw-parser-output ruby.large>rtc font-size:.3em 媽 (mā) 麻 (má) 馬 (mǎ) 罵 (mà) 嗎 (·ma)
Simplified characters: 妈 (mā) 麻 (má) 马 (mǎ) 骂 (mà) 吗 (·ma)
The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particle, respectively.
Numerals in place of tone marks Before the advent of computers, many typewriter fonts did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables. For example, tóng is written tong². The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.g. ma⁵ for 吗／嗎, an interrogative marker.
Tone Tone Mark Number added to end of syllablein place of tone mark Example usingtone mark Example usingnumber IPA
First macron ( ◌̄ ) 1 mā ma1 ma˥
Second acute accent ( ◌́ ) 2 má ma2 ma˧˥
Third caron ( ◌̌ ) 3 mǎ ma3 ma˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent ( ◌̀ ) 4 mà ma4 ma˥˩
"Neutral" No mark or middle dot before syllable ( ·◌ ) no number50 ma·ma mama5ma0 ma
Rules for placing the tone mark
Briefly, the tone mark should always be placed by the order—a,
o, e, i, u, ü, with the only exception being iu, where the tone mark
is placed on the u instead.
If there is an a or an e, it will take the tone mark If there is an ou, then the o takes the tone mark Otherwise, the second vowel takes the tone mark Worded differently,
If there is an a, e, or o, it will take the tone mark; in the case of ao, the mark goes on the a Otherwise, the vowels are -iu or -ui, in which case the second vowel takes the tone mark If the tone is written over an i, the tittle above the i is omitted, as in yī.
Phonological intuition The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, o, and u appears, can also be inferred from the nature of the vowel sound in the medial and final. The rule is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a (near-)semi-vowel. The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the second spelled vowel. Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i (as in ia) or u (as in ua), which serves as a near-semi-vowel, this letter does not take the tone marker. Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel (as in ao or ou), this letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, o, and u (with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllable), the first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker (as in iao or uai or iou). But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle (non-semi-vowel) sound (as in ui or iu), then the tone marker goes on the final (second) vowel letter.
Using tone colors In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use.
Dummitt's color scheme was one of the first to be used. It is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - orange, tone 3 - green, tone 4 - blue, and neutral tone - black. The Unimelb color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - purple, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey The Hanping color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - orange, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey. The Pleco color scheme is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - blue, tone 4 - purple, neutral tone - grey The Thomas color scheme is tone 1 - green, tone 2 - blue, tone 3 - red, tone 4 - black, neutral tone - grey Third tone exceptions In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Additionally, when two third tones appear consecutively, such as in 你好 (nǐhǎo, hello), the first syllable is pronounced with the second tone — this is called tone sandhi. In pinyin, words like "hello" are still written with two third tones (nǐhǎo).
Syllables starting with u are written as w in place of u (e.g., *uan
is written as wan). Standalone u is written as wu.
Syllables starting with i are written as y in place of i (e.g., *ian
is written as yan). Standalone i is written as yi.
Syllables starting with ü are written as yu in place of ü (e.g.,
*üe is written as yue).
ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu, and
xu), but written as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such
as lü and nü). In such situations where there are corresponding u
syllables, it is often replaced with v on a computer, making it easier
to type on a standard keyboard.
When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu,
ui, and un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation).
As in zhuyin, what are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo
are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo.
The apostrophe (') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a,
o, or e) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start
the word (which is most commonly realized as [ɰ]), unless the
syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. This
is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which
consists of the two syllables xi (西) an (安), compared to such
words as xian (先). (This ambiguity does not occur when tone marks
are used: The two tone marks in "Xīān" unambiguously show that the
word consists of two syllables. However, even with tone marks, the
city is usually spelled with an apostrophe as "Xī'ān".)
Eh alone is written as ê; elsewhere as e.
Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation
Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up
of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together
and not capitalized: rén (人, person); péngyou (朋友, friend);
qiǎokèlì (巧克力, chocolate)
Combined meaning (2 or 3 characters): Same goes for words combined of
two words to one meaning: hǎifēng (海风; 海風, sea breeze);
wèndá (问答; 問答, question and answer); quánguó (全国;
全國, nationwide); chángyòngcí (常用词; 常用詞, common
Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more
characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning
if possible: wúfèng gāngguǎn (无缝钢管; 無縫鋼管, seamless
steel-tube); huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (环境保护规划;
環境保護規劃, environmental protection planning);
gāoměngsuānjiǎ (高锰酸钾; 高錳酸鉀, potassium
AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén (人人,
everybody), kànkan (看看, to have a look), niánnián (年年,
ABAB: Two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiū
yánjiū (研究研究, to study, to research), xuěbái xuěbái
(雪白雪白, white as snow)
AABB: Characters in the AABB schema are written together:
láiláiwǎngwǎng (来来往往; 來來往往, come and go),
qiānqiānwànwàn (千千万万; 千千萬萬, numerous)
Prefixes (前附成分; qiánfù chéngfèn) and Suffixes
(后附成分; 後附成分; hòufù chéngfèn): Words accompanied by
prefixes such as fù (副, vice), zǒng (总; 總, chief), fēi (非,
non-), fǎn (反, anti-), chāo (超, ultra-), lǎo (老, old), ā
(阿, used before names to indicate familiarity), kě (可, -able),
wú (无; 無, -less) and bàn (半, semi-) and suffixes such as zi
(子, noun suffix), r (儿; 兒, diminutive suffix), tou (头; 頭,
noun suffix), xìng (性, -ness, -ity), zhě (者, -er, -ist), yuán
(员; 員, person), jiā (家, -er, -ist), shǒu (手, person skilled
in a field), huà (化, -ize) and men (们; 們, plural marker) are
written together: fùbùzhǎng (副部长; 副部長, vice minister),
chéngwùyuán (乘务员; 乘務員, conductor), háizimen
(孩子们; 孩子們, children)
Nouns and names (名词; 名詞; míngcí)
Words of position are separated: mén wài (门外; 門外, outdoor),
hé li (河里; 河裏, under the river), huǒchē shàngmian
(火车上面; 火車上面, on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán
(黄河以南; 黃河以南, south of the Yellow River)
Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang (天上, in
the sky or outerspace), dìxia (地下, on the ground), kōngzhōng
(空中, in the air), hǎiwài (海外, overseas)
Surnames are separated from the given names, each capitalized: Lǐ
Huá (李华; 李華), Zhāng Sān (张三; 張三). If the surname
and/or given name consists of two syllables, it should be written as
one: Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明).
Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng
bùzhǎng (王部长; 王部長, Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng
(李先生, Mr. Li), Tián zhǔrèn (田主任, Director Tian), Zhào
tóngzhì (赵同志; 趙同志, Comrade Zhao).
The forms of addressing people with prefixes such as Lǎo (老), Xiǎo
(小), Dà (大) and Ā (阿) are capitalized: Xiǎo Liú (小刘;
小劉, [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li),
Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo Qián (老钱; 老錢, [senior] Mr.
Qian), Lǎo Wú (老吴; 老吳, [senior] Mr. Wu)
Exceptions include Kǒngzǐ (孔子, Confucius), Bāogōng (包公,
Judge Bao), Xīshī (西施, Xishi), Mèngchángjūn (孟尝君;
孟嘗君, Lord Mengchang)
Geographical names of China: Běijīng Shì (北京市, city of
Beijing), Héběi Shěng (河北省, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng
(鸭绿江; 鴨綠江, Yalu River), Tài Shān (泰山, Mount Tai),
Dòngtíng Hú (洞庭湖, Dongting Lake), Táiwān Hǎixiá
a o ê e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
eh ê/o ên êng ung êrh
ㄚ ㄛ ㄝ ㄜ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄨㄥ ㄦ
阿 哦 呗/唄 俄 艾 黑 凹 偶 安 恩 昂 冷 中 二
yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun
i/yi yeh yu yen yung wên wêng yü yüeh yüan yün
ㄧ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ
一 也 又 言 音 英 用 五 我 位 文 翁 玉 月 元 云/雲
b p m feng diu dui dun te nü lü ger ke he
fong diou duei nyu lyu
p pʻ fêng tiu tui tun tʻê nü lü kor kʻo ho
ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ
玻 婆 末 封 丟 兑/兌 顿/頓 特 女 旅 歌儿/歌兒 可 何
jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
jyong cin syuan jhe jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih
chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jê jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ sê ssŭ
ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄓ ㄔㄜ ㄔ ㄕㄜ ㄕ ㄖㄜ ㄖ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄗ ㄘㄜ ㄘ ㄙㄜ ㄙ
件 窘 秦 宣 哲 之 扯 赤 社 是 惹 日 仄 左 字 策 次 色 斯
mā má mǎ mà ma
ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma
ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)
妈/媽 麻 马/馬 骂/罵 吗/嗎
A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese
is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.
Computer input systems
Simple computer systems, able to display only 7-bit
Official (pinyin for local name)
Traditional Chinese name
Simplified Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê 日喀則 日喀则 Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 烏魯木齊 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa 拉薩 拉萨 Lāsà
Hohhot Hohhot 呼和浩特 呼和浩特 Hūhéhàotè
Golmud Golmud 格爾木 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
Qiqihar Qiqihar 齊齊哈爾 齐齐哈尔 Qíqíhā'ěr
Cyrillization of Chinese
^ This was part of the Soviet program of Latinization meant to reform alphabets for languages in that country to use Latin characters.
^ a b c d e Margalit Fox (14 January 2017). "Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111". The New York Times..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation –
^ a b "Government to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008.
^ Copper, John F. (2015). Historical Dictionary of
^ The online version of the canonical[clarification needed "According to which group?"] Guoyu Cidian (《國語辭典》) defines this term as: 標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統，足以明確紀錄某一種語言。 'a system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language'. See this entry online.[permanent dead link] Retrieved 14 September 2012.
^ Sin, Kiong Wong (2012). Confucianism, Chinese History and Society. World Scientific. p. 72. ISBN 9814374474. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Brockey, Liam Matthew (2009). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0674028813. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ a b Chan, Wing-tsit; Adler, Joseph (2013). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 303, 304. ISBN 0231517998. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Mair, Victor H. (2002). "Sound and Meaning in the History of Characters: Views of China's Earliest Script Reformers". In Erbaugh, Mary S. (ed.). Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing. Colombus, Ohio: Ohio State University National East Asian Language Resource Center.
^ Ao, Benjamin (1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. 4.
^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0521296536. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Jensen, Lionel M.; Weston, Timothy B. (2007). China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XX. ISBN 074253863X.
^ Chen, Ping (1999). Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521645727. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ John DeFrancis, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 246-247.
"Father of pinyin".
^ "Obituary: Zhou Youguang, Architect Of A Bridge Between Languages, Dies At 111". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound Principles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ Rohsenow, John S. 1989. Fifty years of script and written language reform in the PRC: the genesis of the language law of 2001. In Zhou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, eds. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, p. 23
^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound principles". The Guardian. London.
^ a b "
^ "GB/T 16159-2012". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
^ You can hear recordings of the Finals here
^ Huang, Rong. 公安部最新规定 护照上的"ü"规范成"YU". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
^ Li, Zhiyan. "Archived copy" "吕"拼音到怎么写？ 公安部称应拼写成"LYU". Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ Shea, Marilyn. "
^ a b "Apostrophes in Hanyu Pinyin: when and where to use them".
^ 怪 北捷景安站 英譯如「金幹站」. Apple Daily (Taiwan). 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019. 北市捷運局指出，目前有7大捷運站名英譯沒有隔音符號，常讓外國人問路鬧烏龍，如大安站「Daan」被誤唸為丹站、景安站「Jingan」變成金幹站等，捷運局擬加撇號「’」或橫線「-」，以利分辨音節。
^ Tung, Bobby; Chen, Yijun; Liang, Hai; LIU, Eric Q.; Zhang, Aijie; Wu, Xiaoqian; Li, Angel; Ishida, Richard. "Requirements for Chinese Text Layout". W3C. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
^ Section 7.3 of the current standard GB/T 16159-2012 Archived 17 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Swofford, Mark. "Where do the tone marks go?". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ Nathan Dummitt, Chinese Through Tone & Color (2008)
^ "Hanping Chinese Dictionary color scheme". 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
^ a b "Microsoft Word - N4782.docx" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
^ a b "Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography". Qingdao Vocational and Technical College of Hotel Management (in Chinese). Department of Educational Administration. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
^ "Release of the National Standard Basic Rules of the Chinese
Phonetic Alphabet Orthography".
^ 现代汉语词典(第七版). [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition).]. Beijing: The Commercial Press. 1 September 2016. p. 289. ISBN 978-7-100-12450-8. 【第五】 Dìwǔ 名 姓。
^ 现代汉语规范词典(第3版). [A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese (Third Edition).]. Beijing: 外语教学与研究出版社 [Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press]. May 2014. p. 294. ISBN 978-7-513-54562-4. 【第五】 dìwǔ 名 复姓。
^ "Use of the Hyphen; Abbreviations and Short Forms". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
^ Taylor, Insup and Maurice M. Taylor (1995), Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Volume 3 of Studies in written language and literacy, John Benjamins, p. 124.
^ Lin Mei-chun (8 October 2000). "Official challenges romanization".
^ Ao, Benjamin (1 December 1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. Internet Chinese Librarians Club (4). ISSN 1089-4667. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
^ Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles (2005). The science of reading: a handbook. Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology). 17. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 320–22. ISBN 1-4051-1488-6.
^ R.F. Price (2005). Education in Modern China. Volume 23 of "China : history, philosophy, economics" (2, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 0-415-36167-2.
^ Price (2005), pp. 206–208
^ "symbols/cn in xkeyboard-config". Freedesktop.org Cgit. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
^ 劉婉君 (15 October 2018). 路牌改通用拼音？
^ Eryk Smith (27 November 2017). "OPINION:
Gao, Johnson K (2005).
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Pinyin
The Wikibook Chinese (Mandarin) has a page on the topic of: Pinyin Pronunciation
Basic rules of the Chinese phonetic alphabet orthography—The
official standard GB/T 16159-2012 in Chinese. PDF version from the
Chinese Ministry of Education. (in Chinese)
Preceded byGwoyeu Romatzyh
Official romanization adopted by the People's Republic of China1958–
de facto used romanization by the People's Republic of China1978–
Preceded byTongyong Pinyin
Official romanization adopted by the Republic of China (Taiwan)2009–
vteISO standards .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal by standard numberList of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 17 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 361 428 500 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 657 668 690 704 732 764 838 843 860 898 965 999 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1155 1413 1538 1629 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2033 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2533 2709 2711 2720 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3601 3602 3864 3901 3950 3977 4031 4157 4165 4217 4909 5218 5426 5427 5428 5725 5775 5776 5800 5807 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 6943 7001 7002 7010 7027 7064 7098 7185 7200 7498 -1 7637 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 7942 8000 8093 8178 8217 8373 8501-1 8571 8583 8601 8613 8632 8651 8652 8691 8805/8806 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9036 9075 9126 9141 9227 9241 9293 9314 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9592/9593 9594 9660 9797-1 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16355-1 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19407 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26262 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 37001 38500 40500 42010 45001 50001 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3
vteChinese languageMajor subdivisionsMandarin
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