HOME
The Info List - Hanuman


--- Advertisement ---



Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Hanuman
Hanuman
(/ˈhʌnʊˌmɑːn/; IAST: Hanumān, Sanskrit: हनुमान्)[4] is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama[1] and one of the central characters in the various versions of the epic Ramayana found in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Southeast Asia.[5] As one of the Chiranjivi, he is also mentioned in several other texts, such as the Mahabharata,[1] the various Puranas
Puranas
and some Jain,[6] Buddhist,[7] and Sikh texts.[8] Several later texts also present him as an incarnation of Shiva.[1] Hanuman
Hanuman
is the son of Anjana and Kesari and is also son of the wind-god Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth.[3][9] His theological origins in Hinduism
Hinduism
are unclear. Alternate theories include him having ancient roots, being a non-Aryan deity who was Sanskritized by the Vedic Aryans, or that he is a fusion deity who emerged in literary works from folk Yaksha
Yaksha
protector deities and theological symbolism.[10][11]:39–40 While Hanuman
Hanuman
is one of the central characters in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, the evidence of devotional worship to him is missing in the texts and archeological sites of ancient and most of the medieval period. According to Philip Lutgendorf, an American Indologist known for his studies on Hanuman, the theological significance and devotional dedication to Hanuman
Hanuman
emerged about 1,000 years after the composition of the Ramayana, in the 2nd millennium CE, after the arrival of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent.[12] Bhakti movement saints such as Samarth Ramdas
Samarth Ramdas
expressed Hanuman
Hanuman
as a symbol of nationalism and resistance to persecution.[13] In the modern era, his iconography and temples have been increasingly common.[14] He is viewed as the ideal combination of "strength, heroic initiative and assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to his personal god Rama", as Shakti
Shakti
and Bhakti.[15] In later literature, he has been the patron god of martial arts such as wrestling, acrobatics, as well as meditation and diligent scholarship.[1] He symbolizes the human excellences of inner self-control, faith and service to a cause, hidden behind the first impressions of a being who looks like a monkey.[14][16][10] Besides being a popular deity in Hinduism, Hanuman
Hanuman
is also found in Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism.[6][17] He is also a legendary character in legends and arts found outside Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
such as in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia and Indonesia. Outside India, Hanuman shares many characteristics with the Hindu
Hindu
versions in India, but differs in others. He is heroic, brave and steadfastly chaste, much like in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
tradition, but not celibate. He marries and has children in other cultures, as is the case in a few regional versions in India. Hanuman
Hanuman
is stated by scholars to be the inspiration for the allegory-filled adventures of a monkey hero in the Xiyouji
Xiyouji
(Journey to the West) – the great Chinese poetic novel influenced by the travels of Buddhist monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(602–664 CE) to India.[6][18]

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Historical development

2.1 Vedic roots 2.2 Tamil roots 2.3 Epics and Puranas 2.4 Late medieval and modern era

3 Birth 4 Childhood 5 Attributes 6 Texts

6.1 Hinduism

6.1.1 Ramayana 6.1.2 Mahabharata 6.1.3 Other literature 6.1.4 Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa

6.2 Buddhism 6.3 Jainism 6.4 Sikhism 6.5 Southeast Asian texts

7 Significance and influence 8 Iconography 9 Temples and shrines

9.1 Festivals and celebrations

10 Hanuman
Hanuman
in Southeast Asia

10.1 Cambodia 10.2 Indonesia 10.3 Thailand

11 In Non-Religious Pop Culture 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Bibliography

14 Further reading 15 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

Hanuman
Hanuman
with a Namaste
Namaste
(Anjali Hasta) posture.

The meaning or the origin of word "Hanuman" is unclear. In the Hindu pantheon, deities typically have many synonymous names, each based on the noble characteristic or attribute or reminder of that deity's mythical deed.[11]:31–32 Hanuman
Hanuman
has many names like Maruti, Pawansuta, Bajrangbali, Mangalmurti but these names are rarely used. Hanuman
Hanuman
is the common name of the monkey god. One interpretation of the term is that it means "one having a jaw (hanu) that is prominent (mant)". This version is supported by a Puranic legend wherein baby Hanuman
Hanuman
mistakes the sun for a fruit, attempts to heroically reach it, is wounded and gets a disfigured jaw.[11]:31–32 A second, less common interpretation is that the name derives from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words Han ("killed" or "destroyed") and maana (pride); the name implies "one whose pride was destroyed". This epithet resonates with the story in the Ramayana
Ramayana
about his emotional devotion to Rama and Sita. He combines two of the most cherished traits in the Hindu bhakti-shakti worship traditions: "heroic, strong, assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to personal god".[11]:31–32 A third conjecture is found in Jain
Jain
texts. This version states that Hanuman
Hanuman
spent his childhood on an island called Hanuruha, which served as the origin of his name.[11]:189 Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Anuman (Tamil), Hanumantha (Kannada), Hanumanthudu (Telugu). Other names of Hanuman include:

Anjaneya,[19] Anjaniputra (Kannada), Anjaneyar (Tamil), Anjaneyudu (Telugu), Anjanisuta all meaning "the son of Hanuman's mother Anjana". Kesari Nandan, based on his father, which means "son of Kesari" Maruti, or the son of the wind god;[5] Bajrang Bali, "the strong one (bali), who had limbs (anga) as hard as a vajra (bajra)"; this name is widely used in rural North India.[11]:31–32 Sang Kera Pemuja Dewa Rama, Hanuman, the Indonesian for "The mighty devotee of Rama, Hanuman" Sankata Mochana, the remover of dangers (sankata)[11]:31–32

Outside the Indian subcontinent, though his iconography and the details of his legends vary, his names are phonetic similar to the Indian version:

Andaman, this name and Hanuman's mythology is behind the Indian islands in the Bay of Bengal called Andaman and Nicobar.[20] Anoman (Javanese, Indonesia)[21] Hanuman
Hanuman
(Malaysia)[22] Hanuman
Hanuman
in Myanmar,[23] Cambodia,[24] Thailand, and Balinese Indonesia.[25][26] Hunlaman (Lao)[citation needed]

Historical development[edit]

Standing Hanuman, Chola
Chola
Dynasty, 11th century, Tamil Nadu, India

Vedic roots[edit] The earliest mention of a divine monkey, interpreted by some scholars as the proto-Hanuman, is in hymn 10.86 of the Rigveda, dated to between 1500 and 1200 BCE. The twenty-three verses of the hymn are a metaphorical and riddle-filled legend. It is presented as a dialogue between multiple characters: the god Indra, his wife Indrani and an energetic monkey it refers to as Vrisakapi and his wife Kapi.[27][28][11]:39–40 The hymn opens with Indrani complaining to Indra
Indra
that some of the soma offerings for Indra
Indra
have been allocated to the energetic and strong monkey, and the people are forgetting Indra. The king of the gods Indra
Indra
responds by telling his wife that the living being (monkey) that bothers her is to be seen as a friend, and that they should make an effort to coexist peacefully. The hymn closes with all agreeing that they should come together in Indra's house and share the wealth of the offerings.[11]:39–40 This hymn, which includes an explicit discussion of sex and differences between species, has been interpreted in a number of ways by contemporary scholars.[28][11]:305 R.N. Dandekar states that it may metaphorically refer to another fertility god, while Wendy Doniger compares it to a horse sacrifice. Stephanie Jamison states that the hymn mentions a bull-monkey, a euphemism for a horse and fertility ritual, very different from the later era Hanuman. According to Philip Lutgendorf, there is "no convincing evidence for a monkey-worshipping cult in ancient India".[28] Tamil roots[edit] The orientalist F. E. Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman
Hanuman
was a proto-Dravidian deity.[11]:40 According to this theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the Tamil word for male monkey (ana-mandi), first transformed to "Anumant" – a name which remains in use. "Anumant", according to this hypothesis, was later Sanskritized to "Hanuman" because the ancient Aryans confronted with a popular monkey deity of ancient Dravidians coopted the concept and then Sanskritized it.[11]:39–40[29] According to Murray Emeneau, known for his Tamil linguistic studies, this theory does not make sense because the Old Tamil word mandi in Caṅkam literature can only mean "female monkey", and Hanuman
Hanuman
is male. Further, adds Emeneau, the compound ana-mandi makes no semantic sense in Tamil, which has well developed and sophisticated grammar and semantic rules. The "prominent jaw" etymology, according to Emeneau, is therefore plausible.[11]:39–40 Epics and Puranas[edit]

Sita's scepticism

Vanaranam naranam ca kathamasit samagamah

Translation: How can there be a relationship between men and monkeys?

—Valmiki's Ramayana' Sita's first meeting with Hanuman (Translator: Philip Lutgendorf)[30]

Hanuman
Hanuman
is mentioned in both the Hindu
Hindu
epics, Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata.[31] A twentieth-century Jesuit missionary Camille Bulcke, in his Ramkatha: Utpatti Aur Vikas ("The tale of Rama: its origin and development"), proposed that Hanuman
Hanuman
worship had its basis in the cults of aboriginal tribes of Central India.[32] Hanuman
Hanuman
is mentioned in the Puranas.[33] A medieval legend posited Hanuman
Hanuman
as an avatar of the god Shiva
Shiva
by the 10th century CE (this development possibly started as early as in the 8th century CE).[32][34] Hanuman
Hanuman
is mentioned as an avatar of Shiva
Shiva
or Rudra
Rudra
in the medieval era Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts like the Mahabhagvata Purana, the Skanda Purana, the Brhaddharma Purana
Purana
and the Mahanataka among others. This development might have been a result of the Shavite attempts to insert their ishta devata (cherished deity) in the Vaishnavite texts.[32] Other mythologies, such as those found in South India, present Hanuman as a being who is the union of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu, or associated with the origin of Ayyappa.[1] The 17th century Odia work Rasavinoda by Dinakrishnadasa goes on to mention that the three gods – Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
– combined to take to the form of Hanuman.[35] Late medieval and modern era[edit]

Numerous 14th-century and later Hanuman
Hanuman
images are found in the ruins of the Hindu
Hindu
Vijayanagara Empire.[11]:64–71

In Valmiki's Ramayana, estimated to have been composed before or in about the 3rd century BCE, Hanuman
Hanuman
is an important, creative character as a simian helper and messenger for Rama. The character evolved over time, reflecting regional cultural values. It is, however, in the late medieval era that his profile evolves into more central role and dominance as the exemplary spiritual devotee, particularly with the popular vernacular text Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
by Tulsidas
Tulsidas
(~ 1575 CE).[36][5] According to scholars such as Patrick Peebles and others, during a period of religious turmoil and Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent, the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement and devotionalism-oriented Bhakti yoga had emerged as a major trend in Hindu
Hindu
culture by the 16th-century, and the Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
presented Rama
Rama
as a Vishnu avatar, supreme being and a personal god worthy of devotion, with Hanuman
Hanuman
as the ideal loving devotee with legendary courage, strength and powers.[13][37] Hanuman
Hanuman
evolved and emerged in this era as the ideal combination of shakti and bhakti.[15] Stories and folk traditions in and after the 17th century, began to reformulate and present Hanuman
Hanuman
as a divine being, as a descendent of deities, and as an avatar of Shiva.[37] He emerged as a champion of those religiously persecuted, expressing resistance, a yogi,[11]:85 an inspiration for martial artists and warriors,[11]:57–64 a character with less fur and increasingly human, symbolizing cherished virtues and internal values, and worthy of devotion in his own right.[13][38] Hindu
Hindu
monks morphed into soldiers, and they named their organizations after Hanuman.[39][40] This evolution of Hanuman's character, religious and cultural role as well as his iconography continued through the colonial era and in post-colonial times.[41] Birth[edit] According to Hindu
Hindu
legends, Hanuman
Hanuman
was born to Anjana and father Kesari.[1][42] Hanuman
Hanuman
is also called the son of the deity Vayu
Vayu
(Wind god) because of legends associated with Vayu's role in Hanuman's birth. One story mentioned in Eknath's Bhavartha Ramayana
Ramayana
(16th century CE) states that when Anjana was worshiping Shiva, the King Dasharatha
Dasharatha
of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was also performing the ritual of Putrakama yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred pudding (payasam) to be shared by his three wives, leading to the births of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. By divine ordinance, a kite snatched a fragment of that pudding and dropped it while flying over the forest where Anjana was engaged in worship. Vayu, the Hindu
Hindu
deity of the wind, delivered the falling pudding to the outstretched hands of Anjana, who consumed it. Hanuman
Hanuman
was born to her as a result.[42][verification needed]

Child Hanuman
Hanuman
reaches for the Sun
Sun
thinking it is a fruit by BSP Pratinidhi

Childhood[edit] According to Valmiki's Ramayana, one morning in his childhood, Hanuman was hungry and saw the rising red colored sun. Mistaking it for a ripe fruit, he leapt up to eat it. In one version of the Hindu
Hindu
legend, the king of gods Indra
Indra
intervened and struck his thunderbolt. It hit Hanuman
Hanuman
on his jaw, and he fell to the earth unconscious with a broken jaw. His father, Vayu
Vayu
(air), states Ramayana
Ramayana
in section 4.65, became upset and withdrew. The lack of air created immense suffering to all living beings. This led Prajapati, the god of life, to intervene and resuscitate Hanuman, which in turn prompted Vayu
Vayu
to return to the living beings.[43] In another Hindu
Hindu
version of his childhood legend, which Lutgendorf states is likely older and also found in Jain
Jain
texts such as the 8th-century Dhurtakhyana, Hanuman's Icarus-like leap for the sun proves to be fatal and he is burnt to ashes from the sun's heat. His ashes fall onto the earth and oceans.[44] Gods then gather the ashes and his bones from land and, with the help of fishes, from the water and re-assemble him. They find everything except one fragment of his jawbone. His great-grandfather on his mother's side then asks Surya
Surya
to restore the child to life. Surya
Surya
returns him to life, but Hanuman
Hanuman
is left with a disfigured jaw.[44] Hanuman
Hanuman
said to have spend his childhood in Kishkindha. Attributes[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
has many attributes:

Hanuman
Hanuman
fetches the herb-bearing mountain, in a print from the Ravi Varma Press, 1910s

Chiranjivi (immortal): various versions of Ramayana
Ramayana
and Rama
Rama
Katha state towards their end, just before Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
die, that Hanuman
Hanuman
is blessed to be immortal. He will be a part of humanity forever, while the story of Rama
Rama
lives on.[45] Kurūp and Sundar: he is described in Hindu texts
Hindu texts
as kurūp (ugly) on the outside, but divinely sundar (beautiful inside).[44] Kama-rupin: He can shapeshift, become smaller than the smallest, larger than the largest adversary at will.[11]:45–47, 287 He uses this attribute to shrink and enter Lanka, as he searches for the kidnapped Sita
Sita
imprisoned in Lanka. Later on, he takes on the size of a mountain, blazing with radiance, to show his true power to Sita.[46] Strength: Hanuman
Hanuman
is extraordinarily strong, one capable of lifting and carrying any burden for a cause. He is called Vira, Mahavira, Mahabala and other names signifying this attribute of his. During the epic war between Rama
Rama
and Ravana, Rama's brother Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is wounded. He can only be healed and his death prevented by a herb found in a particular Himalayan mountain. Hanuman
Hanuman
leaps and finds the mountain. There, states Ramayana, Hanuman
Hanuman
finds the mountain is full of many herbs. He doesn't know which one to take. So, he lifts the entire Himalayan mountain and carries it across India
India
to Lanka
Lanka
for Lakshmana. His immense strength thus helps Lakshmana
Lakshmana
recover from his wound.[11]:6, 44–45, 205–210 This legend is the popular basis for the iconography where he is shown flying and carrying a mountain on his palm.[11]:61

Hanuman
Hanuman
showing Rama
Rama
in His heart

Innovative: Hanuman
Hanuman
is described as someone who constantly faces very difficult odds, where the adversary or circumstances threaten his mission with certain defeat and his very existence. Yet he finds an innovative way to turn the odds. For example, after he finds Sita, delivers Rama's message, and persuades her that he is indeed Rama's true messenger, he is discovered by the prison guards. They arrest Hanuman, and under Ravana's orders take him to a public execution. There, the Ravana's guards begin his torture, tie his tail with oiled cloth and put it on fire. Hanuman
Hanuman
then leaps, jumps from one palace rooftop to another, thus burning everything down.[11]:140–141, 201 Bhakti: Hanuman
Hanuman
is presented as the exemplary devotee (bhakta) of Rama and Sita. The Hindu texts
Hindu texts
such as the Bhagavata Purana, the Bhakta Mala, the Ananda Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Ramacharitmanas present him as someone who is talented, strong, brave and spiritually devoted to Rama.[47] The Rama
Rama
stories such as the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Ramacharitmanas, in turn themselves, present the Hindu
Hindu
dharmic concept of the ideal, virtuous and compassionate man (Rama) and woman (Sita) thereby providing the context for attributes assigned therein for Hanuman.[48][49] Learned Yogi: In the late medieval texts and thereafter, such as those by Tulasidas, attributes of Hanuman
Hanuman
include learned in Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, the Vedas, a poet, a polymath, a grammarian, a singer and musician par excellence.[47][1] Remover of obstacles: in devotional literature, Hanuman
Hanuman
is the remover of difficulties.[47]

Texts[edit] Hinduism[edit] Ramayana[edit]

Hanuman
Hanuman
finds Sita
Sita
in the ashoka grove, and shows her Rama's ring

The Sundara Kanda, the fifth book in the Ramayana, focuses on Hanuman. Hanuman
Hanuman
meets Rama
Rama
in the last year of the latter's 14-year exile, after the demon king Ravana
Ravana
had kidnapped Sita. With his brother Lakshmana, Rama
Rama
is searching for his wife Sita. This, and related Rama legends are the most extensive stories about Hanuman.[50][51] Numerous versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
exist within India. These present variant legends of Hanuman, Rama, Sita, Lakshamana and Ravana. The characters and their descriptions vary, in some cases quite significantly.[52] Mahabharata[edit]

Roadside Hanuman
Hanuman
shrine south of Chennai, Tamil Nadu

The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
is another major epic which has a short mention of Hanuman. In Book 3, the Vana Parva of the Mahabharata, he is presented as a half brother of Bhima, who meets him accidentally on his way to Mount Kailasha. A man of extraordinary strength, Bhima
Bhima
is unable to move Hanuman's tail, making him realize and acknowledge the strength of Hanuman. This story attests to the ancient chronology of the Hanuman
Hanuman
character. It is also a part of artwork and reliefs such as those at the Vijayanagara ruins.[53][54] Other literature[edit] Apart from Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata, Hanuman
Hanuman
is mentioned in several other texts. Some of these stories add to his adventures mentioned in the earlier epics, while others tell alternative stories of his life. The Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
mentions Hanuman
Hanuman
in Rameswaram.[55] In a South Indian version of Shiva
Shiva
Purana, Hanuman
Hanuman
is described as the son of Shiva
Shiva
and Mohini
Mohini
(the female avatar of Vishnu), or alternatively his mythology has been linked to or merged with the origin of Swami Ayyappa
Ayyappa
who is popular in parts of South India.[1] Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa[edit] The 16th-century Indian poet Tulsidas
Tulsidas
wrote Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa, a devotional song dedicated to Hanuman. He claimed to have visions where he met face to face with Hanuman. Based on these meetings, he wrote Ramcharitmanas, an Awadhi language version of Ramayana.[56] Buddhism[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
appears with a Buddhist gloss in Tibetan (southwest China) and Khotanese (west China, central Asia and northern Iran) versions of Ramayana. The Khotanese versions have a Jātaka
Jātaka
tales-like theme, but are generally similar to the Hindu texts
Hindu texts
in the storyline and character of Hanuman. The Tibetan version is more embellished, and without attempts to include a Jātaka
Jātaka
gloss. Also, in the Tibetan version, novel elements appear such as Hanuman
Hanuman
carrying love letters between Rama
Rama
and Sita, in addition to the Hindu
Hindu
version wherein Rama sends the wedding ring with him as a message to Sita. Further, in the Tibetan version, Rama
Rama
chides Hanuman
Hanuman
for not corresponding with him through letters more often, implying that the monkey-messenger and warrior is a learned being who can read and write letters.[7][57]

In Japan, icons of the divine monkey (Saruta Biko), guards temples such as Saru-gami at Hie Shrine.[58][59]

In the Sri Lankan versions of Ramayana, which are titled after Ravana, the story is less melodramatic than the Indian stories. Many of the legends recounting Hanuman's bravery and innovative ability are found in the Sinhala versions. The stories in which the characters are involved have Buddhist themes, and lack the embedded ethics and values structure according to Hindu
Hindu
dharma.[60] According to Hera Walker, some Sinhalese communities seek the aid of Hanuman
Hanuman
through prayers to his mother.[61] In Chinese Buddhist texts, states Arthur Cotterall, myths mention the meeting of the Buddha with Hanuman, as well as Hanuman's great triumphs.[62] According to Rosalind Lefeber, the arrival of Hanuman
Hanuman
in East Asian Buddhist texts may trace its roots to the translation of the Ramayana
Ramayana
into Chinese and Tibetan in the 6th-century CE.[63] In both China and Japan, according to Lutgendorf, much like in India, there is a lack of a radical divide between humans and animals, with all living beings and nature assumed to be related to humans. There is no exaltation of humans over animals or nature, unlike the Western traditions. A divine monkey has been a part of the historic literature and culture of China and Japan, possibly influenced by the close cultural contact through Buddhist monks and pilgrimage to India
India
over two millennia.[58] For example, the Japanese text Keiranshuyoshu, while presenting its mythology about a divine monkey, that is the theriomorphic Shinto
Shinto
emblem of Hie shrines, describes a flying white monkey that carries a mountain from India
India
to China, then from China to Japan.[64] Many Japanese shrines and village boundaries, dated from the 8th to the 14th centuries, feature a monkey deity as guardian or intermediary between humans and gods.[58][59] The Jātaka
Jātaka
tales contain Hanuman-like stories.[65] For example, the Buddha is described as a monkey-king in one of his earlier births in the Mahakapi Jātaka, wherein he as a compassionate monkey suffers and is abused, but who nevertheless continues to follow dharma in helping a human being who is lost and in danger.[66][67] Jainism[edit] Main articles: Rama
Rama
in Jainism
Jainism
and Salakapurusa Paumacariya (also known as Pauma Chariu or Padmacharit), the Jain version of Ramayana
Ramayana
written by Vimalasuri, mentions Hanuman
Hanuman
not as a divine monkey, but as a Vidyadhara
Vidyadhara
(a supernatural being, demigod in Jain
Jain
cosmology).[68][69] He is the son of Pavangati (wind deity) and Anjana Sundari. Anjana gives birth to Hanuman
Hanuman
in a forest cave, after being banished by her in-laws. Her maternal uncle rescues her from the forest; while boarding his vimana, Anjana accidentally drops her baby on a rock. However, the baby remains uninjured while the rock is shattered. The baby is raised in Hanuruha, his great-uncle's island kingdom, from which Hanuman
Hanuman
gets his name.[11]:51–52 Hanuman's strength is not his own achievement, but attributed to his mother's asceticism.[68] In Jain
Jain
texts, Hanuman
Hanuman
is depicted as the 17th of 24 Kamadevas, the one who is ultimately handsome.[11]:330 In the Jain
Jain
version, Hanuman
Hanuman
is not celibate, Rama
Rama
is a pious Jaina who never kills anyone, and it is Lakshamana who kills Ravana. Hanuman is a sexually active personality in the Jain
Jain
versions, marries princess Anangakusuma, the daughter of Kharadushana and Ravana's sister Chandranakha. Ravana
Ravana
also presents Hanuman
Hanuman
one of his nieces as a second wife. After becoming an ally of Sugriva, Hanuman
Hanuman
acquires a hundred more wives. Hanuman
Hanuman
becomes a supporter of Rama
Rama
after meeting him and learning about Sita's kidnapping by Ravana. He goes to Lanka on Rama's behalf, but is unable to convince Ravana
Ravana
to give up Sita. Ultimately, he joins Rama
Rama
in the war against Ravana
Ravana
and performs several heroic deeds.[11]:50–51 Later Jain
Jain
texts, such as Uttarapurana
Uttarapurana
(9th century CE) by Gunabhadra and Anjana-Pavananjaya (12th century CE), tell the same story. In several versions of the Jain
Jain
Ramayana
Ramayana
story, there are passages that explain to Hanuman, and Rama
Rama
(called Pauma in Jainism), that attachment to women and pleasures are evil. Hanuman, in these versions, ultimately renounces all social and material life to become a Jain
Jain
ascetic.[70] Sikhism[edit] In Sikhism, the Hindu
Hindu
god Rama
Rama
has been referred to as Sri Ram Chandar, and the story of Hanuman
Hanuman
as a siddha has been influential. After the birth of the martial Sikh Khalsa
Khalsa
movement in 1699, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Hanuman
Hanuman
was an inspiration and object of reverence by the Khalsa.[8] Some Khalsa
Khalsa
regiments brought along the Hanuman
Hanuman
image to the battleground. The Sikh texts such as Hanuman Natak composed by Hirda Ram Bhalla, and Das Gur Katha by Kavi Kankan describe the heroic deeds of Hanuman.[71] According to Louis Fenech, the Sikh tradition states that Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
was a fond reader of the Hanuman
Hanuman
Natak text.[8] During the colonial era, in Sikh seminaries in what is now Pakistan, Sikh teachers were called bhai, and they were required to study the Hanuman
Hanuman
Natak, the Hanuman
Hanuman
story containing Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
and other texts, all of which were available in Gurmukhi script.[72] Southeast Asian texts[edit]

Although Hanuman
Hanuman
practices celibacy in most Indian texts, he is depicted to have sexual relationships with many women in southeast Asian versions of his story.[73] The above paintings at the Temple of the Emerald Buddha in Bangkok
Bangkok
depicts his intercourse with Butsamali (บุษมาลี), a fallen angel, and Suphannamatcha (สุพรรณมัจฉา), a mermaid.

The non-Indian versions of Ramayana, such as the Thai Ramakien, mention that Hanuman
Hanuman
had relationships with multiple women, including Svayamprabha, Benjakaya (Vibhisana's daughter), Suvannamaccha
Suvannamaccha
and even Ravana's wife Mandodari.[32] According to these versions of the Ramayana, Macchanu is the son of Hanuman
Hanuman
borne by Suvannamaccha, daughter of Ravana.[74] The Jain
Jain
text Paumacariya mentions that Hanuman
Hanuman
married Lankasundari, the daughter of Lanka's chief defender Bajramukha.[75] Another legend says that a demigod named Matsyaraja (also known as Makardhwaja
Makardhwaja
or Matsyagarbha) claimed to be his son. Matsyaraja's birth is explained as follows: a fish (matsya) was impregnated by the drops of Hanuman's sweat, while he was bathing in the ocean.[32] According to Parasara Samhita, Hanuman
Hanuman
married Suvarchala, the daughter of Surya (the Sun
Sun
God).[76] The Hanuman
Hanuman
in southeast Asian texts differs from the north Indian Hindu
Hindu
version in various ways in the Burmese Ramayana, such as Rama Yagan, Alaung Rama
Rama
Thagyin (in the Arakanese dialect), Rama
Rama
Vatthu and Rama
Rama
Thagyin, the Malay Ramayana, such as Hikayat Sri Rama
Rama
and Hikayat Maharaja Ravana, and the Thai Ramayana, such as Ramakien. However, in some cases, the aspects of the story are similar to Hindu
Hindu
versions and Jaina or Buddhist versions of Ramayana
Ramayana
found elsewhere on the Indian subcontinent.[77] Significance and influence[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
became more important in the medieval period and came to be portrayed as the ideal devotee (bhakta) of Rama.[32] Hanuman's life, devotion, celibacy and strength inspired wrestlers in India.[78]

Hanuman
Hanuman
in 17th-century

Greater than Rama, is Rama's servant [Hanuman].

— Tulsidas, Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
7.120.14[79]

According to Philip Lutgendorf, devotionalism to Hanuman
Hanuman
and his theological significance emerged long after the composition of the Ramayana, in the 2nd millennium CE. His prominence grew after the arrival of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent.[12] He is viewed as the ideal combination of shakti ("strength, heroic initiative and assertive excellence") and bhakti ("loving, emotional devotion to his personal god Rama").[15] Beyond wrestlers, he has been the patron god of other martial arts. He is stated to be a gifted grammarian, meditating yogi and diligent scholar. He exemplifies the human excellences of temperance, faith and service to a cause.[14][16][10] In 17th-century north and western regions of India, Hanuman
Hanuman
emerged as an expression of resistance and dedication against Islamic persecution. For example, the bhakti poet-saint Ramdas presented Hanuman
Hanuman
as a symbol of Marathi nationalism and resistance to Mughal Empire.[13] Hanuman
Hanuman
in the colonial and post-colonial era has been a cultural icon, as a symbolic ideal combination of shakti and bhakti, as a right of Hindu
Hindu
people to express and pursue their forms of spirituality and religious beliefs (dharma).[15][80] Political and religious organizations have named themselves after him or his synonyms such as Bajrang.[81][39][40] Political parades or religious processions have featured men dressed up as Hanuman, along with women dressed up as gopis (milkmaids) of god Krishna, as an expression of their pride and right to their heritage, culture and religious beliefs.[82][83] According to some scholars, the Hanuman-linked youth organizations have tended to have a paramilitary wing and have opposed other religions, with a mission of resisting the "evil eyes of Islam, Christianity and Communism", or as a symbol of Hindu nationalism.[84][85] Iconography[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

A five-headed panchamukha Hanuman
Hanuman
icon. It is found in esoteric tantric traditions that weave Vaishvana and Shaiva ideas, and is relatively uncommon.[86][11]:319, 380–388

Hanuman's iconography shows him either with other central characters of the Ramayana
Ramayana
or by himself. If with Rama
Rama
and Sita, he is shown to the right of Rama, as a devotee bowing or kneeling before them with a Namaste
Namaste
(Anjali Hasta) posture. If alone, he carries weapons such as a big Gada (mace)
Gada (mace)
and thunderbolt (vajra), sometimes in a scene reminiscent of a scene from his life.[1][87] In the modern era, his iconography and temples have been common. He is typically shown with Rama, Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana, near or in Vaishnavism temples, as well as by himself usually opening his chest to symbolically show images of Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
near his heart. He is also popular among the followers of Shaivism.[14] In north India, aniconic representation of Hanuman
Hanuman
such as a round stone has been in use by yogi, as a means to help focus on the abstract aspects of him.[88] Temples and shrines[edit]

41 meters (135 Ft) high Hanuman
Hanuman
monument at Paritala, Andhra Pradesh

Hanuman
Hanuman
is often worshipped along with Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
of Vaishnavism, sometimes independently.[5] There are numerous statues to celebrate or temples to worship Hanuman
Hanuman
all over India. In some regions, he is considered as an avatar of Shiva, the focus of Shaivism.[5] According to a review by Lutgendorf, some scholars state that the earliest Hanuman
Hanuman
murtis appeared in the 8th century, but verifiable evidence of Hanuman
Hanuman
images and inscriptions appear in the 10th century in Indian monasteries in central and north India.[11]:60

Wall carvings depicting the worship of Hanuma at Undavalli Caves, Vijaywada

Tuesday and Saturday of every week are particularly popular days at Hanuman
Hanuman
temples. Some people keep a partial or full fast on either of those two days and remember Hanuman
Hanuman
and the theology he represents to them.[11]:11–12, 101 Major temples and shrines of Hanuman
Hanuman
include:

The oldest known independent Hanuman
Hanuman
temple and statue is at Khajuraho, dated to about 922 CE from the Khajuraho
Khajuraho
Hanuman inscription.[89][11]:59–60 Jakhu temple
Jakhu temple
in Shimla, the capital of Himachal Pradesh. A monumental 108-foot (33-metre) statue of Hanuman
Hanuman
marks his temple and is the highest point in Shimla.[90] The tallest Hanuman
Hanuman
statue is the Veera Abhaya Anjaneya Swami, standing 135 feet tall at Paritala, 32 km from Vijayawada
Vijayawada
in Andhra Pradesh, installed in 2003.[11] Chitrakoot in Madhya Pradesh features the Hanuman
Hanuman
Dhara temple, which features a panchmukhi statue of Hanuman. It is located inside a forest, and it along with Ramghat that is a few kilometers away, are significant Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage sites.[91] Other monumental statues of Hanuman
Hanuman
are found all over India, such as at the Sholinghur
Sholinghur
Sri Yoga
Yoga
Narasimha
Narasimha
swami temple and Sri Yoga Anjaneyar temple, located in Vellore District. In Maharashtra, a monumental statue is at Nerul, Navi Mumbai. In Bangalore, a major Hanuman
Hanuman
statue is at the Ragigudda Anjaneya temple. Similarly, a 32 feet (10 m) idol with a temple exists at Nanganallur
Nanganallur
in Chennai. At the Hanuman
Hanuman
Vatika in Rourkela, Odisha there is 75-foot (23 m) statue of Hanuman.[92]

In India, the annual autumn season Ramlila
Ramlila
play features Hanuman, enacted during Navratri
Navratri
by rural artists (above).

Outside India, a major Hanuman
Hanuman
statue has been built by Tamil Hindus near the Batu caves in Malaysia, and an 85-foot (26 m) Karya Siddhi Hanuman
Hanuman
statue by colonial era Hindu
Hindu
indentured workers' descendants at Carapichaima
Carapichaima
in Trinidad and Tobago. Another Karya Siddhi Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple has been built in Frisco, Texas
Frisco, Texas
in the United States.[93]

Festivals and celebrations[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
is a central character in the annual Ramlila
Ramlila
celebrations in India, and seasonal dramatic arts in southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand; and Bali and Java, Indonesia. Ramlila
Ramlila
is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Rama
Rama
according to the ancient Hindu
Hindu
epic Ramayana
Ramayana
or secondary literature based on it such as the Ramcharitmanas.[94] It particularly refers to the thousands[95] of dramatic plays and dance events that are staged during the annual autumn festival of Navratri
Navratri
in India.[96] Hanuman
Hanuman
is featured in many parts of the folk-enacted play of the legendary war between Good and Evil, with the celebrations climaxing in the Dussehra
Dussehra
(Dasara, Vijayadashami) night festivities where the giant grotesque effigies of Evil such as of demon Ravana
Ravana
are burnt, typically with fireworks.[97][98] The Ramlila
Ramlila
festivities were declared by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity" in 2008. Ramlila
Ramlila
is particularly notable in the historically important Hindu
Hindu
cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna
Satna
and Madhubani – cities in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.[97] Hanuman's birthday is observed by some Hindus as Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti. It falls in much of India
India
in the traditional month of Chaitra in the lunisolar Hindu
Hindu
calendar, which overlaps with March and April. However, in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanthi is observed in the regional Hindu
Hindu
month of Margazhi, which overlaps with December and January. The festive day is observed with devotees gathering at Hanuman
Hanuman
temples before sunrise, and day long spiritual recitations and story reading about the victory of good over evil.[9] Hanuman
Hanuman
in Southeast Asia[edit] Cambodia[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
is a revered heroic figure in Khmer history in southeast Asia. He features predominantly in the Reamker, a Cambodian epic poem, based on the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Itihasa
Itihasa
Ramayana
Ramayana
epic.[99] Intricate carvings on the walls of Angkor Wat depict scenes from the Ramayana
Ramayana
including those of Hanuman.[100]

Hanuman
Hanuman
statue at Bali, Indonesia

In Cambodia and many other parts of southeast Asia, mask dance and shadow theatre arts celebrate Hanuman
Hanuman
with Ream (same as Rama
Rama
of India). Hanuman
Hanuman
is represented by a white mask.[101][102] Particularly popular in southeast Asian theatre are Hanuman's accomplishments as a martial artist and as an amorous seducer of women, in interpolated plays that are missing from most versions of the Indian Ramayana.[103] Indonesia[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
is the central character in many of the historic dance and drama art works such as Wayang Wong
Wayang Wong
found in Javanese culture, Indonesia. These performance arts can be traced to at least the 10th century.[104] He has been popular, along with the local versions of Ramayana
Ramayana
in other islands of Indonesia such as Java.[105][106] In major medieval era Hindu
Hindu
temples, archeological sites and manuscripts discovered in Indonesian and Malay islands, Hanuman features prominently along with Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
and Sugriva.[107][108] The most studied and detailed relief artworks are found in the Candis Panataran
Panataran
and Prambanan.[109][110]

Above is a Thai iconography of Hanuman. He is one of the most popular characters of Ramakien.[111]

Hanuman, along with other characters of the Ramayana, are an important source of plays and dance theatre repertoire at Odalan
Odalan
celebrations and other festivals in Bali.[112] Thailand[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
has been a historic and popular character of Ramakien
Ramakien
in Thai culture. He appears wearing a crown on his head and armor. He is depicted as an albino white, strong character with open mouth in action, sometimes shown carrying a trident. In Ramkien, Hanuman
Hanuman
is a devoted soldier of Rama. Unlike in Indian adaptations, he is not celibate, and he is presented as a ladies man, according to Paula Richman.[113] He meets the mermaid Suvannamaccha
Suvannamaccha
and the couple have a son. Hanuman
Hanuman
plays a dominant role in the Thai version of the Ramayana epic.[114] As in the Indian tradition, Hanuman
Hanuman
is the patron of martial arts and an example of courage, fortitude and excellence in Thailand.[115] In Non-Religious Pop Culture[edit] Hanuman
Hanuman
was mentioned in the 2018 Marvel Cinematic Universe
Marvel Cinematic Universe
film, Black Panther where he is shown to be the central deity of a complex Indo-African religion followed by the Jabari tribe from the fictional African nation of Wakanda.[116] See also[edit]

Hanuman
Hanuman
temples Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti Hanumanasana, an asana named after Hanuman Sun
Sun
Wukong, a Chinese literary character in Wu Cheng'en's masterpiece Journey to the West The 6 Ultra Brothers vs. the Monster Army Hanuman
Hanuman
and the Five Riders Gray langur, also known as the Hanuman
Hanuman
langur

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 146–148. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.  ^ Brian A. Hatcher (2015). Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Modern World. Routledge. ISBN 9781135046309.  ^ a b Bibek Debroy (2012). The Mahabharata: Volume 3. Penguin Books. pp. 184 with footnote 686. ISBN 978-0-14-310015-7.  ^ "Hanuman", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b c d e Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Taylor & Francis. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ a b c Wendy Doniger, Hanuman: Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Encyclopaedia Britannica; For a summary of the Chinese text, see Xiyouji: NOVEL BY WU CHENG’EN ^ a b Susan Whitfield; Ursula Sims-Williams (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. Serindia Publications. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-932476-13-2.  ^ a b c Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ a b J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1310–1311. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ a b c Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 2–9. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ a b Paula Richman (2010), Review: Lutgendorf, Philip's Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey, The Journal of Asian Studies; Vol 69, Issue 4 (Nov 2010), pages 1287-1288 ^ a b c d Jayant Lele (1981). Tradition and Modernity in Bhakti Movements. Brill Academic. pp. 114–116. ISBN 90-04-06370-6.  ^ a b c d Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ a b c d Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–32, 116, 257–259, 388–391. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ a b Lutgendorf, Philip (1997). "Monkey in the Middle: The Status of Hanuman
Hanuman
in Popular Hinduism". Religion. Routledge. 27 (4): 311–332. doi:10.1006/reli.1997.0095.  ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (1994). "My Hanuman
Hanuman
Is Bigger Than Yours". History of Religions. University of Chicago Press. 33 (3): 211–245. doi:10.1086/463367.  ^ H. S. Walker (1998), Indigenous or Foreign? A Look at the Origins of the Monkey Hero Sun
Sun
Wukong, Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 81. September 1998, Editor: Victor H. Mair, University of Pennsylvania ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 68.  ^ Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri; Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri (2005). Primitive Tribes in Contemporary India: Concept, Ethnography and Demography. Mittal Publications. p. 45. ISBN 978-81-8324-026-0.  ^ J.H. Maronier (2013). Pictures of the Tropics: A Catalogue of Drawings, Water-Colours, Paintings and Sculptures in the Collection of the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology in Leiden. Springer. p. 127. ISBN 978-94-017-6643-2.  ^ R. V. R. Murthy (2005). Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands: Development and Decentralization. Mittal Publications. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-8324-049-9.  ^ Uta Gärtner (1994). Tradition and Modernity in Myanmar. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 317. ISBN 978-3-8258-2186-9.  ^ Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.  ^ Marijke Klokke (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. pp. 391–396. ISBN 978-979-26-2499-1.  ^ Eugenio Barba; Nicola Savarese (2011). A Dictionary of Theatre Anthropology: The Secret Art of the Performer. Taylor & Francis. pp. 77 with Fig 13. ISBN 978-1-135-17635-8.  ^ ऋग्वेद:_सूक्तं_१०.८६, Rigveda, Wikisource ^ a b c Philip Lutgendorf (1999), Like Mother, Like Son, Sita
Sita
and Hanuman, Manushi, No. 114, pages 23-25 ^ Legend of Ram–Retold. PublishAmerica. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-1-4512-2350-7.  ^ Philip Lutgendorf (1999), Like Mother, Like Son, Sita
Sita
and Hanuman, Manushi, No. 114, pages 22-23 ^ Nanditha Krishna
Krishna
(1 January 2010). Sacred Animals of India. Penguin Books India. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-0-14-306619-4.  ^ a b c d e f Camille Bulcke; Dineśvara Prasāda (2010). Rāmakathā and Other Essays. Vani Prakashan. pp. 117–126. ISBN 978-93-5000-107-3. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas, Volume 1. Sarup & Sons. pp. 411–. ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Diana L. Eck (1991). Devotion divine, Bhakti
Bhakti
traditions from the regions of India: studies in honour of Charlotte Vaudeville. Egbert Forsten. pp. 69, 62–67. ISBN 978-90-6980-045-5. , Quote: "Giving up his Rudra
Rudra
form, Lord Shiva
Shiva
as Hanuman
Hanuman
adopted a monkey figure, only in view of his affection for Rama." ^ Shanti Lal Nagar (1999). Genesis and evolution of the Rāma kathā in Indian art, thought, literature, and culture: from the earliest period to the modern times. B.R. Pub. Co. ISBN 978-81-7646-082-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Catherine Ludvik (1987). F.S. Growse, ed. The Rāmāyaṇa of Tulasīdāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 723–725. ISBN 978-81-208-0205-6.  ^ a b Patrick Peebles (2015). Voices of South Asia: Essential Readings from Antiquity to the Present. Routledge. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-317-45248-5.  ^ Thomas A. Green. Martial Arts of the World: En Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 467–468. ISBN 978-1-57607-150-2.  ^ a b William R. Pinch (1996). Peasants and Monks in British India. University of California Press. pp. 27–28, 64, 158–159. ISBN 978-0-520-91630-2.  ^ a b Sarvepalli Gopal (1993). Anatomy of a Confrontation: Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and the Rise of Communal Politics in India. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 41–46, 135–137. ISBN 978-1-85649-050-4.  ^ Philip Lutgendorf (2002), Evolving a monkey: Hanuman, poster art and postcolonial anxiety, Contributions to Indian Sociology, Vol 36, Issue 1-2, pages 71-112 ^ a b Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas
Puranas
Vol 2.(D-H) pp=628-631, Swami Parmeshwaranand, Sarup & Sons, 2001, ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3 ^ Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.  ^ a b c Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Joginder Narula (1991). Hanuman, God and Epic Hero: The Origin and Growth of Hanuman
Hanuman
in Indian Literary and Folk Tradition. Manohar Publications. pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-81-85054-84-1.  ^ Goldman, Robert P. (Introduction, translation and annotation) (1996). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume V: Sundarakanda. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 0691066620. pp. 45-47. ^ a b c Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.  ^ A Kapoor (1995). Gilbert Pollet, ed. Indian Epic Values: Rāmāyaṇa and Its Impact. Peeters Publishers. pp. 181–186. ISBN 978-90-6831-701-5.  ^ Roderick Hindery (1978). Comparative Ethics in Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist Traditions. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 100–107. ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9.  ^ Catherine Ludvik (1987). F.S. Growse, ed. The Rāmāyaṇa of Tulasīdāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 723–728. ISBN 978-81-208-0205-6.  ^ Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.  ^ Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 509–511. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ Dallapiccola, A.L.; Verghese, Anila (2002). "Narrative Reliefs of Bhima
Bhima
and Purushamriga at Vijayanagara". South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 18 (1): 73–76. doi:10.1080/02666030.2002.9628609.  ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (1973). The Mahabharata, Volume 2: Book 2: The Book of Assembly; Book 3: The Book of the Forest. University of Chicago Press. pp. 180, 371, 501–505. ISBN 978-0-226-84664-4.  ^ Diana L. Eck (1991). Devotion divine: Bhakti
Bhakti
traditions from the regions of India : studies in honour of Charlotte Vaudeville. Egbert Forsten. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-6980-045-5. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Catherine Ludvík (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarasidas publ. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ J. L. Brockington (1985). Righteous Rāma: The Evolution of an Epic. Oxford University Press. pp. 264–267, 283–284, 300–303, 312 with footnotes. ISBN 978-0-19-815463-1.  ^ a b c Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 353–354. ISBN 978-0-19-804220-4.  ^ a b Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney (1989). The Monkey as Mirror: Symbolic Transformations in Japanese History and Ritual. Princeton University Press. pp. 42–54. ISBN 0-691-02846-X.  ^ John C. Holt (2005). The Buddhist Visnu: Religious Transformation, Politics, and Culture. Columbia University Press. pp. 138–140. ISBN 978-0-231-50814-8.  ^ Hera S. Walker (1998). Indigenous Or Foreign?: A Look at the Origins of the Monkey Hero Sun
Sun
Wukong, Sino-Platonic Papers, Issues 81-87. University of Pennsylvania. p. 45.  ^ Arthur Cotterall (2012). The Pimlico Dictionary Of Classical Mythologies. Random House. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4481-2996-6.  ^ Rosalind Lefeber (1994). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India-Kiskindhakanda. Princeton University Press. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0-691-06661-2.  ^ Richard Karl Payne (1998). Re-Visioning "Kamakura" Buddhism. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-0-8248-2078-7.  ^ Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 38–41. ISBN 978-0-19-804220-4.  ^ Peter D. Hershock (2006). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Public Sphere: Reorienting Global Interdependence. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-135-98674-2.  ^ Reiko Ohnuma (2017). Unfortunate Destiny: Animals in the Indian Buddhist Imagination. Oxford University Press. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-19-063755-2.  ^ a b M. Whitney Kelting (2009). Heroic Wives Rituals, Stories and the Virtues of Jain
Jain
Wifehood. Oxford University Press. p. 249 note 15. ISBN 978-0-19-045286-5.  ^ Jose Pereira (2001). Monolithic Jinas. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 36–37, 58. ISBN 978-81-208-2397-6.  ^ Eva de Clercq (2008). Colette Caillat and Nalini Balbir, ed. Jaina Studies. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 92–94. ISBN 978-81-208-3247-3.  ^ Louis E. Fenech (2013). The Sikh Zafar-namah of Guru Gobind Singh: A Discursive Blade in the Heart of the Mughal Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 149–150 with note 28. ISBN 978-0-19-993145-3.  ^ John Stratton Hawley; Gurinder Singh Mann (1993). Studying the Sikhs: Issues for North America. State University of New York Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0-7914-1426-2.  ^ Satyavrat Sastri (2006). Discovery of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Treasures: Epics and Puranas. Yash Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-81-89537-04-3. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ The Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Malay shadow-play by Amin Sweeney, Vālmīki. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,. 1972. pp. 238, 246, 440.  ^ Truman Simanjuntak (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 362. ISBN 978-979-26-2499-1. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ "Wedding bells toll for Lord Hanuman". The Hindu. 2006-01-04.  ^ Uta Gärtner (1994). Tradition and Modernity in Myanmar. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 305–324. ISBN 978-3-8258-2186-9.  ^ Devdutt Pattanaik (1 September 2000). The Goddess in India: The Five Faces of the Eternal Feminine. Inner Traditions * Bear & Company. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-89281-807-5. Retrieved 18 July 2012.  ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (1997). "Monkey in the Middle: The Status of Hanuman
Hanuman
in Popular Hinduism". Religion. Taylor & Francis. 27 (4): 311. doi:10.1006/reli.1997.0095.  ^ Philip Lutgendorf (2002), Evolving a monkey: Hanuman, poster art and postcolonial anxiety, Contributions to Indian Sociology, Vol 36, Issue 1-2, pages 71-110 ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (2010). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India. Primus Books. p. 183 note 4. ISBN 978-93-80607-04-7.  ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (2010). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India. Primus Books. pp. 332, 389–391. ISBN 978-93-80607-04-7.  ^ Daromir Rudnyckyj; Filippo Osella (2017). Religion and the Morality of the Market. Cambridge University Press. pp. 75–82. ISBN 978-1-107-18605-7.  ^ Pathik Pathak (2008). Future of Multicultural Britain: Confronting the Progressive Dilemma: Confronting the Progressive Dilemma. Edinburgh University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7486-3546-7.  ^ Chetan Bhatt (2001). Hindu
Hindu
nationalism: origins, ideologies and modern myths. Berg. pp. 180–192. ISBN 978-1-85973-343-1.  ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (2001). "Five heads and no tale: Hanumān and the popularization of Tantra". International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies. Springer Nature. 5 (3): 269–296. doi:10.1007/s11407-001-0003-3.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 58, 190–194. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ David N. Lorenzen (1995). Bhakti
Bhakti
Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action. State University of New York Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-7914-2025-6.  ^ Reports of a Tour in Bundelkhand and Rewa in 1883-84, and of a Tour in Rewa, Bundelkhand, Malwa, and Gwalior, in 1884-85, Alexander Cunningham, 1885 ^ The Indian Express, Chandigarh, Tuesday, November 2, 2010, p. 5. ^ Swati Mitra (2012). Temples of Madhya Pradesh. Eicher Goodearth and Government of Madhya Pradesh. p. 41. ISBN 978-93-80262-49-9.  ^ Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65422-7. Retrieved May 14, 2009.  Page 128 ^ New Hindu
Hindu
temple serves Frisco's growing Asian Indian population, Dallas Morning News, Aug 6, 2015 ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 389. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1.  ^ Schechner, Richard; Hess, Linda (1977). "The Ramlila
Ramlila
of Ramnagar [India]". The Drama Review: TDR. The MIT Press. 21 (3): 51–82. doi:10.2307/1145152.  ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2015). " Navratri
Navratri
Hindu
Hindu
festival".  ^ a b Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana, UNESCO ^ Ramlila
Ramlila
Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle, by Asha Kasbekar. Published by ABC-CLIO, 2006. ISBN 1-85109-636-1. Page 42. ^ Toni Shapiro-Phim, Reamker, The Cambodian Version of Ramayana, Asia Society ^ https://www.jstor.org/stable/25212421?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents ^ Jukka O. Miettinen (1992). Classical Dance and Theatre in South-East Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 120–122. ISBN 978-0-19-588595-8.  ^ Leakthina Chau-Pech Ollier; Tim Winter (2006). Expressions of Cambodia: The Politics of Tradition, Identity and Change. Routledge. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-1-134-17196-5.  ^ James R. Brandon; Martin Banham (1997). The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre. Cambridge University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-521-58822-5.  ^ Margarete Merkle (2012). Bali: Magical Dances. epubli. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-3-8442-3298-1.  ^ J. Kats (1927), The Rāmāyana in Indonesia, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1927), pp. 579-585 ^ Malini Saran (2005), The Ramayana
Ramayana
in Indonesia: alternate tellings, India
India
International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 4 (SPRING 2005), pp. 66-82 ^ Willem Frederik Stutterheim (1989). Rāma-legends and Rāma-reliefs in Indonesia. Abhinav Publications. pp. xvii, 5–16 (Indonesia), 17–21 (Malaysia), 34–37. ISBN 978-81-7017-251-2.  ^ Marijke Klokke (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. pp. 391–399. ISBN 978-979-26-2499-1.  ^ Andrea Acri; H.M. Creese; A. Griffiths (2010). From Lanka
Lanka
Eastwards: The Ramayana
Ramayana
in the Literature and Visual Arts of Indonesia. BRILL Academic. pp. 197–203, 209–213. ISBN 978-90-04-25376-6.  ^ Moertjipto (1991). The Ramayana
Ramayana
Reliefs of Prambanan. Penerbit Kanisius. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-979-413-720-8.  ^ Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ Hildred Geertz (2004). The Life of a Balinese Temple: Artistry, Imagination, and History in a Peasant Village. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 154–165. ISBN 978-0-8248-2533-1.  ^ Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ Amolwan Kiriwat (1997), KHON: MASKED DANCE DRAMA OF THE THAI EPIC RAMAKIEN Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., University of Maine, Advisor: Sandra Hardy, pages 3-4, 7 ^ Tony Moore; Tim Mousel (2008). Muay Thai. New Holland. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-84773-151-7.  ^ O'Neil, Tyler. "'Where Is Your God Now?' 3 Religious Objects of Worship in 'Black Panther'". PJ Media News. PJ. Retrieved 20 February 2018. 

Bibliography[edit]

Claus, Peter J.; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). "Hanuman". South Asian folklore. Taylor & Francis. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math (1985): Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa. Chennai
Chennai
(India): Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math. ISBN 81-7120-086-9. Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(1992). Gorakhpur (India): Gitapress. Anand Ramayan (1999). Bareily (India): Rashtriya Sanskriti Sansthan. Swami Satyananda Sarawati: Hanuman
Hanuman
Puja. India: Devi
Devi
Mandir. ISBN 1-887472-91-6. The Ramayana
Ramayana
Smt. Kamala Subramaniam. Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (1995). ISBN 81-7276-406-5 Hanuman
Hanuman
- In Art, Culture, Thought and Literature by Shanti Lal Nagar (1995). ISBN 81-7076-075-5

Further reading[edit]

Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.  Helen M. Johnson (1931). Hanumat’s birth and Varuṇa’s subjection (Chapter III of the Jain
Jain
Ramayana
Ramayana
by Hemachandra). Baroda Oriental Institute.  Philip Lutgendorf (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8.  Robert Goldman; Sally Goldman (2006). The Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki: An Epic of Ancient India. Volume V: Sundarakāṇḍa. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-3166-7.  Vanamali, Mataji Devi
Devi
(2010). Hanuman: The Devotion and Power of the Monkey God Inner Traditions, USA. ISBN 1-59477-337-8.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hanuman

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hanuman.

Hanuman
Hanuman
at Encyclopædia Britannica

v t e

Ramayana
Ramayana
by Valmiki

Ikshvaku dynasty

Dasharatha Kausalya Sumitra Kaikeyi Shanta Rama Bharata Lakshmana Shatrughna Sita Urmila Mandavi Shrutakirti Lava Kusha (genealogy)

Vanara

Hanuman Sugriva Vali Tara Rumā Angada Nala Nila Kesari Anjana Makardhwaja

Rakshasa

Ravana Vibhishana Kumbhakarna Indrajit Akshayakumara Atikaya Kabandha Khara Dushan Mandodari Maricha Mayasura Narantaka-Devantaka Prahasta Sarama Subahu Sulochana Sumali Surpanakha Tataka Trijata Trishira Viradha

Sages

Agastya Ahalya Arundhati Bharadwaja Kambhoja Parashurama Vasistha Vishvamitra Rishyasringa

Other characters and concepts

Lakshmana
Lakshmana
rekha Jambavan Janaka Kushadhwaja Jatayu Manthara Ashwapati Maya Sita Sampati Shabari Shravan Vedavati

Places

Ayodhya Mithila Dandakaranya Kishkindha Lanka

Seven Books (Kandas)

Bala Ayodhya Aranya Kishkindha Sundara Yuddha Uttara

Versions, adaptations, and inspired works

Adbhuta Ramayana Adhyathmaramayanam Adhyatma Ramayana Ananda Ramayana Bhaṭṭikāvya Hikayat Seri Rama Kakawin Ramayana Kamba Ramayanam Krittivasi Ramayan Maharadia Lawana Phra Lak Phra Ram Ramlila Ramayan (TV series) Raghunatha Ramayana Ramakien Ramcharitmanas Reamker Saptakanda Ramayana Sri Ramayana
Ramayana
Darshanam Vilanka Ramayana Yama Zatdaw

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
deities and texts

Gods

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu

Rama Krishna

Shiva

Ganesha Kartikeya Hanuman Indra Surya more

Goddesses

Tridevi

Saraswati Lakshmi

Sita Radha

Parvati

Sati Kali Adi Parashakti Mahavidya

Durga Shakti Navadurga Matrikas more

Texts

Vedas

Rig Sama Yajur Atharva

Upanishads Puranas Ramayana Mahabharata

Bhagavad Gita

Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali more

Hinduism Hindu
Hindu
mythology

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Category Portal

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
mythology portal Animals portal Primates portal Indian religions portal India
India
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67263966 GND: 11889675

.