"HANSEL AND GRETEL" (also known as Hansel and Grettel, Hansel and
Grethel, or Little Brother and Little Sister) (/ˈhænsəl/ or
/ˈhɑːnsəl/ and /ˈɡrɛtəl/ ; German : HäNSEL UND GRETEL ) is
a well-known fairy tale of German origin , recorded by the Brothers
Grimm and published in 1812.
Hansel and Gretel
* 1 Plot * 2 History and analysis * 3 Cultural significance * 4 See also * 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources
* 7 External links
Hansel and Gretel
The next day, the family walk deep into the woods and Hansel lays a
trail of white pebbles. After their parents abandon them, the children
wait for the moon to rise and then follow the pebbles back home. They
return home safely, much to their stepmother's rage. Once again
provisions become scarce and the stepmother angrily orders her husband
to take the children further into the woods and leave them there to
Hansel and Gretel
The following morning, the family treks into the woods. Hansel takes a slice of bread and leaves a trail of bread crumbs for them to follow home. However, after they are once again abandoned, they find that the birds have eaten the crumbs and they are lost in the woods. After days of wandering, they follow a beautiful white bird to a clearing in the woods, and discover a large cottage built of gingerbread , cakes , candy and with window panes of clear sugar . Hungry and tired, the children begin to eat the rooftop of the house, when the door opens and a "very old woman" emerges and lures the children inside, with the promise of soft beds and delicious food and a hot bath. They do this unaware that their hostess is actually a bloodthirsty hag who waylays children to cook and eat them .
The next morning, the hag cleans out the cage in the garden from her previous captive. Then she throws Hansel into the cage and forces Gretel into becoming her slave. The hag feeds Hansel regularly to fatten him up. Hansel is smart, and when the hag asks for Hansel to stick out his finger for her to see how fat he is, he sticks out a bone every time. The hag is too impatient and decides to eat Hansel anyway. The next day, the witch prepares the oven for Hansel, but decides she is hungry enough to eat Gretel, too. She coaxes Gretel to the open oven and prods her to lean over in front of it to see if the fire is hot enough. Gretel, sensing the hag's intent, pretends she does not understand what she means. Infuriated, the hag demonstrates, and Gretel instantly shoves the hag into the oven, slams and bolts the door shut, leaving "the ungodly creature to be burned to ashes ", screaming in pain until she dies. Gretel frees Hansel from the cage and the pair discover a vase full of treasure and precious stones . Putting the jewels into their clothing, the children set off for home. A duck ferries them across an expanse of water and at home they find only their father; his wife died from an unknown cause. Their father had spent all his days lamenting the loss of his children, and is delighted to see them safe and sound. With the hag's wealth , they all live happily ever after.
HISTORY AND ANALYSIS
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm heard "Hansel and Gretel" from Wilhelm's friend (and future wife) Dortchen Wild and published it in Kinder - und Hausmärchen in 1812. In the Grimms' version of the tale, the woodcutter's wife is the children's biological mother and the blame for abandoning them is shared between both her and the woodcutter himself. In later editions, some slight revisions were made: the wife became the children's stepmother, the woodcutter opposes her scheme to abandon the children and religious references are made. The sequence where the swan helps them across the river is also an addition to later editions.
The fairy tale may have originated in the medieval period of the Great Famine (1315–1321), which caused desperate people to abandon young children to fend for themselves, or even resort to cannibalism.
Folklorists Iona and
Peter Opie indicate in The Classic Fairy Tales
(1974) that "Hansel and Gretel" belongs to a group of European tales
especially popular in the Baltic regions, about children outwitting
ogres into whose hands they have involuntarily fallen. The tale bears
resemblances to the first half of
The fact that the mother or stepmother dies when the children have killed the witch has suggested to many commentators that the mother or stepmother and the witch are metaphorically the same woman. A Russian folk tale exists in which the evil stepmother (also the wife of a poor woodcutter) asks her hated stepdaughter to go into the forest to borrow a light from her sister, who turns out to be Baba Yaga , who is also a cannibalistic witch. Besides highlighting the endangerment of children (as well as their own cleverness), the tales have in common a preoccupation with food and with hurting children: the mother or stepmother wants to avoid hunger, while the witch lures children to eat her house of candy so that she can then eat them. Another tale of this type is the French fairy tale The Lost Children . The Brothers Grimm also identified the French Finette Cendron and Hop o' My Thumb as parallel stories.
Staatsoper Wien 2015
Hansel and Gretel's trail of breadcrumbs inspired the name of the navigation element "breadcrumbs " that allows users to keep track of their locations within programs or documents. The opera Hänsel und Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck is one of the most renowned operas, and is considered one of the most important German operas.
* Children\'s literature portal
* ^ In German , the names are diminutives of
* ^ A B Opie & Opie 1974 , p. 237 * ^ Tatar (2002) , p. 44 * ^ Tatar (2002) , p. 45 * ^ Raedisch (2013) , p. 180 * ^ Vajda (2010) * ^ Vajda (2011) * ^ Lüthi 1970 , p. 64 * ^ Tatar 2002 , p. 54 * ^ Delarue 1956 , p. 365 * ^ Tatar 2002 , p. 72 * ^ Mark Levene (18 October 2010). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation (2nd ed.). Wiley. p. 221. ISBN 978-0470526842 . Retrieved June 24, 2016. * ^ Upton, George Putnam (1897). The Standard Operas (Google book) (12th ed.). Chicago: McClurg. pp. 125–129. ISBN 1-60303-367-X . Retrieved 15 October 2007.
* Delarue, Paul (1956). The Borzoi Book of French Folk-Tales. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. * Lüthi, Max (1970). Once Upon A Time: On the Nature of Fairy Tales. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. * Opie, Iona ; Opie, Peter (1974). The Classic Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-211559-1 . * Raedisch, Linda (2013). The Old Magic of Christmas: Yuletide Traditions for the Darkest Days of the Year. Llewellyn Worldwide. * Tatar, Maria (2002). The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales. BCA. ISBN 978-0-393-05163-6 . * Vajda, Edward (26 May 2010). The Classic Russian Fairy Tale: More Than a Bedtime Story (Speech). The World's Classics. Western Washington University . * Vajda, Edward (1 February 2011). The Russian Fairy Tale: Ancient Culture in a Modern Context (Speech). Center for International Studies International Lecture Series. Western Washington University .