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Sir Hans Sloane, 1st Baronet, PRS (16 April 1660 – 11 January 1753) was an Irish physician, naturalist and collector noted for bequeathing his collection to the British nation, thus providing the foundation of the British Museum. His name was later used for streets and places such as Hans Place, Hans Crescent, and Sloane Square
Sloane Square
in and around Chelsea, London
Chelsea, London
- the area of his final residence - and also for Sir Hans Sloane Square
Sloane Square
in his birthplace in Ireland, Killyleagh.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Voyage to Jamaica 3 Society physician 4 The British Museum
British Museum
and Chelsea Physic Garden 5 Death 6 Legacy

6.1 Places named after Sloane 6.2 Plants and animals named after Sloane

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Sloane was born on 16 April 1660 at Killyleagh
Killyleagh
in County Down, Ireland. He was the seventh son of Alexander Sloane (died 1666), agent for James Hamilton, second Viscount Clandeboye and later first Earl of Clanbrassil. Sloane's family had migrated from Ayrshire in Scotland, but settled in the north of Ireland under James I. His father died when he was six years old. As a youth, Sloane collected objects of natural history and other curiosities. This led him to the study of medicine, which he went to London, where he studied botany, materia medica, surgery and pharmacy. His collecting habits made him useful to John Ray
John Ray
and Robert Boyle. After four years in London
London
he travelled through France, spending some time at Paris and Montpellier, and stayed long enough at the University of Orange-Nassau[1] to take his MD degree there in 1683. He returned to London
London
with a considerable collection of plants and other curiosities, of which the former were sent to Ray and utilised by him for his History of Plants. Voyage to Jamaica[edit]

Title page, Sloane's Voyage to Jamaica, 1725

Sloane was elected to the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1685.[9] At the same time, he attracted the notice of Thomas Sydenham, who gave him valuable introductions to practice. In 1687, he became a fellow of the College of Physicians, and the same year went to Jamaica
Jamaica
aboard HMS Assistance as physician in the suite of the new Governor of Jamaica, the second Duke of Albemarle.[9] Jamaica
Jamaica
was fast emerging as a source of immense profit to British merchants based on the cultivation of sugar and other crops by the forced labor of West Africans—many from the Akan and other peoples of the regions which the English entitled the Gold and Slave Coasts. However, Albemarle died in Jamaica
Jamaica
the next year, so Sloane's visit lasted only fifteen months. During that time he noted about 800 new species of plants, which he catalogued in Latin
Latin
in 1696; he later wrote of his visit in two lavishly illustrated folio volumes (1707–1725).[9][10] He was the President of Royal College of Physicians and he became secretary to the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1693,[11] and edited the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Royal Society
for twenty years. Sloane married Elizabeth Langley Rose, the widow of Fulke Rose of Jamaica, and daughter of alderman John Langley. They had three daughters, Mary, Sarah and Elizabeth,[a] and one son, Hans. Of the four children, only Sarah and Elizabeth survived infancy. Sarah married George Stanley of Paultons and Elizabeth married Charles Cadogan, the future Second Baron Cadogan. Income from the sugar produced by enslaved African laborers on Elizabeth's plantations at an area known as Sixteen Mile Walk fed the family fortunes in London
London
and, together with Sloane's medical revenue and London
London
property investments, gave him the wealth to collect on a vast scale.[12]

Illustration from critique of the first volume of A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica, published in Acta Eruditorum, 1710

Sloane encountered cacao while he was in Jamaica, where the locals drank it mixed with water, though he is reported to have found it nauseating. Many recipes for mixing chocolate with spice, eggs, sugar and milk were in circulation by the seventeenth century. After returning from Jamaica, Sloane may have devised his own recipe for mixing chocolate with milk, though if so, he was not the first. By the 1750s, a Soho grocer named Nicholas Sanders claimed to be selling Sloane's recipe as a medicinal elixir, perhaps making "Sir Hans Sloane's Milk Chocolate" the first brand-name milk chocolate. By the nineteenth century, the Cadbury Brothers sold tins of drinking chocolate whose trade cards also invoked Sloane's recipe.[13][14] Society physician[edit]

Sloane, 1736

His practice as a physician among the upper classes was large, fashionable and lucrative. He served three successive sovereigns, Queen Anne, George I, and George II. In pamphlets written concerning the sale by William Cockburn of his secret remedy for dysentery and other fluxes, it was stated for the defence that Sloane himself did not disdain the same kind of professional conduct; and some colour is given to that charge by the fact that his only medical publication, an Account of a Medicine for Soreness, Weakness and other Distempers of the Eyes (London, 1745), was not given to the world until its author was in his eighty-fifth year and had retired from practice. In 1716 Sloane was created a baronet, making him the first medical practitioner to receive a hereditary title. In 1719 he became president of the Royal College of Physicians, holding the office for sixteen years. In 1722 he was appointed physician-general to the army, and in 1727 first physician to George II. In 1727 he succeeded Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
as president of the Royal Society. He retired from it at the age of eighty. He was a founding governor of London's Foundling Hospital, the nation's first institution to care for abandoned children. The British Museum
British Museum
and Chelsea Physic Garden[edit]

Bust of Sloane by Michael Rysbrack, c. 1694-1700, at British Museum

Bust by Michael Rysbrack, main foyer, British Library

Sloane's fame is based on his judicious investments rather than what he contributed to the subject of natural science or even of his own profession. His purchase of the manor of Chelsea, London, in 1712, provided the grounds for the Chelsea Physic Garden. His great stroke as a collector was to acquire in 1701 (by bequest, conditional on paying of certain debts) the cabinet of William Courten, who had made collecting the business of his life. When Sloane retired in 1741, his library and cabinet of curiosities, which he took with him from Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
to his house in Chelsea, had grown to be of unique value. He had acquired the extensive natural history collections of William Courten, Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio, James Petiver, Nehemiah Grew, Leonard Plukenet, the Duchess of Beaufort, the rev. Adam Buddle, Paul Hermann, Franz Kiggelaer
Franz Kiggelaer
and Herman Boerhaave. On his death on 11 January 1753 he bequeathed[1] his books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, flora, fauna, medals, coins, seals, cameos and other curiosities to the nation, on condition that parliament should pay his executors £20,000, far less than the value of the collection. The bequest was accepted on those terms by an act passed the same year, and the collection, together with George II's royal library, etc., was opened to the public at Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
as the British Museum
British Museum
in 1759. A significant proportion of this collection was later to become the foundation for the Natural History Museum. He also gave the Apothecaries' Company the land of the Chelsea physic garden, which they had rented from the Chelsea estate since 1673. Death[edit]

Chelsea with part of the Old Church and Sir Hans Sloane's tomb

Sloane Memorial inscription, Chelsea, London

Hans Crescent street-sign on Harrods
Harrods
building, Knightsbridge

Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
was buried on 18 January 1753[15] at Chelsea Old Church with the following memorial:

To the memory of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart, President of the Royal Society, and of the College of Physicians; who in the year of our Lord 1753, the 92d of his age, without the least pain of body and with a conscious serenity of mind, ended a virtuous and beneficent life. This monument was erected by his two daughters Eliza Cadogan and Sarah Stanley

Legacy[edit] His grave is shared with his wife Elisabeth[b] who died in 1724. Places named after Sloane[edit] Sloane Square, Sloane Street, Sloane Avenue, Sloane Grammar School[16] and Sloane Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
are named after Sir Hans. His first name is given to Hans Street, Hans Crescent, Hans Place
Hans Place
and Hans Road, all of which are also situated in the Royal Borough. Plants and animals named after Sloane[edit] Sloanea, a plant genus, was named after him by Linnaeus. Urania sloanus, a species of moth, is named for Hans. Spondylurus sloanii, a species of lizard, was named in his honor by Daudin.[17] See also[edit]

George Edwards Levinus Vincent British Library
British Library
Leyden Medical Dissertations Collection

The standard author abbreviation Sloane is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[18] Notes[edit]

^ 1695 – 20 May 1768 ^ Died 17 September 1724

References[edit]

^ a b c Anon (1969). "Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1660-1753) founder of the British Museum". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 207 (5): 943. doi:10.1001/jama.1969.03150180073016. PMID 4884737.  ^ Ford, J. M. (2003). "Medical Memorial. Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1660-1753)". Journal of medical biography. 11 (3): 180. PMID 12870044.  ^ McIntyre, N. (2001). "Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1660-1753)". Journal of medical biography. 9 (4): 235. PMID 11718127.  ^ Dunn, P. M. (2001). "Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1660-1753) and the value of breast milk". Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 85 (1): F73–F74. doi:10.1136/fn.85.1.F73. PMC 1721277 . PMID 11420330.  ^ Ravin, J. G. (2000). "Sir Hans Sloane's contributions to ocular therapy, scientific journalism, and the creation of the British Museum". Archives of Ophthalmology. 118 (11): 1567–1573. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.11.1567. PMID 11074814.  ^ Mason, A. S. (1993). " Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
and his friends. The FitzPatrick Lecture 1993". Journal of the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
of London. 27 (4): 450–455. PMID 8289170.  ^ Nelson, E. C. (1992). "Charles Lucas' letter (1736) to Sir Hans Sloane about the natural history of the Burren, County Clare". Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons. 21 (2): 126–131. PMID 11616186.  ^ Ober, W. B. (1968). "Sir Hans Sloane, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (1660-1753) and the British Museum". New York state journal of medicine. 68 (11): 1422–1430. PMID 4872002.  ^ a b c Carter, Harold B. (July 1995). "The Royal Society
Royal Society
and the Voyage of HMS Endeavour 1768-71". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. London, UK: The Royal Society. 49 (2): 245–260. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1995.0026. JSTOR 532013. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Sir Hans Sloane, Baronet British physician". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-19.  ^ "The life and curiosity of Sir Hans Sloane". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-07-19.  ^ Brooks 1954. ^ Delbourgo, James (2011). "Sir Hans Sloane's Milk Chocolate and the Whole History of the Cacao". Social Text.  ^ "About Sir Hans Sloane". The Natural History Museum. Retrieved 3 October 2015.  ^ Preston 1854, p. 13-. ^ Ex Student ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Sloane", p. 246). ^ IPNI.  Sloane. 

Bibliography[edit]

Brooks, Eric St. John (1954). Sir Hans Sloane: the great collector and his circle. Batchworth Press.  Preston, Henry C. (1854). The Life of North American Insects: Illustrated by Numerous Colored Engravings and Narratives. Sayles, Miller and Simons, printers.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sloane, Sir Hans". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 243.  De Beer, Sir Gavin (1953). Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
and the British Museum. London: Oxford University Press.  Clarke, Jack A. (Oct 1980). "Sir Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
and Abbé Jean Paul Bignon: Notes on Collection Building in the Eighteenth Century". The Library Quarterly. 50 (4): 475–482. doi:10.1086/601019. JSTOR 4307275.  Lyons, J. 2008. p. 53 – 54. The Life and Times of a famous Ulsterman. Copeland Report for 2008. Copeland Bird Observatory Weld, Charles Richard (1848). A history of the Royal Society: with memoirs of the presidents. Vol. 1. London: Parker. p. 450.  Munk, William (1861). The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
of London; Compiled from the Annals of the College and from Other Authentic Sources. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. [Ab. 4.] [Dr:] [Harrison]. p. 466.  Lundy, Darryl, Sir Hans Sloane, 1st and last Baronet, The Peerage [unreliable source]

Further reading[edit]

Jenny Uglow, " Collecting
Collecting
for the Glory of God" (review of James Delbourgo, Collecting
Collecting
the World: Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
and the Origins of the British Museum, Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 2017), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 15 (12 October 2017), pp. 34–36.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Hans Sloane

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hans Sloane.

"Index to the Sloane manuscripts in the British Museum", in the British Museum
British Museum
in various formats, at Archive.org A Voyage… on Botanicus Catalogus Plantarum...on Botanicus The Sloane Printed Books Catalogue Sloane Correspondence Online Sloane Letters Blog "Voyage to the Islands: Hans Sloane, Slavery and Scientific Travel in the Caribbean", John Carter Brown Library online exhibition [1] British Museum: Sir Hans Sloane

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

Baronetage of Great Britain

Preceded by New creation Baronet (of Chelsea) 1716 – 1753 Succeeded by Title extinct

Cultural offices

Preceded by Sir Isaac Newton President of the Royal Society 1727 – 1741 Succeeded by Martin Folkes

Academic offices

Preceded by John Bateman President of Royal College of Physicians 1719 – 1735 Succeeded by Thomas Pellett

v t e

Presidents of the Royal Society

17th century

Viscount Brouncker (1662) Joseph Williamson (1677) Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
(1680) John Hoskyns (1682) Cyril Wyche
Cyril Wyche
(1683) Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
(1684) Earl of Carbery (1686) Earl of Pembroke (1689) Robert Southwell (1690) Charles Montagu (1695) Lord Somers (1698)

18th century

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
(1703) Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1727) Martin Folkes
Martin Folkes
(1741) Earl of Macclesfield (1752) Earl of Morton (1764) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1768) James West (1768) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1772) John Pringle
John Pringle
(1772) Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(1778)

19th century

William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
(1820) Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
(1820) Davies Gilbert
Davies Gilbert
(1827) Duke of Sussex (1830) Marquess of Northampton (1838) Earl of Rosse (1848) Lord Wrottesley (1854) Benjamin Collins Brodie (1858) Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
(1861) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1871) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1873) William Spottiswoode
William Spottiswoode
(1878) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1883) George Gabriel Stokes (1885) William Thomson (1890) Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister
(1895)

20th century

William Huggins
William Huggins
(1900) Lord Rayleigh (1905) Archibald Geikie
Archibald Geikie
(1908) William Crookes
William Crookes
(1913) J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
(1915) Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
(1920) Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
(1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(1930) William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
(1935) Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
(1940) Robert Robinson (1945) Edgar Adrian (1950) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1955) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1960) Patrick Blackett (1965) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1970) Lord Todd (1975) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1980) George Porter
George Porter
(1985) Sir Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1990) Sir Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1995)

21st century

Robert May (2000) Martin Rees (2005) Sir Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2010) Sir Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
(2015)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77959 LCCN: n84233221 ISNI: 0000 0001 2319 6729 GND: 118797638 SUDOC: 032002149 BNF: cb123113994 (data) BIBSYS: 90623649 ULAN: 500277165 NLA: 35881609 NKC: nlk20000087374 Botanist: Sloane BNE: XX1752881 RKD: 435

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