Coordinates : 30°34′52″N 114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N
114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597
The map of
Hankou (with the five foreign concessions),
Hanyang, and Wuchang, as of 1915
3 July 1921
16 May 1949
TODAY PART OF
Wuhan (Jiang\'an , Jianghan , ">
* 1 History
* 1.1 Revolutionary periods
* 1.2 Foreign concessions period
* 2 Modern status
* 3 Media
* 4 References
* 5 Notes
* 6 External links
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHINESE TEXT. Without proper rendering
support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead
of Chinese characters .
The city's name literally means "Mouth of the Han", from its position
at the confluence of the Han with the
Yangtze River . The name appears
Tang Dynasty poem by
Liu Changqing . Other historical names for
the city include XIAKOU (夏口), MIANKOU (沔口), and LUKOU
Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing , was under the administration of
the local government in Hanyang , although it was already one of the
four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty. It was
not until 1899 that
Zhang Zhidong decided to separate
Hankou was then divided into four districts, which are Juren,
Youyi, Xunli, and Dazhi. Some of the names can still be found in
modern-day Wuhan, where there are geographical names such as Xunlimen
, Jurenmen, and Dazhimen.
Hankou was officially established as a city, where its
municipal government was built in
Jianghan district . In the same
Northern Expedition reached Hankou, and merged
adjacent Wuchang and Hanyang to make it the seat of the national
capital, Wuhan. But in 1927, when
Nanjing succeeded in the fight to
be the national capital,
Wuhan was returned to its original form, with
Hankou being again a city by itself. This time
Hankou was established
as a "
Special Municipality," which resembles a direct-controlled
municipality in present day. Before 1949,
Hankou has shifted between
being a special municipality and a provincial city. In 1949, Hankou
was finally merged with Hanyang and Wuchang to become Wuhan, when the
communists arrived in
Hankou on May 16.
Hankou was the destination on the escape route of groups of
missionaries fleeing the Boxers in the Northern provinces around 1900.
The flight of some missionaries from the T\'ai-yüan massacre in
Shan-si is recorded in the work "A Thousand Miles of Miracles in
China", by Reverend A E Glover], one of the fleeing missionaries.
Troops sent to recapture Hankou.
On October 10, 1911, a revolution to establish the Republic of China
and replace the
Qing Dynasty led to the involvement of
Hankou in the
Hubei revolutionary forces and the Qing army, led by
Yuan Shikai . Although the revolution began in Wuchang with a revolt
started by members of the
New Army , revolutionaries quickly captured
major strategic cities and towns throughout the province, including
Hankou on October 12. The
Qing Dynasty Army recaptured
but as the revolution spread throughout China, eventually the town and
the province came under control of the Republic of China.
FOREIGN CONCESSIONS PERIOD
Foreign concessions along the Bund c. 1900.
Hankou used to have five foreign concessions belonging to the United
Kingdom (115 acres, est. 1862), France (60 acres, est. 1886), Russia
(60 acres, est. 1886), Germany (100 acres, est. 1895) and Japan (32
acres, est. 1898). The German and Russian concessions ended in 1917
and 1920 respectively and those areas were administered by the Chinese
government as the First and the Second
Special Area. Bastille Day
Early in 1927, the British concession was occupied in the course of
the revolutionary troubles that accompanied the Northern Expedition
when the Chinese
Kuomintang forces occupied the concession and showed
no intention of withdrawing. The Chen-O'Malley Agreement of February
1927 provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the
concession and in 1929 the British concession formally came to an end.
From then on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the
Special Area. While the event as such was comparatively minor,
as was the territory involved, this nevertheless constituted both a
humiliation and an ominous precedent for the British Empire.
Kuomintang soldiers marching into the British concession
during the Northern Expedition.
The government of Vichy France relinquished the French concession in
1943 (formally in 1946) while the Japanese concession came to an end
with the surrender of Japan in 1945.
Hankou was captured by the Japanese invaders in 1938 (Battle of Wuhan
). An important logistical center, the city was heavily bombed in
December 1944 by the US aircraft based in the
Chengdu area (part of
Operation Matterhorn ). Former
Hankou Orthodox Church
Before the Communist Revolution,
Hankou was the seat of the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese of
Hankou , covering the province of Hubei. The
dioceses in Wuchang , Hanyang , and elsewhere in the province, were
subordinated to it.
Jianghan Road in central
Hankou Modern Jiang\'an District
Jianghan District , and
Qiaokou District are in dark green, orange,
"Hankou" remains a commonly used name for the part of
area north of the
Yangtze and Han Rivers. The name was long preserved
in the name of the old
Hankou Railway Station (also known as Dazhimen
Station ), the original terminal of the
Jinghan Railway . After the
old Dazhimen station closed in 1991, the
Hankou name was transferred
to the new
Hankou Railway Station , which opened in 1991 at a new
location, farther away from central city. Railway passengers traveling
Wuhan need to purchase tickets to a particular station: the Hankou
Railway Station, the
Wuchang Railway Station (near central Wuchang, on
the right bank of the Yangtze), or the new
Wuhan Railway Station
(which opened in 2009, also on the right bank, but a long distance
from the historical Wuchang).
Hankou is no longer the name of an administrative unit
(e.g., a district ), as its area now falls mostly within Jiang\'an
Jianghan District , and
Qiaokou District . This contrasts
with Wuchang and Hanyang , whose names have been retained in the
eponymous administrative districts within the City of Wuhan.
Hankou once had an English-language newspaper, The Hankow Daily News
, which was published by a German individual.
* Walravens, Hartmut.