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Coordinates : 30°34′52″N 114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N 114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597

Hankou 汉口市

City of China
China

1921–1949 →

The map of Hankou
Hankou
(with the five foreign concessions), Hanyang, and Wuchang, as of 1915

HISTORY

• Established 3 July 1921

• Disestablished 16 May 1949

TODAY PART OF Part of Wuhan
Wuhan
(Jiang\'an , Jianghan , ">

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Revolutionary periods * 1.2 Foreign concessions period

* 2 Modern status * 3 Media * 4 References * 5 Notes * 6 External links

HISTORY

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The city's name literally means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the Han with the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
. The name appears in a Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
poem by Liu Changqing . Other historical names for the city include XIAKOU (夏口), MIANKOU (沔口), and LUKOU (鲁口).

Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing , was under the administration of the local government in Hanyang , although it was already one of the four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty. It was not until 1899 that Zhang Zhidong decided to separate Hankou
Hankou
from Hanyang. Hankou
Hankou
was then divided into four districts, which are Juren, Youyi, Xunli, and Dazhi. Some of the names can still be found in modern-day Wuhan, where there are geographical names such as Xunlimen , Jurenmen, and Dazhimen.

In 1926, Hankou
Hankou
was officially established as a city, where its municipal government was built in Jianghan district . In the same year, the Northern Expedition reached Hankou, and merged Hankou
Hankou
with adjacent Wuchang and Hanyang to make it the seat of the national capital, Wuhan. But in 1927, when Nanjing
Nanjing
succeeded in the fight to be the national capital, Wuhan
Wuhan
was returned to its original form, with Hankou
Hankou
being again a city by itself. This time Hankou
Hankou
was established as a " Special
Special
Municipality," which resembles a direct-controlled municipality in present day. Before 1949, Hankou
Hankou
has shifted between being a special municipality and a provincial city. In 1949, Hankou was finally merged with Hanyang and Wuchang to become Wuhan, when the communists arrived in Hankou
Hankou
on May 16.

REVOLUTIONARY PERIODS

Hankou
Hankou
was the destination on the escape route of groups of missionaries fleeing the Boxers in the Northern provinces around 1900. The flight of some missionaries from the T\'ai-yüan massacre in Shan-si is recorded in the work "A Thousand Miles of Miracles in China", by Reverend A E Glover], one of the fleeing missionaries. Troops sent to recapture Hankou.

On October 10, 1911, a revolution to establish the Republic of China and replace the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
led to the involvement of Hankou
Hankou
in the struggle between Hubei
Hubei
revolutionary forces and the Qing army, led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
. Although the revolution began in Wuchang with a revolt started by members of the New Army , revolutionaries quickly captured major strategic cities and towns throughout the province, including Hankou
Hankou
on October 12. The Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Army recaptured Hankou
Hankou
later, but as the revolution spread throughout China, eventually the town and the province came under control of the Republic of China.

FOREIGN CONCESSIONS PERIOD

Foreign concessions along the Bund c. 1900.

Hankou
Hankou
used to have five foreign concessions belonging to the United Kingdom (115 acres, est. 1862), France (60 acres, est. 1886), Russia (60 acres, est. 1886), Germany (100 acres, est. 1895) and Japan (32 acres, est. 1898). The German and Russian concessions ended in 1917 and 1920 respectively and those areas were administered by the Chinese government as the First and the Second Special
Special
Area. Bastille Day celebrations, 1932.

Early in 1927, the British concession was occupied in the course of the revolutionary troubles that accompanied the Northern Expedition when the Chinese Kuomintang forces occupied the concession and showed no intention of withdrawing. The Chen-O'Malley Agreement of February 1927 provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the concession and in 1929 the British concession formally came to an end. From then on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the Third Special
Special
Area. While the event as such was comparatively minor, as was the territory involved, this nevertheless constituted both a humiliation and an ominous precedent for the British Empire. Chinese Kuomintang soldiers marching into the British concession during the Northern Expedition.

The government of Vichy France relinquished the French concession in 1943 (formally in 1946) while the Japanese concession came to an end with the surrender of Japan in 1945.

Hankou
Hankou
was captured by the Japanese invaders in 1938 (Battle of Wuhan ). An important logistical center, the city was heavily bombed in December 1944 by the US aircraft based in the Chengdu
Chengdu
area (part of Operation Matterhorn ). Former Hankou
Hankou
Orthodox Church

Before the Communist Revolution, Hankou
Hankou
was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hankou
Hankou
, covering the province of Hubei. The dioceses in Wuchang , Hanyang , and elsewhere in the province, were subordinated to it.

MODERN STATUS

Jianghan Road in central Hankou
Hankou
Modern Jiang\'an District , Jianghan District , and Qiaokou District are in dark green, orange, and brown

"Hankou" remains a commonly used name for the part of Wuhan
Wuhan
urban area north of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Han Rivers. The name was long preserved in the name of the old Hankou Railway Station (also known as Dazhimen Station ), the original