Coordinates: 30°34′52″N 114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N
114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597
City of China
The map of
Hankou (with the five foreign concessions), Hanyang, and
Wuchang, as of 1915
3 July 1921
16 May 1949
Today part of
Wuhan (Jiang'an, Jianghan, & Qiaokou)
Hankou (Chinese: t 漢口, s 汉口, p Hànkǒu),
formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities
whose merging formed modern-day
Wuhan municipality, the capital of the
Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and
where the Han falls into the Yangtze.
Hankou is connected by bridges
to its triplet sister towns Hanyang (between Han and Yangtze) and
Wuchang (on the south side of the Yangtze).
Hankou is the main port of
Hubei province and the single largest port
in the middle reaches of Yangtze.
1.1 Revolutionary periods
1.2 Foreign concessions period
2 Modern status
6 External links
The city's name literally means "Mouth of the Han", from its position
at the confluence of the Han with the
Yangtze River. The name appears
Tang Dynasty poem by Liu Changqing. Other historical names for
the city include Xiakou (夏口), Miankou (沔口), and Lukou
Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of
the local government in Hanyang, although it was already one of the
four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty. It was
not until 1899 that
Zhang Zhidong decided to separate
Hankou was then divided into four districts, which are Juren,
Youyi, Xunli, and Dazhi. Some of the names can still be found in
modern-day Wuhan, where there are geographical names such as Xunlimen,
Jurenmen, and Dazhimen.
Hankou was officially established as a city, where its
municipal government was built in Jianghan district. In the same year,
Northern Expedition reached Hankou, and merged
adjacent Wuchang and Hanyang to make it the seat of the national
capital, Wuhan. But in 1927, when
Nanjing succeeded in the
fight to be the national capital,
Wuhan was returned to its original
Hankou being again a city by itself. This time
established as a "
Special Municipality," which resembles a
direct-controlled municipality in present day. Before 1949,
shifted between being a special municipality and a provincial city. In
Hankou was finally merged with Hanyang and Wuchang to become
Wuhan, when the communists arrived in
Hankou on May 16.
Hankou was the destination on the escape route of groups of
missionaries fleeing the Boxers in the Northern provinces around 1900.
The flight of some missionaries from the T'ai-yüan massacre in
Shan-si is recorded in the work "A Thousand Miles of Miracles in
China", by Reverend A E Glover], one of the fleeing missionaries.
Troops sent to recapture Hankou.
On October 10, 1911, a revolution to establish the Republic of China
and replace the
Qing Dynasty led to the involvement of
Hankou in the
Hubei revolutionary forces and the Qing army, led by
Yuan Shikai. Although the revolution began in Wuchang with a revolt
started by members of the New Army, revolutionaries quickly captured
major strategic cities and towns throughout the province, including
Hankou on October 12. The
Qing Dynasty Army recaptured
but as the revolution spread throughout China, eventually the town and
the province came under control of the Republic of China.
Foreign concessions period
Foreign concessions along the Bund c. 1900.
Hankou used to have five foreign concessions belonging to the United
Kingdom (115 acres, est. 1862), France (60 acres, est. 1886), Russia
(60 acres, est. 1886), Germany (100 acres, est. 1895) and Japan (32
acres, est. 1898). The German and Russian concessions ended in 1917
and 1920 respectively and those areas were administered by the Chinese
government as the First and the Second
Bastille Day celebrations, 1932.
Early in 1927, the British concession was occupied in the course of
the revolutionary troubles that accompanied the Northern Expedition
when the Chinese
Kuomintang forces occupied the concession and showed
no intention of withdrawing. The Chen-O'Malley Agreement of February
1927 provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the
concession and in 1929 the British concession formally came to an end.
From then on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the
Kuomintang soldiers marching into the British concession
during the Northern Expedition.
The government of Vichy France relinquished the French concession in
1943 (formally in 1946) while the Japanese concession came to an end
with the surrender of Japan in 1945.
Hankou was captured by the Japanese invaders in 1938 (Battle of
Wuhan). An important logistical center, the city was heavily bombed in
December 1944 by the US aircraft based in the
Chengdu area (part of
Hankou Orthodox Church
Before the Communist Revolution,
Hankou was the seat of the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese of Hankou, covering the province of Hubei. The
dioceses in Wuchang, Hanyang, and elsewhere in the province, were
subordinated to it.
Jianghan Road in central Hankou
Modern Jiang'an District, Jianghan District, and
Qiaokou District are
in dark green, orange, and brown
"Hankou" remains a commonly used name for the part of
Wuhan urban area
north of the
Yangtze and Han Rivers. The name was long preserved in
the name of the old
Hankou Railway Station
Hankou Railway Station (also known as Dazhimen
Station), the original terminal of the Jinghan Railway. After the old
Dazhimen station closed in 1991, the
Hankou name was transferred to
Hankou Railway Station, which opened in 1991 at a new
location, farther away from central city. Railway passengers traveling
Wuhan need to purchase tickets to a particular station: the Hankou
Railway Station, the
Wuchang Railway Station
Wuchang Railway Station (near central Wuchang, on
the right bank of the Yangtze), or the new
Wuhan Railway Station
(which opened in 2009, also on the right bank, but a long distance
from the historical Wuchang).
Hankou is no longer the name of an administrative unit
(e.g., a district), as its area now falls mostly within Jiang'an
District, Jianghan District, and Qiaokou District. This contrasts with
Wuchang and Hanyang, whose names have been retained in the eponymous
administrative districts within the City of Wuhan.
Hankou once had an English-language newspaper, The Hankow Daily News,
which was published by a German individual.
Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In:
Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the
Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter,
January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796.
Also available at (Archive) the website of the
Queens Library - This
version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de
Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in
international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers
section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003.
ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.
World War II: Hangkow
William T. Rowe (1984). Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese
City, 1796-1889. Stanford University Press.
William T. Rowe (1992). Hankow: Conflict and Community in a Chinese
City, 1796-1895. Stanford University Press.
^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 964.
^ a b "历史沿革". Archived from the original on June 25, 2012.
Retrieved March 21, 2012.
^ a b "江汉综述". Retrieved March 21, 2012.
^ ""武汉"的由来". Retrieved March 31, 2012.
^ "武汉近代建市及其历史意义". Archived from the original
on February 2, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
^ A Thousand Miles of Miracles in China
^ Walravens, p. 91.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hankou.
Wikisource has the text of the 1922
Encyclopædia Britannica article
Historic US Army map of Hankou, 1945
BNF: cb12003398j (d