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Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Mandarin: [xǎŋ.ʈʂóu] ( listen); local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province in east China.[2] It sits at the head of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay, which separates Shanghai
Shanghai
and Ningbo. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China
China
for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, immediately west of the city, is amongst its best-known attractions. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is classified as a sub-provincial city[3] and forms the core of the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
metropolitan area,[1] the fourth-largest in China.[4] During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi).[1] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015.[5] In September 2015, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. It will be the third Chinese city to play host to the Asian Games
Asian Games
after Beijing
Beijing
1990 and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
2010.[6] Hangzhou, an emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba, also hosted the eleventh G-20 summit
G-20 summit
in 2016.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Tang dynasty 1.3 Song dynasty 1.4 Yuan–Qing 1.5 Republican and Communist China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics 5 Economy

5.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

6 Tourism 7 Religion

7.1 Scenic places near West Lake 7.2 Other religious buildings 7.3 Islam 7.4 Judaism 7.5 Christianity

8 Culture

8.1 Language 8.2 Museum 8.3 Food 8.4 Arts 8.5 Specialty

9 Transportation

9.1 Port 9.2 Air 9.3 Rail 9.4 Bus 9.5 Public transportation 9.6 Taxis

10 Education

10.1 Universities 10.2 Primary and secondary schools

11 Twin towns – sister cities 12 Chinese sayings 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
history

A ceremonial jade bi of the Liangzhu culture

Xiangji Temple was built in 978 AD during the Northern Song Dynasty

Statue of Su Shi
Su Shi
at the end of Su Causeway
Causeway
at the West Lake

Early history[edit] The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km (62 mi) north-east of Ulumuqi, as far back as seven thousand years ago.[8] It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China.[9] Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
(named for its type site just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago.[10] The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old Baiyue
Baiyue
name.[11] Tang dynasty[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was made the seat of the zhou (very roughly, "county") of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.[12] In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi
Bai Juyi
was appointed governor of Hangzhou.[13] Already an accomplished and famous poet, his deeds at Hangzhou
Hangzhou
have led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
improved over the following years. Bai Juyi
Bai Juyi
used his leisure time to enjoy the beauty of West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He also ordered the construction of a causeway connecting Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of requiring a boat. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. This causeway was later named "Bai Causeway", in his honor. It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom
Wuyue Kingdom
from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. Named Xifu at the time,[14] it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China
China
during the tenth century, along with Nanjing
Nanjing
and Chengdu.[15] Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China
China
and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan, Goryeo, and the Khitan Liao dynasty. Song dynasty[edit] In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi
Su Shi
(Su Dongpo) was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake, which the Qianlong Emperor considered particularly attractive in the early morning of the spring time. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt
Silt
then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland. The Su Causeway
Causeway
built by Su Shi, and the Bai Causeway
Causeway
built by Bai Juyi, a Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
poet who was once the governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The Baochu Pagoda
Baochu Pagoda
sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake.

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
depicted in a French illumination from 1412

Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[16] There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols.[17] The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to Hangzhou.[18] Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city sat on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills.[19] During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol
Mongol
administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.[20]

Hupao ("Dreaming of the Tiger") Spring in Hangzhou

Cuiguang Pavilion by the West Lake

"Lotus in the Breeze at the Winding Courtyard", one of the Ten Scenes of the West Lake

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in 1132,[21] when most of northern China
China
had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars.[22] The Song court had retreated south from its original capital in Kaifeng
Kaifeng
after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
of 1127,[23][24] moving to Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu, then to Yangzhou
Yangzhou
in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in 1129.[23] The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital, but over the decades Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew into a major commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most prosperous.[25] Once the prospect of retaking northern China
China
had diminished, government buildings in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
were extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls.[26] From the early 12th century until the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of 1276, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
remained the capital and was known as Lin'an (臨安). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens. Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi, Lu You, and Xin Qiji
Xin Qiji
came here to live and die. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang
Yuhang
district.[27] During the Southern Song
Southern Song
dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques Gernet has estimated that the population of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358.[28][29] Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed 30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire. Yuan–Qing[edit]

Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
Green-and-white-glazed Porcelain Statue of Goddess of Mercy. Yuan Dynasty. Unearthed near Wensan Street, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in 1987.

The city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol armies of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the empire.[30] The capital of the new Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
was established in the city of Dadu (Beijing).[31] The Venetian merchant Marco Polo
Marco Polo
supposedly visited Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in the late 13th century. In his book, he records that the city was "greater than any in the world".[25] He called the city Quinsai, a name that—like Odoric of Pordenone's Cansay—derived from its Southern Song nickname Xingzai, meaning "Temporary Residence". Marco Polo
Marco Polo
wrote of the city: "The number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." Polo may have exaggerated, describing the city as over one hundred miles in diameter (although if he had meant Chinese mile it would be smaller at 3/8 of the measurement in Italian mile and more plausible),[32] and had 12,000 stone bridges, although some argued that this may have been a mistake and exaggeration by a copyist who turned the "12 gates" of the city into "12,000 bridges".[33] The renowned 14th-century Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
said it was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth."[34][35] The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing, it was the site of an imperial army garrison.[36]

An area map of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in 1867

In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
occupied Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and caused heavy damage to the city. Republican and Communist China[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was ruled by the Republic of China
China
government under the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
from 1927-37,1945-49. On May 3, 1949, the People's Liberation Army entered Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and the city came under Communist control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of 1978, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze River Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.

Geography[edit]

Hangzhou

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    73     8 2

    84     9 3

    138     14 6

    127     21 12

    147     26 17

    231     29 21

    159     33 25

    156     32 25

    145     28 20

    87     23 15

    60     17 9

    47     11 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.9     46 35

    3.3     49 37

    5.4     57 44

    5     69 54

    5.8     78 63

    9.1     83 70

    6.3     91 77

    6.1     90 76

    5.7     82 69

    3.4     73 59

    2.4     62 48

    1.9     52 38

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

View of Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
from the Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
Bridge

Tidal bore
Tidal bore
at the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
in Hangzhou

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is located in northwestern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to Beijing, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui
Anhui
province, and east to the coastal plain near Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay. The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River. Climate[edit] Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438.0 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou
Hangzhou
suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains.[37] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6 °C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August 2013;[38] unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C (13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930.[39] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.4 (77.7) 28.5 (83.3) 32.8 (91) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7) 39.7 (103.5) 41.3 (106.3) 41.6 (106.9) 38.7 (101.7) 35.0 (95) 31.2 (88.2) 26.5 (79.7) 41.6 (106.9)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 17.4 (63.3) 21.3 (70.3) 25.7 (78.3) 30.6 (87.1) 33.8 (92.8) 35.3 (95.5) 37.9 (100.2) 37.3 (99.1) 34.4 (93.9) 30.3 (86.5) 25.1 (77.2) 19.5 (67.1) 38.2 (100.8)

Average high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 10.3 (50.5) 14.8 (58.6) 21.1 (70) 26.3 (79.3) 29.1 (84.4) 33.6 (92.5) 32.8 (91) 28.2 (82.8) 23.2 (73.8) 17.3 (63.1) 11.3 (52.3) 21.4 (70.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6 (40.3) 6.4 (43.5) 10.3 (50.5) 16.2 (61.2) 21.4 (70.5) 24.7 (76.5) 28.9 (84) 28.2 (82.8) 24.0 (75.2) 18.8 (65.8) 12.9 (55.2) 7.0 (44.6) 16.95 (62.51)

Average low °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 3.5 (38.3) 7.0 (44.6) 12.4 (54.3) 17.5 (63.5) 21.4 (70.5) 25.2 (77.4) 24.9 (76.8) 20.9 (69.6) 15.4 (59.7) 9.3 (48.7) 3.7 (38.7) 13.6 (56.5)

Mean minimum °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −2.3 (27.9) 0.8 (33.4) 5.8 (42.4) 12.1 (53.8) 16.9 (62.4) 21.5 (70.7) 21.4 (70.5) 16.0 (60.8) 9.0 (48.2) 2.5 (36.5) −2.8 (27) −4.6 (23.7)

Record low °C (°F) −8.6 (16.5) −9.6 (14.7) −3.5 (25.7) 0.2 (32.4) 7.3 (45.1) 12.8 (55) 17.3 (63.1) 18.2 (64.8) 12.0 (53.6) 1.0 (33.8) −3.6 (25.5) −8.4 (16.9) −9.6 (14.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.6 (3.173) 88.2 (3.472) 140.7 (5.539) 123.1 (4.846) 128.6 (5.063) 219.4 (8.638) 172.9 (6.807) 162.1 (6.382) 123.5 (4.862) 78.5 (3.091) 71.5 (2.815) 48.9 (1.925) 1,438 (56.614)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.4 12.1 15.3 14.5 13.8 14.6 12.4 13.8 11.7 9.0 9.3 8.5 147.4

Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 75 74 74 80 76 78 79 76 74 73 75.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.0 97.2 116.4 140.6 164.7 136.6 212.7 193.0 143.9 144.6 129.0 128.7 1,709.4

Source: China
China
Meteorological Data Sharing Service System[40]

Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
comprises 10 districts, 1 county-level city, and 2 counties. The six central urban districts occupy 683 km2 (264 sq mi) and have 3,560,400 people. The four suburban districts occupy 7,319 km2 (2,826 sq mi) and have 3,965,965 people. In the early 90s, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan. On December 12, 1996, Bingjiang District was established. On March 12, the City of Xiaoshan and the City of Yuhang
Yuhang
was included into the City of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
as two districts. On December 13, 2014 and in July, 2017, the City of Fuyang and Lin'an were included into the City of Hanghzou as two districts.

Map

1 2 3 4 Jianggan Xihu Xiaoshan Yuhang Fuyang Tonglu County Chun'an County Jiande (city) Lin'an 1. Shangcheng 2. Xiacheng 3. Gongshu 4. Binjiang

Subdivision Chinese Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density

City Proper

Shangcheng District 上城区 Shàngchéng Qū 344,594 18.30 18,830.27

Xiacheng District 下城区 Xiàchéng Qū 526,096 31.46 16,722.70

Jianggan District 江干区 Jiānggàn Qū 998,783 210.22 4,751.13

Gongshu District 拱墅区 Gǒngshù Qū 551,874 87.49 6,307.85

Xihu District 西湖区 Xīhú Qū 820,017 308.70 2,656.36

Binjiang District 滨江区 Bīnjiāng Qū 319,027 72.02 4,429.70

Suburban

Xiaoshan District 萧山区 Xiāoshān Qū 1,511,290 1,420.22 1,064.12

Yuhang
Yuhang
District 余杭区 Yúháng Qū 1,170,290 1,223.56 956.46

Fuyang District 富阳区 Fùyáng Qū 717,694 1,831.20 391.93

Lin'an District 临安区 Lín'ān Qū 566,665 3,126.80 181.23

County

Tonglu County 桐庐县 Tónglú Xiàn 406,450 1,825.00 222.71

Chun'an County 淳安县 Chún'ān Xiàn 336,843 4,427.00 76.09

County-level cities

Jiande 建德市 Jiàndé Shì 430,750 2,321.00 185.59

Demographics[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
city had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the 2000 census.[41] The most recent estimates of the city's urban area population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000.[42][43] The entire province had a population of 8,700,373 at the 2010 census,[44] and the encompassing urban agglomeration (including Shaoxing) is estimated to have population of 8,450,000.[45] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 13.4 million,[46] although other sources put the figure at over 21 million. The Hangzhou
Hangzhou
metropolitan area includes the major cities of Shaoxing, Jiaxing
Jiaxing
and Huzhou.[1][47] Economy[edit]

Qianjiang CBD in Hangzhou

View of the night time Hangzhou
Hangzhou
skyline from the West Lake

Alibaba's Binjiang Campus in Hangzhou, headquarters for Alibaba's B2B service

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
International Conference Center

Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China.[48] The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was RMB ¥156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB ¥156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB ¥1.105 trillion in 2016 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,025 to US$18,282.[48][49] The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.[50] Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Economic & Technological Development Zone was established and approved as a national development zone by the State Council in 1993. It covers an area of 104.7 km2 (40.4 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biological medicine, machinery and household appliances manufacturing, and food processing.[51]

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Export Processing Zone was established on April 27, 2000 upon approval of the State Council. It was one of the first zones and the only one in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province to be approved by the government. Its total planned area is 2.92 km2. It is located close to Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Port.[52]

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was set up with approval from the State Council as a state level Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone in March 1991. The HHTZ is composed of three parts, with the main regions being the Zhijiang Sci-Tech Industrial Park and Xiasha Sci-Tech Industrial Park. HHTZ has become one of the most influential hi-tech innovation and hi-tech industry bases in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province. As of 2013[update], HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola, Nokia
Nokia
and Siemens have established R&D centers in the zone. In 2011, the GDP of the zone rose by 13.1 percent, amounting to RMB 41.63 billion. This accounted for 5.9 percent of Hangzhou's total GDP. The HHTZ positions itself as the "Silicon Valley" of China. The Alibaba Group, the world's largest online B2B portal and China's largest website in terms of market value, is headquartered in the zone.[53][54] In 2016, G20 Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Summit was held in the City of Hangzhou, see more in 2016 G20 Hangzhou
Hangzhou
summit.

Tourism[edit]

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
city gate in 1906

West Lake
West Lake
and Leifeng Pagoda

Hu Xueyan
Hu Xueyan
Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou

West Lake
West Lake
at night

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Sunset Over the Qiantang River

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is renowned for its historic relics and natural beauty. It is known as one of the most beautiful cities in China, also ranking as one of the most scenic cities.[citation needed] Although Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy.[55] One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is a scenic area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural beauty of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake.[55]

Other places of interest

The world's largest tidal bore races up the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
through Hangzhou
Hangzhou
reaching up to 12 m (39 ft) in height. The residence of Hu Xueyan
Hu Xueyan
(胡雪岩故居) located on Yuanbao Street was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of Anhui, a very successful businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in 2001. Xixi National Wetland Park. Established with the aim of preserving the wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about 10 km2 (4 sq mi). Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and it is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several historic rural houses. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Botanical Garden Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Zoo Old China
China
Street on He Fang Street (He Fang Jie or Qing He Fang,literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers various souvenirs. Jade Springs (Yu Quan) West Lake
West Lake
Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the city centre (about 160 m (520 ft)) and houses the Zhejiang Natural History Museum and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Museum of Science and Technology. Qiandao Lake
Qiandao Lake
is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands in Chun'an County, an administrative area of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
government. These islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive scene. Grand Canal Longjing tea
Longjing tea
fields, west of the lake.[56] Euro Street, Hubin Road

In March 2013 the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador.[57] In a press conference in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a €40,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role.[58] Religion[edit]

View of the Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) area

The Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty

Scenic places near West Lake[edit]

Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake. Lingyin Temple
Lingyin Temple
(Soul's Retreat) is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest Buddhist temple
Buddhist temple
in the city, which has gone through numerous destruction and reconstruction cycles. Baochu Pagoda
Baochu Pagoda
is located just north of West Lake
West Lake
on Precious Stone Hill (宝石山) Yue-Wang Temple
Yue-Wang Temple
(King Yue's Temple) or Yue Fei
Yue Fei
Miao is on the northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in memory of General Yue Fei, who lost his life due to political persecution. Leifeng Pagoda, located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.

Other religious buildings[edit]

Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
or six harmonies pagoda is located on Yuelun Hill on the north bank of Qiantang River Confucius Temple Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) located on Wushan (Wu Hill) Dreaming of the Tiger Spring The Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou
Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou
is one of the oldest Catholic
Catholic
churches in China, dating back 400 years to the Ming dynasty. Fenghuang Temple (凤凰清真寺) is one of the oldest mosques in China, the current construction at the intersection of Xihu Avenue (西湖大道) and the Central Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road (中山中路) dates back 700 years to the Yuan dynasty.

Islam[edit] In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions.[59] A Hui from Ningbo
Ningbo
also told an Englishman that Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo
Ningbo
for his mosque.[60] Within the city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
are two notable mosques: the Great Mosque of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and the Phoenix Mosque. Judaism[edit] As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jewish community.[61] There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China
China
were in Kaifeng.[62] Christianity[edit] Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city.[63] Culture[edit] Language[edit]

Longjing (Dragon Well Spring) in Hangzhou, famous for the Longjing tea cultivated in the surrounding plantations

Large statue of Guanyin
Guanyin
and carved images of 150 Buddhist personalities in the Grand Hall of the Great Sage in Lingyin Temple

The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and southern Jiangsu, speak Hangzhou
Hangzhou
dialect, which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language. Museum[edit] There are several museums located in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
with regional and national importance. China
China
National Silk
Silk
Museum (中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China
China
and the largest silk museum in the world. China
China
National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics. Food[edit] Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance." Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川), West Lake
West Lake
Vinegar Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp (龙井虾仁), Beggar's Chicken
Beggar's Chicken
(叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots (油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup (宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine. Arts[edit] There are lots of theaters in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
showing performance of opera shows. Shaoxing
Shaoxing
opera, originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
like Impression West Lake
West Lake
and the Romance of Song Dynasty. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
hs historically been an important hub for artists and scholars. In modern times, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was home to the China
China
Art Academy and prominent painters such as Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin. Specialty[edit] Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green tea, the most notable type being Xi Hu
Xi Hu
Long Jing.[64] Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing
Xi Hu Long Jing
is grown in Longjing village[56] near Xi Hu
Xi Hu
in Hangzhou, hence its name.[citation needed] The local government of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas, and Chinese hand-held folding fans. Transportation[edit]

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Railway Station

High-speed rail line in Hangzhou

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
trolleybus

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
city bus

Buses and taxi on Yan'an
Yan'an
Road

Bicycles for rent

Qiantang River
Qiantang River
Bridge

Port[edit] The Port of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually.[65] Air[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is served by the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Netherlands,[66] Qatar, Portugal
Portugal
and the United States. Regional routes reach Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District
Xiaoshan District
with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro
Hangzhou Metro
Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport. Rail[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou
Hangzhou
East Railway Station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed CRH service to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The subway station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro
Hangzhou Metro
Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai
Shanghai
with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Shanghai
Shanghai
takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China
China
can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station
(colloquially the "City Station" Chinese: 城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again. Direct trains link Hangzhou
Hangzhou
with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing
Beijing
and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China
China
Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.[67] Bus[edit] Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance bus stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, as well as surrounding provinces. Public transportation[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has an efficient public transportation network, consisting of a modern fleet of regular diesel bus, trolley bus, hybrid diesel-electric bus and taxi. The first subway line entered into service in late 2012. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is known for its extensive Bus
Bus
Rapid Transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has an extensive free public bike rental system, the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Public Bicycle system. The Hangzhou Metro
Hangzhou Metro
began construction in March 2006, and the first line opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects downtown Hangzhou with suburban areas of the city from Xianghu to Wenze Road and Linping. By June 2015, the southeast part of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 & Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 10 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (Xihu District) and Line 4 (east of Bingjiang) are expected to be finished in 2016. Taxis[edit] Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye
Zotye
Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011.[68] In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which is famous for television it produced in the past) were deployed. Education[edit] See also: List of universities in China Universities[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang University, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Technology, and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Normal University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University

China
China
Academy of Art (founded in 1928) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Dianzi University Hangzhou Normal University
Hangzhou Normal University
(founded in 1908) Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Chinese Medical University Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Forestry University Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Gongshang University (founded in 1911, the earliest business school in China) Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Science and Technology Zhejiang
Zhejiang
International Studies University (also known as Zhejiang Education Institute, founded in 1955 and started enrolling full-time undergraduates in 1994, got its present name in 2010)[69] Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Sci-Tech University Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Shuren University Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University (founded in 1897), one of the top universities in China.[70] (Project 985, Project 211, C9 League) Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University City College Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Technology (1953) Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Media and Communications (1984)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. Primary and secondary schools[edit] The most famous high schools in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
are:

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
west lake High School Hangzhou High School (formerly Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 1 Senior High School) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Foreign Language School High School Attached to Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University (formerly Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 15 Senior High School) High School attached to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Normal university (formerly Hangzhou No. 13 Senior High School) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 2 High School Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 4 High School (formerly Yangzheng School, established in 1899 by Lin Qi) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 7 High School Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Xuejun High School Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 9 High School Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 11 High School Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 14 High School

Hangzhou International School and the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Japanese School (杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakko) serve the local expat population in Hangzhou.[71] Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is twinned with:

City Country Since

Sayama  Japan 1978

Gifu  Japan 1979

Boston  United States 1982

Baguio  Philippines 1982

Leeds  England 1988

Fukui  Japan 1989

Nice  France 1994

Galway  Ireland 1996

Paramaribo  Suriname 1988

Budapest  Hungary 1999

Cape Town  South Africa 2005

Curitiba  Brazil 2007

Dresden  Germany 2009

Indianapolis  United States 2009

Oulu  Finland 2011

Atlanta  United States 2012

Hamamatsu  Japan 2012

Dnipro  Ukraine 2013

El Calafate  Argentina 2013

Queenstown  New Zealand 2014

Split  Croatia 2014

Tallinn  Estonia Unknown

Weert  Netherlands Unknown

Middlesbrough  England Unknown

Kota Kinabalu  Malaysia 2016[72][73]

Fishers, Indiana
Fishers, Indiana
is in the exploration process of becoming sister cities with Hangzhou. Chinese sayings[edit]

A typical Chinese garden's window in Hangzhou. It is a common technique for the view to resemble a Chinese painting.

A typical Chinese style architecture in Hangzhou

A common Chinese saying about Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Suzhou
Suzhou
is:

"Paradise above, Suzhou
Suzhou
and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
below." (simplified Chinese: 上有天堂, 下有苏杭; traditional Chinese: 上有天堂, 下有蘇杭)

This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in his accounts described Suzhou
Suzhou
as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is "the city of heaven".[74] The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016.[75] Another popular saying about Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is:

"Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhou." (simplified Chinese: 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州; traditional Chinese: 生在蘇州, 活在杭州, 吃在廣州, 死在柳州)

The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou
Suzhou
was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
for its scenery, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
for its food, and Liuzhou
Liuzhou
(of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree). See also[edit]

China
China
portal

Historical capitals of China Jiangnan List of cities in the People's Republic of China
China
by population Suzhou
Suzhou
numerals – in the Unicode
Unicode
standard version 3.0, these characters are incorrectly named Hangzhou
Hangzhou
style numerals

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Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from The middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion, etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2, by Samuel Wells Williams, John William Orr, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from The Chinese repository, Volume 13, a publication from 1844 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from The Baptist missionary magazine, Volume 29, by American Baptist Missionary Union. Executive Committee, Baptist General Convention. Board of Managers, a publication from 1849 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from My holidays in China: An account of three houseboat tours, from Shanghai
Shanghai
to Hangehow and back via Ningpo; from Shanghai
Shanghai
to Le Yang via Soochow and the Tah Hu; and from Kiukiang to Wuhu; with twenty-six illustrations (from photographs), by William R. Kahler, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from Reports from the consuls of the United States, Issues 124–127, by United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from 1854 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from Darkness in the flowery land: or, Religious notions and popular superstitions in north China, by Michael Simpson Culbertson, a publication from 1857 now in the public domain in the United States. Economic profile for Hangzhou
Hangzhou
at HKTDC

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Hangzhou

Cotterell, Arthur (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China
China
– An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5.  Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China
China
on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0720-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Hang-chow.

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
travel guide from Wikivoyage Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Government website Arts Crafts Museum Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in Google Cultural Institute EN.GOTOHZ.COM – The Official Website of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Tourism Commission TRAVELWESTLAKE – The Official Travel Guide of Hangzhou TRAVELZHEJIANG – The Official Travel Guide of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province Geographic data related to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Kaifeng Capital of China
China
(as Lin'an) 1127–1279 Succeeded by Dadu (present Beijing)

v t e

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
topics

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Huangyajian Peak Mount Mogan Tiantai Mountain Yangtze Delta Grand Canal of China Qiantang River Oujiang River Zhoushan
Zhoushan
Island Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay

Education

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
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Zhejiang
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University

Culture

Wuyue culture Wu Chinese

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Hangzhou
Hangzhou
dialect Ningbo
Ningbo
dialect

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Wenzhou
dialect

( Rui'an
Rui'an
dialect)

Jinhua
Jinhua
dialect Quzhou
Quzhou
dialect

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Baoguo Temple Mount Putuo Tomb of Yu the Great Mount Tiantai Qiandao Lake Guoqing Temple

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(capital)

Sub-provincial cities

Hangzhou

Gongshu District Shangcheng District Xiacheng District Jianggan District Xihu District Binjiang District Yuhang
Yuhang
District Xiaoshan District Fuyang District Lin'an District Jiande
Jiande
City Tonglu County Chun'an County

Ningbo

Haishu District Jiangbei District Beilun District Zhenhai District Yinzhou District Fenghua
Fenghua
District Cixi City Yuyao
Yuyao
City Ninghai County Xiangshan County

Prefecture-level cities

Wenzhou

Lucheng District Longwan District Ouhai District Dongtou District Rui'an
Rui'an
City Yueqing
Yueqing
City Yongjia County Wencheng County Pingyang County Taishun County Cangnan County

Jiaxing

Nanhu District Xiuzhou District Pinghu
Pinghu
City Haining
Haining
City Tongxiang
Tongxiang
City Jiashan County Haiyan County

Huzhou

Wuxing District Nanxun District Changxing County Deqing County Anji County

Shaoxing

Yuecheng District Keqiao District Shangyu District Zhuji
Zhuji
City Shengzhou City Xinchang County

Jinhua

Wucheng District Jindong District Lanxi City Yongkang City Yiwu
Yiwu
City Dongyang
Dongyang
City Wuyi County Pujiang County Pan'an County

Quzhou

Kecheng District Qujiang District Jiangshan
Jiangshan
City Changshan County Kaihua County Longyou County

Zhoushan

Dinghai District Putuo District Daishan County Shengsi County

Taizhou

Jiaojiang District Huangyan District Luqiao District Linhai
Linhai
City Wenling
Wenling
City Yuhuan
Yuhuan
City Sanmen County Tiantai County Xianju County

Lishui

Liandu District Longquan
Longquan
City Jinyun County Qingtian County Yunhe County Suichang County Songyang County Qingyuan
Qingyuan
County Jingning Autonomous County

v t e

Major regions and cities of China

National megalopolises

Jingjinji (Inner) Bohai Economic Rim

Beijing

Beijing

Changping Daxing Fangshan Mentougou Shunyi Tongzhou

Tianjin

Tianjin

Binhai Dongli Jinnan Wuqing

Hebei

Baoding

Xiong'an

Cangzhou Chengde Langfang Shijiazhuang Tangshan

Caofeidian Qian'an

Zhangjiakou

Yangtze River Delta (Economic Zone)

Jiangsu

Changzhou Lianyungang Nanjing Nantong Suzhou Taizhou Wuxi Yangzhou Zhenjiang

Shanghai

Shanghai

Baoshan Jiading Minhang Pudong Qingpu Songjiang

Zhejiang

Hangzhou Huzhou Jiaxing Jinhua Lishui Ningbo Quzhou Shaoxing Taizhou Wenzhou Zhoushan

Anhui

Chuzhou Hefei Huainan Ma'anshan Wuhu

Pearl River Delta/ Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area (Economic Zone)

Guangdong

Dongguan Foshan Guangzhou

Huadu Nansha Panyu

Huizhou Jiangmen Shenzhen

Bao'an

Zhaoqing Zhongshan Zhuhai

Hengqin

SARs

Hong Kong

Kowloon

Macau

Cotai

West Triangle Economic Zone

Chongqing

Chongqing

Fuling Liangjiang Qianjiang Wanzhou Xinbei

Sichuan

Chengdu Dazhou Deyang Guang'an Leshan Luzhou Meishan Mianyang Nanchong Neijiang Suining Yibin Zigong Ziyang

Shaanxi

Baoji Tongchuan Weinan Xi'an Xianyang

Yangling

Harbin- Changchun
Changchun
Megalopolis (Northeastern Cities)

Heilongjiang

Harbin Daqing Mudanjiang Qiqihar

Jilin

Changchun Jilin Siping Yanji

Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River/ Yangtze River Valley (Central Triangle Economic Zone)

Hubei

Ezhou Huanggang Huangshi Qianjiang Tianmen Wuhan Xianning Xiantao Xiaogan

Hunan

Changde Changsha Hengyang Loudi Xiangtan Yiyang Yueyang Zhuzhou

Jiangxi

Fuzhou Ji'an Jingdezhen Jiujiang Nanchang Shangrao Xinyu Yichun Yingtan

Anhui

Anqing Bengbu Chizhou Chuzhou Hefei Huainan Lu'an Ma'anshan Tongling Wuhu Xuancheng

(North) Bohai Economic Rim

Liaoning

Anshan Dalian

Lüshun

Huludao Jinzhou Panjin Shenyang Yingkou

(South) Bohai Economic Rim

Shandong

Binzhou Dongying Jinan Qingdao Weifang Weihai Yantai Zibo

Regions

East

Northeast

North South Central

Central South Huizhou

Western

Northwest Southwest

Administrative divisions

By GDP By GDP per capita By Human Development Index Prefecture-level divisions County-level divisions

Cities

Direct-controlled municipality Prefecture-level city Sub-provincial city County-level city List of cities in China

by GDP per capita by population

Capitals

Historical capitals Current and former capitals

Categories: Subdivisions Regions Cities

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124533589 GND: 4229651-1 BNF: cb119737437 (d

.