HOME
The Info List - Hangzhou



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

HANGZHOU ( ( listen )), formerly romanized as HANGCHOW, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province in east China
China
. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay , which separates Shanghai
Shanghai
and Ningbo . Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China
China
for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, immediately west of the city, is amongst its best-known attraction.

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census , the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi). Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015.

In September 2015, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was awarded the 2022 Asian Games . It will be the third Chinese city to play host to the Asian Games
Asian Games
after Beijing
Beijing
1990 and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
2010 . Hangzhou, an emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba , also hosted the eleventh G-20 summit in 2016.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
* 1.3 Song dynasty
Song dynasty
* 1.4 Yuan–Qing * 1.5 Republican and Communist China
China

* 2 Geography and climate * 3 Administrative divisions

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

* 5 Tourism

* 6 Religion

* 6.1 Scenic places near West Lake
West Lake
* 6.2 Other religious buildings * 6.3 Islam * 6.4 Judaism * 6.5 Christianity

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Language * 7.2 Museum * 7.3 Food * 7.4 Arts * 7.5 Specialty

* 8 Transportation

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Universities * 9.2 Primary and secondary schools

* 10 Twin towns – Sister cities * 11 Chinese sayings * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Hangzhou history _ A ceremonial jade bi_ of the Liangzhu culture Xiangji Temple was built in 978 AD during the Northern Song Dynasty Statue of Su Shi
Su Shi
at the end of Su Causeway
Causeway
at the West Lake
West Lake

EARLY HISTORY

The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao , 100 km (62 mi) north-east of Ulumuqi, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established that the jade -carving Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago. The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang , which probably preserves an old Baiyue name.

TANG DYNASTY

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was made the seat of the _zhou _ (very roughly, "county") of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.

In the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou. Already an accomplished and famous poet, his deeds at Hangzhou
Hangzhou
have led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake
West Lake
, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought . He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the beauty of West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He also ordered the construction of a causeway connecting Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of requiring a boat. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. This causeway was later named "Bai Causeway", in his honor.

It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China
China
. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period . Named XIFU at the time, it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China
China
during the tenth century, along with Nanjing
Nanjing
and Chengdu
Chengdu
. Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China
China
and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan
Japan
, Korea
Korea
, and the Khitan Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
.

SONG DYNASTY

In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi
Su Shi
(Su Dongpo) was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake, which the Qianlong Emperor considered particularly attractive in the early morning of the spring time. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland. The Su Causeway
Causeway
built by Su Shi
Su Shi
, and the Bai Causeway
Causeway
built by Bai Juyi , a Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
poet who was once the governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
depicted in a French illumination from 1412

Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan dynasty , Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols. The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to Hangzhou. Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city sat on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills. During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol
Mongol
administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers . Hupao ("Dreaming of the Tiger") Spring in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Cuiguang Pavilion by the West Lake
West Lake
"Lotus in the Breeze at the Winding Courtyard", one of the Ten Scenes of the West Lake
West Lake

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132, when most of northern China
China
had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars . The Song court had retreated south from its original capital in Kaifeng
Kaifeng
after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
of 1127, moving to Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu , then to Yangzhou
Yangzhou
in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129. The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital, but over the decades Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew into a major commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most prosperous. Once the prospect of retaking northern China
China
had diminished, government buildings in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
were extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls.

From the early 12th century until the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of 1276, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
remained the capital and was known as LIN\'AN (臨安). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service . During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin , an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens .

Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi
Su Shi
, Lu You , and Xin Qiji came here to live and die. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang district.

During the Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques Gernet has estimated that the population of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358.

Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed 30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire.

YUAN–QING

The city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol
Mongol
armies of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the empire. The capital of the new Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
was established in the city of Dadu ( Beijing
Beijing
).

The Venetian merchant Marco Polo supposedly visited Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in the late 13th century. In his book , he records that the city was "greater than any in the world". He called the city QUINSAI, a name that—like Odoric of Pordenone 's CANSAY—derived from its Southern Song nickname XINGZAI, meaning "Temporary Residence". Marco Polo wrote of the city: "The number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." Polo may have exaggerated, describing the city as over one hundred miles in diameter (although if he had meant Chinese mile it would be smaller at 3/8 of the measurement in Italian mile and more plausible), and had 12,000 stone bridges, although some argued that this may have been a mistake and exaggeration by a copyist who turned the "12 gates" of the city into "12,000 bridges". The renowned 14th-century Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta said it was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth."

The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing , it was the site of an imperial army garrison. An area map of Hangzhou in 1867

In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
occupied Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and caused heavy damage to the city.

REPUBLICAN AND COMMUNIST CHINA

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was ruled by the Republic of China
China
government under the Kuomintang from 1928 to 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People\'s Liberation Army entered Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and the city came under Communist control. After Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
's reformist policies began in 1978, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze River Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

HANGZHOU

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

73 8 2 84 9 3 138 14 6 127 21 12 147 26 17 231 29 21 159 33 25 156 32 25 145 28 20 87 23 15 60 17 9 47 11 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

_Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration_

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

2.9 46 35 3.3 49 37 5.4 57 44 5 69 54 5.8 78 63 9.1 83 70 6.3 91 77 6.1 90 76 5.7 82 69 3.4 73 59 2.4 62 48 1.9 52 38

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

View of Hangzhou Bay from the Hangzhou Bay Bridge Tidal bore at the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
in Hangzhou
Hangzhou

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is located in northwestern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China
China
, which runs to Beijing
Beijing
, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta . Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui
Anhui
province, and east to the coastal plain near Hangzhou Bay . The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
.

Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen _Cfa_) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438.0 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou
Hangzhou
suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6 °C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August 2013; unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C (13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.

CLIMATE DATA FOR HANGZHOU (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1951–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.4 (77.7) 28.5 (83.3) 32.8 (91) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7) 39.7 (103.5) 41.3 (106.3) 41.6 (106.9) 38.7 (101.7) 35.0 (95) 31.2 (88.2) 26.5 (79.7) 41.6 (106.9)

MEAN MAXIMUM °C (°F) 17.4 (63.3) 21.3 (70.3) 25.7 (78.3) 30.6 (87.1) 33.8 (92.8) 35.3 (95.5) 37.9 (100.2) 37.3 (99.1) 34.4 (93.9) 30.3 (86.5) 25.1 (77.2) 19.5 (67.1) 38.2 (100.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 10.3 (50.5) 14.8 (58.6) 21.1 (70) 26.3 (79.3) 29.1 (84.4) 33.6 (92.5) 32.8 (91) 28.2 (82.8) 23.2 (73.8) 17.3 (63.1) 11.3 (52.3) 21.4 (70.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 4.6 (40.3) 6.4 (43.5) 10.3 (50.5) 16.2 (61.2) 21.4 (70.5) 24.7 (76.5) 28.9 (84) 28.2 (82.8) 24.0 (75.2) 18.8 (65.8) 12.9 (55.2) 7.0 (44.6) 16.95 (62.51)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 3.5 (38.3) 7.0 (44.6) 12.4 (54.3) 17.5 (63.5) 21.4 (70.5) 25.2 (77.4) 24.9 (76.8) 20.9 (69.6) 15.4 (59.7) 9.3 (48.7) 3.7 (38.7) 13.6 (56.5)

MEAN MINIMUM °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −2.3 (27.9) 0.8 (33.4) 5.8 (42.4) 12.1 (53.8) 16.9 (62.4) 21.5 (70.7) 21.4 (70.5) 16.0 (60.8) 9.0 (48.2) 2.5 (36.5) −2.8 (27) −4.6 (23.7)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −8.6 (16.5) −9.6 (14.7) −3.5 (25.7) 0.2 (32.4) 7.3 (45.1) 12.8 (55) 17.3 (63.1) 18.2 (64.8) 12.0 (53.6) 1.0 (33.8) −3.6 (25.5) −8.4 (16.9) −9.6 (14.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 80.6 (3.173) 88.2 (3.472) 140.7 (5.539) 123.1 (4.846) 128.6 (5.063) 219.4 (8.638) 172.9 (6.807) 162.1 (6.382) 123.5 (4.862) 78.5 (3.091) 71.5 (2.815) 48.9 (1.925) 1,438 (56.614)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 12.4 12.1 15.3 14.5 13.8 14.6 12.4 13.8 11.7 9.0 9.3 8.5 147.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 75 75 74 74 80 76 78 79 76 74 73 75.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 102.0 97.2 116.4 140.6 164.7 136.6 212.7 193.0 143.9 144.6 129.0 128.7 1,709.4

Source: China
China
Meteorological Data Sharing Service System

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The sub-provincial city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
comprises 9 districts , 2 county-level cities , and 2 counties . The six central urban districts occupy 683 km2 (264 sq mi) and have 3,560,400 people. The three suburban districts occupy 4,193 km2 (1,619 sq mi) and have 3,399,300 people.

In the early 90s, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan.

In Dec. 12nd,1996, Bingjiang division was established.

In March 12, the City of Xiaoshan and the City of Yuhang was included into the City of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
as two divisions.

In Dec. 13rd, 2014, the City of Fuyang was included into the City of Hanghzou as a division.

MAP

1 2 3 4 JIANGGAN XIHU XIAOSHAN YUHANG FUYANG Tonglu County Chun'an County Jiande (city) Lin'an (city) 1. SHANGCHENG 2. XIACHENG 3. GONGSHU 4. BINJIANG

SUBDIVISION CHINESE PINYIN POPULATION (2010 ) AREA (KM2) DENSITY

CITY PROPER

Shangcheng District 上城区 Shàngchéng Qū 344,594 18.30 18,830.27

Xiacheng District 下城区 Xiàchéng Qū 526,096 31.46 16,722.70

Jianggan District 江干区 Jiānggàn Qū 998,783 210.22 4,751.13

Gongshu District 拱墅区 Gǒngshù Qū 551,874 87.49 6,307.85

Xihu District 西湖区 Xīhú Qū 820,017 308.70 2,656.36

Binjiang District 滨江区 Bīnjiāng Qū 319,027 72.02 4,429.70

SUBURBAN

Xiaoshan District 萧山区 Xiāoshān Qū 1,511,290 1,420.22 1,064.12

Yuhang District 余杭区 Yúháng Qū 1,170,290 1,223.56 956.46

Fuyang District 富阳区 Fùyáng Qū 717,694 1,831.20 391.93

COUNTY

Tonglu County 桐庐县 Tónglú Xiàn 406,450 1,825.00 222.71

Chun\'an County 淳安县 Chún'ān Xiàn 336,843 4,427.00 76.09

COUNTY-LEVEL CITIES

Jiande 建德市 Jiàndé Shì 430,750 2,321.00 185.59

Lin\'an 临安市 Lín'ān Shì 566,665 3,126.80 181.23

ECONOMY

Qianjiang CBD in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
View of the night time Hangzhou skyline from the West Lake
West Lake
Alibaba 's Binjiang Campus in Hangzhou, headquarters for Alibaba's B2B service Hangzhou International Conference Center

Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China.

The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was RMB ¥156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB ¥156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB ¥1.105 trillion in 2016 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,025 to US$18,282.

The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Economic "> , HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola
Motorola
, Nokia
Nokia
and Siemens
Siemens
have established R"> Hangzhou
Hangzhou
city gate in 1906 West Lake
West Lake
and Leifeng Pagoda Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Sunset Over the Qiantang River

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is renowned for its historic relics and natural beauty. It is known as one of the most beautiful cities in China, also ranking as one of the most scenic cities. Although Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy. One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. The West Lake
West Lake
Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is a scenic area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural beauty of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain . There are two causeways across the lake. Other places of interest

* The world's largest tidal bore races up the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
through Hangzhou
Hangzhou
reaching up to 12 m (39 ft) in height. * The residence of Hu Xueyan (胡雪岩故居) located on Yuanbao Street was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of Anhui
Anhui
, a very successful businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in 2001. * Xixi National Wetland Park . Established with the aim of preserving the wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about 10 km2 (4 sq mi). Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and it is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several historic rural houses. * Hangzhou Botanical Garden * Hangzhou Zoo * Old China
China
Street on He Fang Street (_He Fang Jie_ or _Qing He Fang_,literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers various souvenirs and renowned Longjing tea
Longjing tea
. * Jade Springs (Yu Quan) * West Lake
West Lake
Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the city centre (about 160 m (520 ft)) and houses the Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Natural History Museum and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Museum of Science and Technology. * Qiandao Lake is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands in Chun'an County, an administrative area of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
government. These islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive scene. * Grand Canal * Longjing tea
Longjing tea
fields, west of the lake.

In March 2013 the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a €40,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role.

RELIGION

View of the Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) area The Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty

SCENIC PLACES NEAR WEST LAKE

* Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake. * Lingyin Temple
Lingyin Temple
(Soul's Retreat) is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest Buddhist temple in the city, which has gone through numerous destruction and reconstruction cycles. * Baochu Pagoda is located just north of West Lake
West Lake
on Precious Stone Hill (宝石山) * Yue-Wang Temple (King Yue's Temple) or Yue Fei Miao is on the northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in memory of General Yue Fei , who lost his life due to political persecution. * Leifeng Pagoda , located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.

OTHER RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

* Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
or six harmonies pagoda is located on Yuelun Hill on the north bank of Qiantang River * Confucius Temple * Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) located on Wushan (Wu Hill) * Dreaming of the Tiger Spring * The Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou is one of the oldest Catholic
Catholic
churches in China, dating back 400 years to the Ming dynasty . * Fenghuang Temple (凤凰清真寺) is one of the oldest mosques in China, the current construction at the intersection of Xihu Avenue (西湖大道) and the Central Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road (中山中路) dates back 700 years to the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
.

ISLAM

In 1848, during the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China
China
, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions. A Hui from Ningbo also told an Englishman that Hanzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque. Within the city of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
are two notable mosques: the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and the Phoenix Mosque.

JUDAISM

As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry , and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jewish community .

There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China
China
were in Kaifeng.

CHRISTIANITY

Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city.

CULTURE

LANGUAGE

Longjing (Dragon Well Spring) in Hangzhou, famous for the Longjing tea
Longjing tea
cultivated in the surrounding plantations Large statue of Guanyin
Guanyin
and carved images of 150 Buddhist personalities in the Grand Hall of the Great Sage in Lingyin Temple
Lingyin Temple

The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, speak Hangzhou dialect , which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.

MUSEUM

There are several museums located in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
with regional and national importance. China
China
National Silk
Silk
Museum (中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China
China
and the largest silk museum in the world. China
China
National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics.

FOOD

Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."

Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川), West Lake
West Lake
Vinegar Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp (龙井虾仁), Beggar\'s Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots (油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup (宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine.

ARTS

There are lots of theaters in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
showing performance of opera shows. Shaoxing opera , originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
like Impression West Lake
West Lake
and the Romance of Song Dynasty.

SPECIALTY

Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing , a notable variety of green tea , the most notable type being Xi Hu Long Jing . Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village near Xi Hu
Xi Hu
in Hangzhou, hence its name.

The local government of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas , and Chinese hand-held folding fans .

TRANSPORTATION

Hangzhou Railway Station High-speed rail line in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
trolleybus Hangzhou
Hangzhou
city bus Buses and taxi on Yan'an
Yan'an
Road Bicycles for rent Qiantang River
Qiantang River
Bridge

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport , which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand
Thailand
, Japan
Japan
, South Korea
Korea
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Singapore
Singapore
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Netherlands
Netherlands
, Qatar
Qatar
, Portugal
Portugal
and the United States
United States
. Regional routes reach Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China
China
. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou
Hangzhou
East Railway Station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed CRH service to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The subway station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai
Shanghai
with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Shanghai
Shanghai
takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China
China
can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou Railway Station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese: 城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again.

Direct trains link Hangzhou
Hangzhou
with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing
Beijing
and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai
Shanghai
; they reach as far as Ürümqi . The China
China
Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.

Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance bus stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, as well as surrounding provinces.

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has an efficient public transportation network, consisting of a modern fleet of regular diesel bus, trolley bus , hybrid diesel-electric bus and taxi. The first subway line entered into service in late 2012. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is known for its extensive Bus
Bus
Rapid Transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has an extensive free public bike rental system , the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Public Bicycle system.

Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats , and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye
Zotye
Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011. In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which is famous for television it produced in the past) were deployed.

The Hangzhou Metro began construction in March 2006, and the first line opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects downtown Hangzhou with suburban areas of the city from Xianghu to Wenze Road and Linping. By June 2015, the southeast part of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (Xihu District) and Line 4 (east of Bingjiang) are expected to be finished in 2016.

EDUCATION

See also: List of universities in China
China

UNIVERSITIES

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang University , Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Technology , and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Normal University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges. Zhejiang University

* China
China
Academy of Art (founded in 1928) * Hangzhou Dianzi University * Hangzhou Normal University (founded in 1908) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Chinese Medical University * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Forestry University * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Gongshang University (founded in 1911, the earliest business school in China
China
) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Science and Technology * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
International Studies University (also known as Zhejiang Education Institute, founded in 1955 and started enrolling full-time undergraduates in 1994, got its present name in 2010) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Sci-Tech University * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Shuren University * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University (founded in 1897), one of the top universities in China. ( Project 985 , Project 211 , C9 League ) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University City College * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Technology (1953) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University of Media and Communications (1984)

_Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed._

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The most famous high schools in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
are:

* Hangzhou
Hangzhou
west lake High School * Hangzhou High School (formerly Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 1 Senior High School) * Hangzhou Foreign Language School * High School Attached to Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University (formerly Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 15 Senior High School) * High School attached to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Normal university (formerly Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 13 Senior High School) * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 2 High School * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 4 High School (formerly Yangzheng School, established in 1899 by Lin Qi) * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 7 High School * Hangzhou Xuejun High School * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 9 High School * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
No. 11 High School * Hangzhou No. 14 High School

Hangzhou International School and the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Japanese School (杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakko ) serve the local expat population in Hangzhou.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is twinned with:

CITY COUNTRY SINCE

Sayama Japan
Japan
1978

Gifu Japan
Japan
1979

Boston
Boston
United States
United States
1982

Baguio Philippines
Philippines
1982

Leeds
Leeds
England
England
1988

Fukui Japan
Japan
1989

Nice
Nice
France
France
1994

Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Suriname
Suriname
1988

Budapest
Budapest
Hungary
Hungary
1999

Cape Town
Cape Town
South Africa
South Africa
2005

Dresden
Dresden
Germany
Germany
2009

Indianapolis
Indianapolis
United States
United States
2009

Atlanta
Atlanta
United States
United States
2012

Dnipro
Dnipro
Ukraine
Ukraine
2013

El Calafate
El Calafate
Argentina
Argentina
2013

Queenstown New Zealand
New Zealand
2014

Tallinn
Tallinn
Estonia
Estonia
Unknown

Weert
Weert
Netherlands
Netherlands
Unknown

Kota Kinabalu Malaysia
Malaysia
2016

Fishers, Indiana is in the exploration process of becoming sister cities with Hangzhou.

CHINESE SAYINGS

A typical Chinese garden 's window in Hangzhou. It is a common technique for the view to resemble a Chinese painting . A typical Chinese style architecture in Hangzhou
Hangzhou

A common Chinese saying about Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Suzhou
Suzhou
is: _"Paradise above, Suzhou
Suzhou
and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
below."_ (simplified Chinese: 上有天堂, 下有苏杭; traditional Chinese: 上有天堂, 下有蘇杭)

This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou
Suzhou
as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is "the city of heaven". The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016.

Another popular saying about Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is: _"Be born in Suzhou
Suzhou
, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, die in Liuzhou
Liuzhou
."_ (simplified Chinese: 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州; traditional Chinese: 生在蘇州, 活在杭州, 吃在廣州, 死在柳州)

The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou
Suzhou
was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
for its scenery, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
for its food, and Liuzhou
Liuzhou
(of Guangxi ) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree).

SEE ALSO

* China
China
portal

* Historical capitals of China
China
* Jiangnan * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province * List of cities in the People\'s Republic of China
China
by population * Suzhou
Suzhou
numerals – in the Unicode
Unicode
standard version 3.0, these characters are incorrectly named Hangzhou
Hangzhou
style numerals * TRAVELZHEJIANG

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Economic and Social Development Report of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Metropolitan Circles (2007–2012)_ (in Chinese). Social Sciences Academic Press(China). 2012-10-01. Retrieved 2013-02-20. * ^ "Illuminating China\'s Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Region". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-04-22. * ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 2014-05-28. * ^ "2012中国都市圈评价指数今年7月发布" (in Chinese). 上海交通大学. 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2013-02-20. * ^ "2015年浙江省1%人口抽样调查主要数据公报-浙江统计信息网". _www.zj.stats.gov.cn_. Retrieved 2016-04-10. * ^ " Hangzhou
Hangzhou
of China
China
selected to host 2022 Asian Games". Xinhua. 2015-09-16. Retrieved 2015-09-16. * ^ " China
China
to host 2016 G20 summit in Hangzhou". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-20. * ^ Yan Wenming. "The Beginning of Farming", p. 36, in _The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective_, pp. 27–42. Yale University Press (New Haven ), 2005. ISBN 978-0-300-09382-7 . * ^ Fuller, Dorian; et al. (2009). "The Domestication Process and Domestication Rate in Rice: Spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze". _Science_. 323: 1607–1610. PMID 19299619 . doi :10.1126/science.1166605 . * ^ Shanghai
Shanghai
Qingpu Museum. "". Accessed 24 July 2014. * ^ _Zhongguo lishi diming dacidian_ 中國歷史地名大詞典, (Shanghai: Shanghai
Shanghai
cishu chubanshe): 1516. * ^ Ebrey, _Cambridge Illustrated History of China_, 114: " the Grand Canal, dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labour." * ^ Waley (1941), 131 * ^ 周, 峰 (1997). 吴越首府杭州: 及北宋东南第一州 (IN CHINESE). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA: 浙江人民出版社. P. 32. RETRIEVED 22 JULY 2014. * ^ Worthy 1983 , p. 19. * ^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). _Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiers_ (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0 . Retrieved 17 July 2011. * ^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville, Stuart C. Munro-Hay (2006). _Islam: an illustrated history_ (illustrated, revised ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN 0-8264-1837-6 . Retrieved 17 July 2011. * ^ Zhongguo guo ji mao yi cu jin wei yuan hui (1991). _China\'s foreign trade_. the University of California: China
China
Council for the Promotion of International Trade. p. 98. Retrieved 17 July 2011. * ^ The Enduring Message of Hangzhou * ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta Volume 4 pp. 904, 967 (The Hakluyt Society 1994, British Library) * ^ Coblin, Weldon South (2002). "Migration History and Dialect Development in the Lower Yangtze Watershed". _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies_. 65 (3): 533. doi :10.1017/s0041977x02000320 . * ^ Holcombe, Charles (2011). _A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century_. Cambridge University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mote, Frederick W. (2003). _Imperial China: 900–1800_. Harvard University Press. pp. 292–3. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7 . * ^ Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John King Fairbank, eds. _The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368_. Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mote, Frederick W. (2003). _Imperial China: 900–1800_. Harvard University Press. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7 . * ^ Gernet, Jacques (1962). _Daily Life in China, on the Eve of the Mongol
Mongol
Invasion, 1250–1276_. Stanford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8047-0720-6 . * ^ Yuhang Cultural Network (October 2003). Shen Kuo\'s Tomb The Yuhang District of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Cultural Broadcasting Press and Publications Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. * ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2011-03-16. * ^ Janet L. Abu-Lughod, _Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350_, "All the Silks of China" (Oxford University Press US) 1991, p. 337 * ^ Gernet, 15. * ^ _The New Encyclopædia Britannica_ (Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago
Chicago
University of, William Benton, Encyclopædia Britannica), p. 2 * ^ J.M. Dent (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City of Kin-Sai", _The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian_, pp. 290–310 * ^ Diana Childress. _Marco Polo\'s Journey to China_. ISBN 9781467703796 . * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 260 * ^ Elliott, Michael (2011-07-21). "The Enduring Message of Hangzhou". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-11-05. * ^ Cassel, Pär (2003), "Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai", _Late Imperial China_, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 156–182 . * ^ Hangzhou. China
China
Today. Retrieved August 22, 2006. * ^ http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger * ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21. * ^ "Hangzhou". China
China
Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. December 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Industries of Hangzhou". Hzindus.gov.cn. Retrieved 2011-03-16. * ^ 杭州市人均GDP已达到中上等国家和富裕国家临界水平-杭报在线-新闻 * ^ " Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Economy". China-window.com. Retrieved 2011-03-16. * ^ Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Economic & Technological Development ZoneChina Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28. * ^ Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Export Processing Zone China
China
Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia (2000-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-08-28. * ^ Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone China
China
Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28. * ^ " Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Development Zones". _ China
China
Briefing_. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Today: Tourism. China
China
Pages. Retrieved August 22, 2006. Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ _A_ _B_ "the tea fields of Longjing". Minor Sights. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ "Modern-Day Marco Polo for Hangzhou, China". NBC NEWS. Retrieved 2014-11-26. * ^ "Briton appointed by Chinese government to promote the country on Facebook (but locals are still banned from the site)". Daily Mail. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-26. * ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1848). _The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..._ (3 ed.). Wiley & Putnam. p. 98. Retrieved 2011-05-08. * ^ _The Chinese repository, Volume 13_. Printed for the proprietors. 1844. p. 32. Retrieved 2011-05-08. * ^ "The Lost Jews of Kaifeng". Jewish-holiday.com. Retrieved 2011-03-16. * ^ Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions (1854). _Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China_. Presbyterian board of publication. p. 256. Retrieved 17 July 2011. * ^ Fan, Maureen (October 1, 2006). "In China, Churches Challenge the Rules". _Washington Post_. * ^ Cummings, Joe and Robert Storey (1991). _China, Volume 10_. Lonely Planets Publications. p. 345. ISBN 0-86442-123-0 . * ^ KLM launched its first flight to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in China. Schiphol (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2011-08-28. * ^ xinhuanet (2010-10-26). " China
China
unveils Shanghai-Hangzhou high-speed railway; eyes network extension". Retrieved 2010-10-26. * ^ " Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Halts All Electric Taxis as a Zotye
Zotye
Langyue (Multipla) EV Catches Fire". ChinaAutoWeb. Retrieved 2011-07-06. * ^ "Introducing ZISU". zisu.edu. Retrieved 12 March 2014. * ^ " Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University surpasses Tsinghua as top university of China". _China.org.cn_. Retrieved 17 November 2014. * ^ home page. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Japanese School. * ^ "Kota Kinabalu, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
to ink MoU to enhance friendship ties". The Borneo Post . 12 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017. * ^ "Remarks by Consul-General CHEN Peijie At the National Day Reception". Consulate General of the People's Republic of China
China
in Kota Kinabalu. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017. * ^ J.M. Dent (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City of Kin-Sai", _The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian_, p. 289 * ^ Hannah Beech (September 2, 2016). "China’s Hanghzou Clears Out Pests—and People—as It Prepares to Host the G20 Summit".

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* _ This article incorporates text from_ The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..._, by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ The middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion, etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2_, by Samuel Wells Williams, John William Orr, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ The Chinese repository, Volume 13_, a publication from 1844 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ The Baptist missionary magazine, Volume 29_, by American Baptist Missionary Union. Executive Committee, Baptist General Convention. Board of Managers, a publication from 1849 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ My holidays in China: An account of three houseboat tours, from Shanghai
Shanghai
to Hangehow and back via Ningpo; from Shanghai
Shanghai
to Le Yang via Soochow and the Tah Hu; and from Kiukiang to Wuhu; with twenty-six illustrations (from photographs)_, by William R. Kahler, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ Reports from the consuls of the United States, Issues 124–127_, by United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China_, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from 1854 now in the public domain in the United States._ * _ This article incorporates text from_ Darkness in the flowery land: or, Religious notions and popular superstitions in north China_, by Michael Simpson Culbertson, a publication from 1857 now in the public domain in the United States._ * Economic profile for Hangzhou
Hangzhou
at HKTDC

FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of the history of Hangzhou
Hangzhou

* Cotterell, Arthur (2007). _The Imperial Capitals of China
China
– An Inside View of the Celestial Empire_. London: Pimlico. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5 . * Gernet, Jacques (1962). _Daily Life in China
China
on the Eve of the Mongol
Mongol
Invasion, 1250–1276_. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0720-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: HANGZHOU _ (category)

_ Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia _ article _HANG-CHOW _.

* Hangzhou
Hangzhou
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Government website * Arts Crafts Museum Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in Google Cultural Institute * EN.GOTOHZ.COM – The Official Website of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Tourism Commission * TRAVELWESTLAKE – The Official Travel Guide of Hangzhou * TRAVELZHEJIANG – The Official Travel Guide of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province * Geographic data related to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Kaifeng
Kaifeng
CAPITAL OF CHINA (AS LIN\'AN) 1127–1279 Succeeded by Dadu (present Beijing
Beijing
)

* v * t * e

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
topics

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(capital )

GENERAL

* History

.