HANGZHOU ( ( listen )), formerly romanized as HANGCHOW, is the
capital and most populous city of
Zhejiang Province in east
It sits at the head of
Hangzhou Bay , which separates
Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the
Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous
China for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site , immediately west of the city, is
amongst its best-known attraction.
Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core
Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China.
2010 Chinese census , the metropolitan area held 21.102
million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi). Hangzhou
prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015.
In September 2015,
Hangzhou was awarded the
2022 Asian Games . It
will be the third Chinese city to play host to the
Asian Games after
Beijing 1990 and
Guangzhou 2010 . Hangzhou, an emerging technology
hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba , also hosted the
G-20 summit in 2016.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early history
* 1.4 Yuan–Qing
* 1.5 Republican and Communist
* 2 Geography and climate
* 3 Administrative divisions
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones
* 5 Tourism
* 6 Religion
* 6.1 Scenic places near
* 6.2 Other religious buildings
* 6.3 Islam
* 6.4 Judaism
* 6.5 Christianity
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Language
* 7.2 Museum
* 7.3 Food
* 7.4 Arts
* 7.5 Specialty
* 8 Transportation
* 9 Education
* 9.1 Universities
* 9.2 Primary and secondary schools
* 10 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 11 Chinese sayings
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
Timeline of Hangzhou history _ A ceremonial jade bi_
Liangzhu culture Xiangji Temple was built in 978 AD
Northern Song Dynasty Statue of
Su Shi at the end
Causeway at the
The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited
Yuyao , 100 km (62 mi) north-east of Ulumuqi, as far back as seven
thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was first
cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established that the
Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just northwest
of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city
around five thousand years ago. The first of Hangzhou's present
neighborhoods to appear in written records was
Yuhang , which probably
preserves an old
Hangzhou was made the seat of the _zhou _ (very roughly, "county") of
Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two
years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities
Fuzhou , the city took on the name of the area it
administered and became known as Hangzhou.
Hangzhou was at the
southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The
canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.
Tang dynasty ,
Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou.
Already an accomplished and famous poet, his deeds at
led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the
farmland nearby depended on the water of
West Lake , but due to the
negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the
lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe
drought . He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke,
with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for
irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local
Hangzhou improved over the following years.
Bai Juyi used
his leisure time to enjoy the beauty of West Lake, visiting it almost
daily. He also ordered the construction of a causeway connecting
Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of
requiring a boat. He then had willows and other trees planted along
the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. This causeway was later
named "Bai Causeway", in his honor.
It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of
China . It was
first the capital of the
Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five
Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period . Named XIFU at the time, it was
one of the three great bastions of culture in southern
the tenth century, along with
Chengdu . Leaders of Wuyue
were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple
architecture and artwork.
Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center,
drawing scholars from throughout
China and conducting diplomacy with
neighboring Chinese states, and also with
Korea , and the
Liao dynasty .
In 1089, while another renowned poet
Su Shi (Su Dongpo) was the
city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7
mi) long causeway across West Lake, which the Qianlong Emperor
considered particularly attractive in the early morning of the spring
time. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt
then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in
the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed
its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving
into a marshland. The Su
Causeway built by
Su Shi , and the Bai
Causeway built by
Bai Juyi , a
Tang dynasty poet who was once the
governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake
bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western
Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the
Hangzhou depicted in a French illumination from 1412
Arab merchants lived in
Hangzhou during the
Song dynasty , due to the
fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land
trade during this time. There were also Arabic inscriptions from the
13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan
dynasty , Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their
traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols. The
Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to
Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou
in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city sat on a
beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills. During his
stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of
well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails
and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai,
Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn
Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers .
Hupao ("Dreaming of the Tiger") Spring in
Pavilion by the
West Lake "Lotus in the Breeze at the Winding
Courtyard", one of the Ten Scenes of the
Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the
Southern Song dynasty
in 1132, when most of northern
China had been conquered by the
Jurchens in the
Jin–Song wars . The Song court had retreated south
from its original capital in
Kaifeng after it was captured by the
Jurchens in the
Jingkang Incident of 1127, moving to Nanjing, then
Shangqiu , then to
Yangzhou in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou
in 1129. The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital,
but over the decades
Hangzhou grew into a major commercial and
cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city
of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most
prosperous. Once the prospect of retaking northern
diminished, government buildings in
Hangzhou were extended and
renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital.
The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133
with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace
From the early 12th century until the
Mongol invasion of 1276,
Hangzhou remained the capital and was known as LIN\'AN (臨安). It
served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and
entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service
. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese
civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north
was taken by the Jin , an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens .
Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including
some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as
Su Shi ,
Lu You , and
Xin Qiji came here to live and die.
Hangzhou is also the
birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo
(1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the
Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of
refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and
military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase
and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts.
According to the _
Encyclopædia Britannica _,
Hangzhou had a
population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques
Gernet has estimated that the population of
Hangzhou numbered well
over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the
year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably
failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that
Hangzhou was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from
1348 to 1358.
Because of the large population and densely crowded (often
multi-story) wooden buildings,
Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to
fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in
1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred
nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed
30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an
elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a
system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the
flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers
with the task of putting out fire.
The city of
Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing
Mongol armies of
Kublai Khan in 1276, three years before the final
collapse of the empire. The capital of the new
Yuan Dynasty was
established in the city of Dadu (
The Venetian merchant
Marco Polo supposedly visited
Hangzhou in the
late 13th century. In his book , he records that the city was "greater
than any in the world". He called the city QUINSAI, a name
Odoric of Pordenone 's CANSAY—derived from its Southern
Song nickname XINGZAI, meaning "Temporary Residence".
Marco Polo wrote
of the city: "The number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount
of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man
could form a just estimate thereof." Polo may have exaggerated,
describing the city as over one hundred miles in diameter (although if
he had meant Chinese mile it would be smaller at 3/8 of the
measurement in Italian mile and more plausible), and had 12,000 stone
bridges, although some argued that this may have been a mistake and
exaggeration by a copyist who turned the "12 gates" of the city into
"12,000 bridges". The renowned 14th-century Moroccan explorer Ibn
Battuta said it was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of
The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming
dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing , it was
the site of an imperial army garrison. An area map of Hangzhou
In 1856 and 1860, the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied
caused heavy damage to the city.
REPUBLICAN AND COMMUNIST CHINA
Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of
China government under the
Kuomintang from 1928 to 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People\'s Liberation
Hangzhou and the city came under Communist control. After
Deng Xiaoping 's reformist policies began in 1978,
advantage of being situated in the
Yangtze River Delta to bolster its
development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
73 8 2
84 9 3
138 14 6
127 21 12
147 26 17
231 29 21
159 33 25
156 32 25
145 28 20
87 23 15
60 17 9
47 11 3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
China Meteorological Administration_
2.9 46 35
3.3 49 37
5.4 57 44
5 69 54
5.8 78 63
9.1 83 70
6.3 91 77
6.1 90 76
5.7 82 69
3.4 73 59
2.4 62 48
1.9 52 38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Hangzhou Bay from the
Hangzhou Bay Bridge Tidal
bore at the
Qiantang River in
Hangzhou is located in northwestern
Zhejiang province, at the
southern end of the Grand Canal of
China , which runs to
Beijing , in
the south-central portion of the
Yangtze River Delta . Its
administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the
mountainous parts of
Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain
Hangzhou Bay . The city center is built around the eastern and
northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the
Qiantang River .
Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen _Cfa_) with four
distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers
and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean
annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages
ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in
July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438.0 mm (56.6
in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In
late summer (August to September),
Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms,
but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall
along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong
winds and stormy rains. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6
°C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August
2013; unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C (13 °F), set on
29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on
10 August 1930. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from
30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of
CLIMATE DATA FOR HANGZHOU (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
MEAN MAXIMUM °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
MEAN MINIMUM °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System
The sub-provincial city of
Hangzhou comprises 9 districts , 2
county-level cities , and 2 counties . The six central urban districts
occupy 683 km2 (264 sq mi) and have 3,560,400 people. The three
suburban districts occupy 4,193 km2 (1,619 sq mi) and have 3,399,300
In the early 90s,
Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng,
In Dec. 12nd,1996, Bingjiang division was established.
In March 12, the City of Xiaoshan and the City of
Yuhang was included
into the City of
Hangzhou as two divisions.
In Dec. 13rd, 2014, the City of Fuyang was included into the City of
Hanghzou as a division.
1 2 3 4 JIANGGAN XIHU XIAOSHAN YUHANG FUYANG Tonglu
(city) 1. SHANGCHENG 2. XIACHENG 3. GONGSHU 4. BINJIANG
POPULATION (2010 )
Qianjiang CBD in
Hangzhou View of the night time Hangzhou
skyline from the
West Lake Alibaba 's Binjiang Campus in
Hangzhou, headquarters for Alibaba's B2B service Hangzhou
International Conference Center
Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in
1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light
industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important
manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China.
The 2001 GDP of
Hangzhou was RMB ¥156.8 billion, which ranked second
among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has
more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB ¥156.8
billion in 2001 to RMB ¥1.105 trillion in 2016 and GDP per capita
increasing from US$3,025 to US$18,282.
The city has developed many new industries, including medicine,
information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components,
household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine
chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.
ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES
Hangzhou Economic "> , HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software
developers and BPO enterprises. Major companies such as
Siemens have established R">
Hangzhou city gate in 1906
West Lake and
Hu Xueyan Residence, a
historic mansion in
Hangzhou Sunset Over the Qiantang
Hangzhou is renowned for its historic relics and natural beauty. It
is known as one of the most beautiful cities in China, also ranking as
one of the most scenic cities. Although
Hangzhou has been through many
recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and
cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for
Hangzhou's economy. One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West
Lake , a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site . The
West Lake Cultural Landscape
covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of
Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the
lake is a scenic area which includes historical pagodas, cultural
sites, as well as the natural beauty of the lake and hills, including
Phoenix Mountain . There are two causeways across the lake. Other
places of interest
* The world's largest tidal bore races up the
Qiantang River through
Hangzhou reaching up to 12 m (39 ft) in height.
* The residence of
Hu Xueyan (胡雪岩故居) located on Yuanbao
Street was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of
Anhui , a very
successful businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in
Xixi National Wetland Park . Established with the aim of
preserving the wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about
10 km2 (4 sq mi). Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and it
is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several historic
Hangzhou Botanical Garden
China Street on He Fang Street (_He Fang Jie_ or _Qing He
Fang_，literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers
various souvenirs and renowned
Longjing tea .
* Jade Springs (Yu Quan)
West Lake Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the
city centre (about 160 m (520 ft)) and houses the
History Museum and
Zhejiang Museum of Science and Technology.
Qiandao Lake is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands
in Chun'an County, an administrative area of
These islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive
* Grand Canal
Longjing tea fields, west of the lake.
In March 2013 the
Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online
campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next
year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the
hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a
press conference in
Hangzhou on 20 May 2014,
Liam Bates was announced
as the successful winner and won a €40,000 contract, being the first
foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an
View of the Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) area The
Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the
SCENIC PLACES NEAR WEST LAKE
Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake.
Lingyin Temple (Soul's Retreat) is located about 2 km (1.2 mi)
west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest Buddhist temple
in the city, which has gone through numerous destruction and
Baochu Pagoda is located just north of
West Lake on Precious Stone
Yue-Wang Temple (King Yue's Temple) or
Yue Fei Miao is on the
northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in
memory of General
Yue Fei , who lost his life due to political
Leifeng Pagoda , located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.
OTHER RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS
Liuhe Pagoda or six harmonies pagoda is located on Yuelun Hill on
the north bank of Qiantang River
* Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) located on Wushan (Wu Hill)
Dreaming of the Tiger Spring
Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou is one of the
Catholic churches in China, dating back 400 years to the Ming
* Fenghuang Temple (凤凰清真寺) is one of the oldest mosques in
China, the current construction at the intersection of Xihu Avenue
(西湖大道) and the Central
Zhongshan Road (中山中路) dates
back 700 years to the
Yuan dynasty .
In 1848, during the
Qing dynasty ,
Hangzhou was described as the
"stronghold" of Islam in
China , the city containing several mosques
with Arabic inscriptions. A Hui from
Ningbo also told an Englishman
that Hanzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in
containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of
around 30 families in
Ningbo for his mosque. Within the city of
Hangzhou are two notable mosques: the Great
Hangzhou and the
As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the
city was an important center of Chinese Jewry , and may have been the
original home of the better-known
Kaifeng Jewish community .
There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in
Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only
Jews known to exist in
China were in Kaifeng.
Two of the
Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou.
There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the
Longjing (Dragon Well Spring) in Hangzhou, famous for the
Longjing tea cultivated in the surrounding plantations Large
Guanyin and carved images of 150 Buddhist personalities in
the Grand Hall of the Great Sage in
The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of
Zhejiang and southern
Jiangsu , speak
Hangzhou dialect , which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu
Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence,
Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern
Jiangsu . As the official language defined by China's central
government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.
There are several museums located in
Hangzhou with regional and
(中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the
first state-level museums in
China and the largest silk museum in the
China National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national
museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang
Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated
human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected
Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of
Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight
fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's
natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender,
soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."
Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川),
West Lake Vinegar
Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp
(龙井虾仁), Beggar\'s Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork
Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots
(油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup
(宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's
There are lots of theaters in
Hangzhou showing performance of opera
Shaoxing opera , originated from Shengzhou,
is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big
shows themed with the history and culture of
Hangzhou like Impression
West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty.
Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou
is best known for originating Longjing , a notable variety of green
tea , the most notable type being
Xi Hu Long Jing . Known as the best
type of Long Jing tea,
Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village
Xi Hu in Hangzhou, hence its name.
The local government of
Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism
and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas ,
and Chinese hand-held folding fans .
Hangzhou Railway Station High-speed rail line in
Hangzhou city bus Buses and taxi on
Yan'an Road Bicycles for rent
Qiantang River Bridge
Hangzhou is served by the
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport ,
which provides direct service to many international destinations such
Japan , South
Portugal and the
United States .
Regional routes reach
Hong Kong and
Macau . It has an extensive
domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top
10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports.
International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B.
The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights
while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The
airport is located just outside the city in the
Xiaoshan District with
direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The
ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway
and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the
fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air
China . A
new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of
the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The
second phase of
Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the
Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail
corridors in China. The city's main station is
Hangzhou East Railway
Station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest
rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the
High Speed CRH service to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and
beyond. The subway station beneath the rail complex building is a stop
Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent
Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from
6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between
Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early
morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH
high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route
complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in
China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The
Hangzhou Railway Station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese:
城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened
Direct trains link
Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including
12 daily services to
Beijing and more than 100 daily services to
Shanghai ; they reach as far as
Ürümqi . The
High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is
operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which
travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the
duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.
Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the
former east station), north, south, and west long-distance bus
stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within
Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.
Hangzhou has an efficient public transportation network, consisting
of a modern fleet of regular diesel bus, trolley bus , hybrid
diesel-electric bus and taxi. The first subway line entered into
service in late 2012.
Hangzhou is known for its extensive
Transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through
dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city.
Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets
have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city.
Hangzhou has an
extensive free public bike rental system , the
Hangzhou Public Bicycle
Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai
Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats , and tight regulations. In early 2011,
30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were
and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte
Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the
roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200
electric taxis by the end of 2011. In 2014, a large number of new
electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local
company which is famous for television it produced in the past) were
Hangzhou Metro began construction in March 2006, and the first
line opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects downtown Hangzhou
with suburban areas of the city from Xianghu to Wenze Road and
Linping. By June 2015, the southeast part of Line 2 (starts in
Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short
part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 most lines
are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (Xihu District)
and Line 4 (east of Bingjiang) are expected to be finished in 2016.
See also: List of universities in
Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education
institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang
Zhejiang University of Technology , and
University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and
Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns
with a cluster of several universities and colleges. Zhejiang
China Academy of Art (founded in 1928)
Hangzhou Dianzi University
Hangzhou Normal University (founded in 1908)
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University
Zhejiang Forestry University
Zhejiang Gongshang University (founded in 1911, the earliest
business school in
Zhejiang University of Science and Technology
Zhejiang International Studies University (also known as Zhejiang
Education Institute, founded in 1955 and started enrolling full-time
undergraduates in 1994, got its present name in 2010)
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University
Zhejiang Shuren University
Zhejiang University (founded in 1897), one of the top universities
in China. (
Project 985 ,
Project 211 ,
C9 League )
Zhejiang University City College
Zhejiang University of Technology (1953)
Zhejiang University of Media and Communications (1984)
_Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The most famous high schools in
Hangzhou west lake High School
Hangzhou High School (formerly
Hangzhou No. 1 Senior High School)
Hangzhou Foreign Language School
* High School Attached to
Zhejiang University (formerly
15 Senior High School)
* High School attached to
Hangzhou Normal university (formerly
Hangzhou No. 13 Senior High School)
Hangzhou No. 2 High School
Hangzhou No. 4 High School (formerly Yangzheng School, established
in 1899 by Lin Qi)
Hangzhou No. 7 High School
Hangzhou Xuejun High School
Hangzhou No. 9 High School
Hangzhou No. 11 High School
Hangzhou No. 14 High School
Hangzhou International School and the
Hangzhou Japanese School
(杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakko ) serve the local expat
population in Hangzhou.
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Hangzhou is twinned with:
Fishers, Indiana is in the exploration process of becoming sister
cities with Hangzhou.
Chinese garden 's window in Hangzhou. It is a common
technique for the view to resemble a
Chinese painting . A
typical Chinese style architecture in
A common Chinese saying about
Suzhou is: _"Paradise
Hangzhou below."_ (simplified Chinese: 上有天堂,
下有苏杭; traditional Chinese: 上有天堂, 下有蘇杭)
This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on
Marco Polo in his accounts described
Suzhou as "the city of
the earth" while
Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". The city presented
itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city
Another popular saying about
Hangzhou is: _"Be born in
Suzhou , live
in Hangzhou, eat in
Guangzhou , die in
Liuzhou ."_ (simplified
Chinese: 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州;
traditional Chinese: 生在蘇州, 活在杭州, 吃在廣州,
The meaning here lies in the fact that
Suzhou was renowned for its
beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens,
Hangzhou for its
Guangzhou for its food, and
Guangxi ) for its
wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely
made from the camphor tree).
* Historical capitals of
* List of cities in the People\'s Republic of
China by population
Suzhou numerals – in the
Unicode standard version 3.0, these
characters are incorrectly named
Hangzhou style numerals
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* _ This article incorporates text from_ The Middle kingdom: a
survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..._, by Samuel
Wells Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in
the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ The middle kingdom: a
survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts,
religion, etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2_,
by Samuel Wells Williams, John William Orr, a publication from 1848
now in the public domain in the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ The Chinese repository,
Volume 13_, a publication from 1844 now in the public domain in the
* _ This article incorporates text from_ The Baptist missionary
magazine, Volume 29_, by American Baptist Missionary Union. Executive
Committee, Baptist General Convention. Board of Managers, a
publication from 1849 now in the public domain in the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ My holidays in China: An
account of three houseboat tours, from
Shanghai to Hangehow and back
via Ningpo; from
Shanghai to Le Yang via Soochow and the Tah Hu; and
from Kiukiang to Wuhu; with twenty-six illustrations (from
photographs)_, by William R. Kahler, a publication from 1895 now in
the public domain in the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ Reports from the consuls of
the United States, Issues 124–127_, by United States. Bureau of
Foreign Commerce, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in
the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ Memoirs of the Rev. Walter
M. Lowrie: missionary to China_, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian
church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from
1854 now in the public domain in the United States._
* _ This article incorporates text from_ Darkness in the flowery
land: or, Religious notions and popular superstitions in north China_,
by Michael Simpson Culbertson, a publication from 1857 now in the
public domain in the United States._
* Economic profile for
Hangzhou at HKTDC
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Cotterell, Arthur (2007). _The Imperial Capitals of
China – An
Inside View of the Celestial Empire_. London: Pimlico. p. 304. ISBN
* Gernet, Jacques (1962). _Daily Life in
China on the Eve of the
Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276_. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 0-8047-0720-0 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: HANGZHOU _ (category)
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia
_ article _HANG-CHOW _.
Hangzhou travel guide from Wikivoyage
Hangzhou Government website
* Arts Crafts Museum
Hangzhou in Google Cultural Institute
* EN.GOTOHZ.COM – The Official Website of
* TRAVELWESTLAKE – The Official Travel Guide of Hangzhou
* TRAVELZHEJIANG – The Official Travel Guide of
* Geographic data related to
Kaifeng CAPITAL OF CHINA (AS LIN\'AN)
1127–1279 Succeeded by
Hangzhou (capital )