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Hangul
Hangul
(/ˈhɑːnˌɡuːl/ HAHN-gool;[1] from Korean hangeul 한글 [ha(ː)n.ɡɯl]) is the Korean alphabet. It has been used to write the Korean language
Korean language
since its creation in the 15th century under Sejong the Great.[2][3] It is the official writing system of South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County
Changbai Korean Autonomous County
in Jilin
Jilin
Province, China. It is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language
Cia-Cia language
spoken near the town of Bau-Bau, Indonesia. The alphabet consists of 19 consonants and 21 vowels. Hangul
Hangul
letters are grouped into syllabic blocks, vertically and horizontally. For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ.[4] As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, Hangul
Hangul
has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists.[5][6] As in traditional Chinese writing, Hangul
Hangul
texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, and are occasionally still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, Hangul
Hangul
is typically written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation.[7] Some linguists consider Hangul
Hangul
the most logical writing system in the world, partly because the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant.[5][7][8]

Contents

1 Names

1.1 Official names 1.2 Other names

2 History

2.1 Creation 2.2 Opposition 2.3 Revival 2.4 Reforms and Japanese rule 2.5 Further reforms 2.6 Contemporary use

3 Letters

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels

4 Alphabetic order

4.1 Historical orders 4.2 South Korean order 4.3 North Korean order

5 Letter names

5.1 In South Korea 5.2 In North Korea

6 Stroke order 7 Letter design

7.1 Consonant
Consonant
design 7.2 Vowel
Vowel
design

7.2.1 Simple vowels 7.2.2 Compound vowels 7.2.3 Iotized vowels 7.2.4 Traditional account 7.2.5 Ledyard's theory of consonant design

8 Obsolete letters

8.1 Most common

9 Restored letters 10 Unicode 11 Morpho-syllabic blocks

11.1 Letter placement within a block 11.2 Block shape 11.3 Linear Hangul

12 Orthography

12.1 Mixed scripts

13 Readability 14 Style 15 See also 16 Notes 17 Citations 18 References 19 External links

Names[edit] Official names[edit]

Korean name (South Korea)

Hangul 한글

Revised Romanization Han(-)geul

McCune–Reischauer Han'gŭl[9]

IPA [ha(ː)n.ɡɯl]

Korean name (North Korea)

Chosŏn'gŭl 조선글

Hancha 朝鮮-

Revised Romanization Joseon(-)geul

McCune–Reischauer Chosŏn'gŭl

IPA [tso.sɔn.ɡɯl]

The word Hangeul, written in Hangul

The Korean alphabet was originally called Hunminjeongeum (훈민정음), after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446.[10] Today, South Koreans call the Korean alphabet Hangeul (한글), a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912. The name combines the archaic Korean word han (한), meaning "great", and geul (글), meaning "script". The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name could also be interpreted to mean "Korean script".[11] It has been romanized in multiple ways:

Hangeul or Han-geul in the Revised Romanization
Romanization
of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
system. When used as an English word, it is often rendered without the diacritics, hangul, and it is often capitalized as Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hankul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies.

North Koreans call the Korean alphabet Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea.[12] Other names[edit] Until the early 20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(Hanja). They referred to Hanja
Hanja
as jinseo (진서) or "true letters". Meanwhile, some accounts say they referred to Hangul
Hangul
derisively as amkeul (암클) meaning "women's script", and ahaetgeul (아햇글) meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.[13] Supporters of Hangul
Hangul
referred to it as jeong-eum (정음) meaning "correct pronunciation", gungmun (국문) meaning "national script", and eonmun (언문) meaning "vernacular script".[13] History[edit] See also: Origin of Hangul Creation[edit] Before the creation of Hangul, Koreans primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including Idu, Hyangchal, Gugyeol
Gugyeol
and Gakpil.[14][15][16][17] However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate.[18] To promote literacy among the common people, Sejong the Great, the fourth king of the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, created and promulgated a new alphabet.[18][19] Hangul
Hangul
was designed so that even people with little education could learn to read and write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; even a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days."[20]

A page from the Hunmin Jeong-eum Eonhae. The Hangul-only column, third from the left (나랏말ᄊᆞ미), has pitch-accent diacritics to the left of the syllable blocks.

The project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, and described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
("The Proper Sounds for the Education of the People"), after which the alphabet itself was originally named.[13] The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day
Hangul Day
in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. A 1446 document titled Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
Haerye ("Hunminjeongeum Explanation and Examples") was discovered in 1940. This document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. Opposition[edit] Hangul
Hangul
faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri
Choe Manri
and other Korean Confucian
Korean Confucian
scholars. They believed Chinese characters, or Hanja
Hanja
as they are known in Korean, was the only legitimate writing system. They may have also seen Hangul
Hangul
as a threat to their status.[18] However, Hangul
Hangul
entered popular culture as Sejong had intended, being used especially by women and writers of popular fiction.[21] The prevalence of Hangul
Hangul
among the uneducated was widespread enough that King Yeonsangun forbade the study or use of Hangul
Hangul
and banned Hangul
Hangul
documents in 1504,[22] and King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul
Hangul
research, in 1506.[23] Revival[edit] The late 16th century, however, saw a revival of Hangul, with gasa and sijo poetry flourishing. In the 17th century, Hangul
Hangul
novels became a major genre.[24] By this point, spelling had become quite irregular.[21] In 1796, the Dutch scholar Isaac Titsingh
Isaac Titsingh
in 1796 brought a book written in Hangul
Hangul
to the West for the first time. His small library included the Japanese book, Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (An Illustrated Description of Three Countries) by Hayashi Shihei.[25] This book, which was published in 1785, described the Joseon
Joseon
Kingdom[26] and Hangul.[27] In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.[28] Because of growing Korean nationalism
Korean nationalism
in the 19th century, the Gabo Reformists' push, and the promotion of Hangul
Hangul
in schools and literature by Western missionaries,[29] Hangul
Hangul
was adopted in official documents for the first time in 1894.[22] Elementary school texts began using Hangul
Hangul
in 1895, and Tongnip Sinmun, established in 1896, was the first newspaper printed in both Hangul
Hangul
and English.[30] Reforms and Japanese rule[edit] During Japanese forced occupation, which began in 1910, Japanese became the official language of Korea. However, Hangul
Hangul
was still taught in Korean-established schools built after the annexation and Korean was written in a mixed Hanja- Hangul
Hangul
script, where most lexical roots were written in Hanja
Hanja
and grammatical forms in Hangul. Japan banned earlier Korean literature and public schooling became mandatory for children. Hangul orthography was partially standardized in 1912, when the vowel "arae (ㆍ)"–which is unused in modern Hangul–was restricted to Sino-Korean roots; the emphatic consonants were standardized to ㅺ, ㅼ, ㅽ, ㅆ, and ㅾ; and final consonants restricted to ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㄺ, ㄻ, and ㄼ. Long vowels were marked by a diacritic dot to the left of the syllable, but this was dropped in 1921.[21] A second colonial reform occurred in 1930. The vowel "arae" was abolished; the emphatic consonants were changed to ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, and ㅉ; more final consonants (ㄷ, ㅈ, ㅌ, ㅊ, ㅍ, ㄲ, ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄾ, ㄿ, and ㅄ) were allowed, making the orthography more morphophonemic;
was written alone (without a vowel) when it occurred between nouns; and the nominative particle 가 was introduced after vowels, replacing ㅣ.[21] Ju Si-gyeong, the linguist who had coined the term Hangul
Hangul
or "Great Script" to replace Eonmun or "Vulgar Script" in 1912, established the Korean Language Research Society (later renamed the Hangul
Hangul
Society), which further reformed orthography with Standardized System of Hangul in 1933. The principal change was to make Hangul
Hangul
as morphophonemic as practical given the existing letters.[21] A system for transliterating foreign orthographies was published in 1940. However, Japan banned the Korean language
Korean language
from schools in 1938 as part of a policy of cultural assimilation,[31] and all Korean-language publications were outlawed in 1941.[32] Further reforms[edit] The definitive modern Hangul orthography was published in 1946, just after Korean independence from Japanese rule. In 1948, North Korea attempted to make the script perfectly morphophonemic through the addition of new letters, and in 1953, Syngman Rhee
Syngman Rhee
in South Korea attempted to simplify the orthography by returning to the colonial orthography of 1921, but both reforms were abandoned after only a few years.[21] Both South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea
North Korea
have used Hangul
Hangul
or mixed script as their official writing system, with ever-decreasing use of Hanja. Beginning in the 1970s, Hanja
Hanja
began to experience a gradual decline in commercial or unofficial writing in the South due to government intervention, with some South Korean newspapers now only using Hanja as abbreviations or disambiguation of homonyms. There has been widespread debate as to the future of Hanja
Hanja
in South Korea. North Korea instated Hangul
Hangul
as its exclusive writing system in 1949, and banned the use of Hanja
Hanja
completely. Contemporary use[edit]

An elementary school sign in Baubau written in Indonesian and Korean

While both North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
claim 99 percent literacy, a 2003 study found that 25 percent of those in the older generation in the South were not completely literate in Hangul.[33] The Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
Society in Seoul attempts to spread the use of Hangul
Hangul
to unwritten languages of Asia.[34] In 2009, Hangul
Hangul
was unofficially adopted by the town of Bau-Bau, in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, to write the Cia-Cia language.[35][36][37] A number of Indonesian Cia-Cia speakers who visited Seoul generated large media attention in South Korea, and they were greeted on their arrival by Oh Se-hoon, the mayor of Seoul.[38] It was confirmed in October 2012 that the attempts to disseminate Hangul
Hangul
in Indonesia
Indonesia
failed.[39] Some people continue to use Hangul
Hangul
at home or co-officially. Letters[edit] See also: Hangul
Hangul
consonant and vowel tables Hangul
Hangul
letters are called "jamo (자모)". There are 19 consonants and 21 vowels used in modern Hangul. Consonants[edit]

Hangul
Hangul
letters and pronunciation guide.

The following consonants are used in modern Hangul:

9 plain consonants: ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㅈ 5 tense consonants: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ 5 aspirated consonants: ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ

The chart below shows all 19 consonants in South Korean alphabetic order with Revised Romanization
Romanization
equivalents for each letter. Hangul consonants may sound differently depending on whether they are the initial or final letter in a syllable. Some consonants only appear in either the initial or final position in a syllable.

Letters (Revised Romanization) ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ

Initial g kk n d tt r m b pp s ss (silent) j jj ch k t p h

Final* k k n t – l m p – t t ng t – t k t p h

Assimilation: combination between preceding word final letter* (above row) pronounced as + following word initial letter** (below rows) pronounced as: (e.g. 강루 - kang+ru = kang+nu, 있어 - iss+eo = is-seo, -합니다 - -hap+ni+da = -ham-ni-da)

Following word Initial letter** ㅇ(ng) g kk+h n t - r m p - s ss ng+h t+ch - t+ch k+h t+h p+h h

ㅎ(h) k kk+h h t - l h p - t - n t - t k t p -

ㄱ(k) k+k

n+g t+g - l+g m+g b+g - t+g - ng+g t+g - t+g

t+g p+g h+k

ㄴ(n) g+n

- l+n m+n m+n - t+n n+n ng+n t+n - t+n

t+n p+n h+n

ㄷ(d) k+d

n+d t+t - l+d m+d p+d - t+t t+t ng+d t+t - t+t k+d t+t p+d h+t

ㄹ(r) g+n

l+l

- l+l m+n m+n -

- n

-

r

ㅁ(m) g+m

n+m t+m - l+m m+m m+m - t+m - ng+m t+m - t+m k+d t+m p+m h+m

ㅂ(b) g+b

-

p+p - t+b -

-

(s)

-

t+ch

ㅈ(j)

t+ch

Hangul
Hangul
consonants can be combined into 11 consonant clusters, which always appear in the final position in a syllable. They are: ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄽ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, and ㅄ. Vowels[edit] The chart below shows the 21 vowels used modern Hangul
Hangul
in South Korean alphabetic order with Revised Romanization
Romanization
equivalents for each letter. Linguists disagree on the number of phonemes versus diphthongs among Hangul
Hangul
vowels.[40]

Letters ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ

Revised Romanization a ae ya yae eo e yeo ye o wa wae oe yo u wo we wi yu eu ui i

Special
Special
case for ㅅ(s) on pronunciation

시 shi (not "si")

Alphabetic order[edit] Hangul
Hangul
alphabetic order is called the ganada order, (가나다 순) after the first three letters of the alphabet. The alphabetical order of Hangul
Hangul
does not mix consonants and vowels. Rather, first are velar consonants, then coronals, labials, sibilants, etc. The vowels come after the consonants. Historical orders[edit] The order from the Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
in 1446 was:

ㅿ ㆍ

In 1527, Choe Sejin
Choe Sejin
reorganized the alphabet:

This is the basis of the modern alphabetic orders. It was before the development of the Korean tense consonants and the double letters that represent them, and before the conflation of the letters (null) and ㆁ (ng). Thus, when the South Korean and North Korean governments implemented full use of Hangul, they ordered these letters differently, with South Korea
South Korea
grouping similar letters together, and North Korea
North Korea
placing new letters at the end of the alphabet. South Korean order[edit] In the Southern order, double letters are placed immediately after their single counterparts:






The modern monophthongal vowels come first, with the derived forms interspersed according to their form: i is added first, then iotized, then iotized with added i. Diphthongs beginning with w are ordered according to their spelling, as or plus a second vowel, not as separate digraphs. The order of the final letters (받침) is:

(none)












("None" means there is no final letter.) Every syllable begins with a consonant (or the silent ㅇ) that is followed by a vowel (e.g. + = 다). Some syllables such as "달" and "닭" have a final consonant or final consonant cluster (받침). Then, 399 combinations are possible for "two-letter syllables" and 10,773 possible combinations for syllables with more than two "letters" (27 possible final endings), for a total of 11,172 possible combinations of Hangul
Hangul
"letters" to form syllables. North Korean order[edit] North Korea
North Korea
maintains a more traditional order. The new, double, letters are placed at the end of the consonants, just before the null ㅇ, so as not to alter the traditional order of the rest of the alphabet.





All digraphs and trigraphs, including the old diphthongs and ㅔ, are placed after the simple vowels, again maintaining Choe's alphabetic order. The order of the final letters is:

(none)











Unlike when it is initial, this is pronounced, as the nasal ㅇ ng, which occurs only as a final in the modern language. The double letters are placed to the very end, as in the initial order, but the combined consonants are ordered immediately after their first element. Letter names[edit]

Korean consonants

Korean vowels

Hangul
Hangul
letters were named by Korean linguist Choe Sejin
Choe Sejin
in 1527. South Korea uses Choe's traditional names, most of which follow the format of letter + i + eu + letter. Originally, Choi gave ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and the irregular one-syllable names of ji, chi, ki, ti, pi, and hi, because they should not be used as final consonants, as specified in Hunmineongeum. However, after establishment of the new orthography in 1933, which let all consonants be used as finals, the names changed to the present forms. North Korea
North Korea
regularized the names when it made Hangul
Hangul
its official orthography. In South Korea[edit] The chart below shows names used in South Korea
South Korea
for Hangul
Hangul
consonants. The letters are arranged in the South Korean alphabetic order, and the letter names are romanized in the Revised Romanization
Romanization
system, which is the official romanization system of South Korea.

Consonant ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ

Name 기역 쌍기역 니은 디귿 쌍디귿 리을 미음 비읍 쌍비읍 시옷 쌍시옷 이응 지읒 쌍지읒 치읓 키읔 티읕 피읖 히읗

RR giyeok ssanggiyeok nieun digeut ssangdigeut rieul mieum bieup ssangbieup siot ssangsiot ieung jieut ssangjieut chieut kieuk tieut pieup hieut

The names of Hangul
Hangul
vowels are the same as the sound of each vowel and are written in the format of + vowel. For example becomes 아, with the initial being silent. In North Korea[edit] The chart below shows names used in North Korea
North Korea
for Hangul
Hangul
consonants. The letters are arranged in North Korean alphabetic order, and the letter names are romanized with the McCune-Reischauer
McCune-Reischauer
system, which is widely used in North Korea.

Consonant ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ ㅆ ㅇ ㅉ

Name 기윽 니은 디읃 리을 미음 비읍 시읏 지읒 치읓 키읔 티읕 피읖 히읗 된기윽 된디읃 된비읍 된시읏 이응 된지읒

McCR kiŭk niŭn tiŭt riŭl miŭm piŭp siŭt chiŭt ch'iŭt k'iŭk t'iŭt p'iŭp hiŭt toen'giŭk toendiŭt toenbiŭp toensiŭt iŭng toenjiŭt

In North Korea, an alternative way to refer to a consonant is letter + ŭ (ㅡ), for example, kŭ (그) for the letter ㄱ, and ssŭ (쓰) for the letter ㅆ. As in South Korea, the names of Hangul
Hangul
vowels are the same as the sound of each vowel. Stroke order[edit] Hangul
Hangul
letters have adopted certain rules of Chinese calligraphy, although and use a circle, which is not used in printed Chinese characters.

(giyeok 기역)

(nieun 니은)

(digeut 디귿)

(rieul 리을)

(mieum 미음)

(bieup 비읍)

(siot 시옷)

(ieung 이응)

(jieut 지읒)

(chieut 치읓)

(kieuk 키읔)

(tieut 티읕)

(pieup 피읖)

(hieut 히읗)

(a)

(ae)

(eo)

(e)

(o)

(u)

(eu)

For the iotized vowels, which are not shown, the short stroke is simply doubled. Letter design[edit]

Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

v t e

Scripts typically transcribe languages at the level of morphemes (logographic scripts like Hanja), of syllables (syllabaries like kana), of segments (alphabetic scripts like the Latin script
Latin script
used to write English and many other languages), or, on occasion, of distinctive features. Hangul
Hangul
incorporates aspects of the latter three, grouping sounds into syllables, using distinct symbols for segments, and in some cases using distinct strokes to indicate distinctive features such as place of articulation (labial, coronal, velar, or glottal) and manner of articulation (plosive, nasal, sibilant, aspiration) for consonants, and iotation (a preceding i-sound), harmonic class and i-mutation for vowels. For instance, the consonant t [tʰ] is composed of three strokes, each one meaningful: the top stroke indicates is a plosive, like ㆆ ʔ, g, d, j, which have the same stroke (the last is an affricate, a plosive–fricative sequence); the middle stroke indicates that is aspirated, like h, k, ch, which also have this stroke; and the bottom stroke indicates that is alveolar, like n, d, and l. (This element is said to represent the shape of the tongue when pronouncing coronal consonants, though this is not certain.) Two consonants, ㆁ and ㅱ, have dual pronunciations, and appear to be composed of two elements corresponding to these two pronunciations: [ŋ]~silence for ㆁ and [m]~[w] for obsolete ㅱ. With vowel letters, a short stroke connected to the main line of the letter indicates that this is one of the vowels that can be iotated; this stroke is then doubled when the vowel is iotated. The position of the stroke indicates which harmonic class the vowel belongs to, "light" (top or right) or "dark" (bottom or left). In the modern alphabet, an additional vertical stroke indicates i-mutation, deriving [ɛ], [e], [ø], and [y] from [a], [ʌ], ㅗ [o], and [u]. However, this is not part of the intentional design of the script, but rather a natural development from what were originally diphthongs ending in the vowel [i]. Indeed, in many Korean dialects,[citation needed] including the standard dialect of Seoul, some of these may still be diphthongs. Some linguists have praised Hangul
Hangul
for its featural design, describing it as "remarkable",[41] and "brilliant, so deliberately does it fit the language like a glove".[42] Beyond the fact that the shapes of the letters are related to the features of the sounds they represent, Hangul
Hangul
attracts approval for the fact that vowels are made from vertical or horizontal lines so that they are easily distinguishable from consonants. Although the design of the script may be featural, for all practical purposes it behaves as an alphabet. The letter is not read as three letters alveolar aspirated plosive, for instance, but as a single consonant t. Likewise, the former diphthong is read as a single vowel e. Beside the letters, Hangul
Hangul
originally employed diacritic marks to indicate pitch accent. A syllable with a high pitch (거성) was marked with a dot (ᅟᅠ〮) to the left of it (when writing vertically); a syllable with a rising pitch (상성) was marked with a double dot, like a colon (ᅟᅠ〯). These are no longer used. Although vowel length is still phonemic in Korean, it is no longer written. Consonant
Consonant
design[edit] The consonant letters fall into five homorganic groups, each with a basic shape, and one or more letters derived from this shape by means of additional strokes. In the Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye account, the basic shapes iconically represent the articulations the tongue, palate, teeth, and throat take when making these sounds.

Simple Aspirated Tense

velar ㄱ ㅋ ㄲ

fricatives ㅅ

palatal ㅈ ㅊ ㅉ

coronal ㄷ ㅌ ㄸ

bilabial ㅂ ㅍ ㅃ

The Korean names for the groups are taken from Chinese phonetics:

Velar consonants (아음, 牙音 a-eum "molar sounds")

g [k], k [kʰ] Basic shape: is a side view of the back of the tongue raised toward the velum (soft palate). (For illustration, access the external link below.) is derived from with a stroke for the burst of aspiration.

Sibilant consonants (fricative or palatal) (치음, 齒音 chieum "dental sounds"):

s [s], j [tɕ], ch [tɕʰ] Basic shape: was originally shaped like a wedge ∧, without the serif on top. It represents a side view of the teeth. The line topping represents firm contact with the roof of the mouth. The stroke topping represents an additional burst of aspiration.

Coronal consonants (설음, 舌音 seoreum "lingual sounds"):

n [n], d [t], t [tʰ], r [ɾ, l] Basic shape: is a side view of the tip of the tongue raised toward the alveolar ridge (gum ridge). The letters derived from are pronounced with the same basic articulation. The line topping ㄷ represents firm contact with the roof of the mouth. The middle stroke of represents the burst of aspiration. The top of represents a flap of the tongue.

Bilabial consonants (순음, 唇音 suneum "labial sounds"):

m [m], b [p], p [pʰ] Basic shape: represents the outline of the lips in contact with each other. The top of represents the release burst of the b. The top stroke of is for the burst of aspiration.

Dorsal consonants (후음, 喉音 hueum "throat sounds"):

ng [ʔ, ŋ], h [h] Basic shape: is an outline of the throat. Originally was two letters, a simple circle for silence (null consonant), and a circle topped by a vertical line, ㆁ, for the nasal ng. A now obsolete letter, ㆆ, represented a glottal stop, which is pronounced in the throat and had closure represented by the top line, like ㄱㄷㅈ. Derived from ㆆ is ㅎ, in which the extra stroke represents a burst of aspiration.

Vowel
Vowel
design[edit]

A diagram showing the derivation of vowels in Hangul.

Vowel
Vowel
letters are based on three elements:

A horizontal line representing the flat Earth, the essence of yin. A point for the Sun in the heavens, the essence of yang. (This becomes a short stroke when written with a brush.) A vertical line for the upright Human, the neutral mediator between the Heaven and Earth.

Short strokes (dots in the earliest documents) were added to these three basic elements to derive the vowel letter: Simple vowels[edit]

Horizontal letters: these are mid-high back vowels.

bright o dark u neutral eu (ŭ)

Vertical letters: these were once low vowels.

bright a dark eo (ŏ) neutral i

Compound vowels[edit] Hangul
Hangul
never had a w, except for Sino-Korean etymology. Since an o or u before an a or eo became a [w] sound, and [w] occurred nowhere else, [w] could always be analyzed as a phonemic o or u, and no letter for [w] was needed. However, vowel harmony is observed: "dark" ㅜ u with "dark" ㅓ eo for wo; "bright" ㅗ o with "bright" ㅏ a for wa:

ㅘ wa = ㅗ o + ㅏ a ㅝ wo = ㅜ u + ㅓ eo ㅙ wae = ㅗ o + ㅐ ae ㅞ we = ㅜ u + ㅔ e

The compound vowels ending in i were originally diphthongs. However, several have since evolved into pure vowels:

ㅐ ae = ㅏ a + ㅣ i (pronounced [ɛ]) ㅔ e = ㅓ eo + ㅣ i (pronounced [e]) ㅙ wae = ㅘ wa + ㅣ i ㅚ oe = ㅗ o + ㅣ i (formerly pronounced [ø], see Korean phonology) ㅞ we = ㅝ wo + ㅣ i ㅟ wi = ㅜ u + ㅣ i (formerly pronounced [y], see Korean phonology) ㅢ ui = ㅡ eu + ㅣ i

Iotized vowels[edit] There is no letter for y. Instead, this sound is indicated by doubling the stroke attached to the baseline of the vowel letter. Of the seven basic vowels, four could be preceded by a y sound, and these four were written as a dot next to a line. (Through the influence of Chinese calligraphy, the dots soon became connected to the line: ㅓㅏㅜㅗ.) A preceding y sound, called "iotation", was indicated by doubling this dot: ㅕㅑㅠ yeo, ya, yu, yo. The three vowels that could not be iotated were written with a single stroke: ㅡㆍㅣ eu, (arae a), i.

Simple Iotized

ㅏ ㅑ

ㅓ ㅕ

ㅗ ㅛ

ㅜ ㅠ

The simple iotated vowels are:

ㅑ ya from  a ㅕ yeo from  eo ㅛ yo from  o ㅠ yu from  u

There are also two iotated diphthongs:

ㅒ yae from  ae ㅖ ye from  e

The Korean language
Korean language
of the 15th century had vowel harmony to a greater extent than it does today. Vowels in grammatical morphemes changed according to their environment, falling into groups that "harmonized" with each other. This affected the morphology of the language, and Korean phonology
Korean phonology
described it in terms of yin and yang: If a root word had yang ('bright') vowels, then most suffixes attached to it also had to have yang vowels; conversely, if the root had yin ('dark') vowels, the suffixes had to be yin as well. There was a third harmonic group called "mediating" ('neutral' in Western terminology) that could coexist with either yin or yang vowels. The Korean neutral vowel was i. The yin vowels were ㅡㅜ eu, u, eo; the dots are in the yin directions of 'down' and 'left'. The yang vowels were ㆍㅗ ə, o, a, with the dots in the yang directions of 'up' and 'right'. The Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye states that the shapes of the non-dotted letters ㅡㆍ were chosen to represent the concepts of yin, yang, and mediation: Earth, Heaven, and Human. (The letter ㆍ ə is now obsolete except in the Jeju language.) The third parameter in designing the vowel letters was choosing as the graphic base of and ㅗ, and as the graphic base of ㅓ and ㅏ. A full understanding of what these horizontal and vertical groups had in common would require knowing the exact sound values these vowels had in the 15th century. The uncertainty is primarily with the three letters ㆍㅓㅏ. Some linguists reconstruct these as *a, *ɤ, *e, respectively; others as *ə, *e, *a. A third reconstruction is to make them all middle vowels as *ʌ, *ɤ, *a.[43] With the third reconstruction, Middle Korean vowels actually line up in a vowel harmony pattern, albeit with only one front vowel and four middle vowels:

  *i   *ɯ   *u

 

 ㆍ *ʌ   *o

  *a

However, the horizontal letters ㅡㅜ eu, u, o do all appear to have been mid to high back vowels, [*ɯ, *u, *o], and thus to have formed a coherent group phonetically in every reconstruction. Traditional account[edit] See also: Origin of Hangul The generally accepted account[nb 1][44] on the design of the letters is that the vowels are derived from various combinations of the following three components: ㆍ ㅣ. Here, ㆍ symbolically stands for the (sun in) heaven, stands for the (flat) earth, and ㅣ stands for an (upright) human. The original sequence of the Korean vowels, as stated in Hunminjeongeum, listed these three vowels first, followed by various combinations. Thus, the original order of the vowels was: ㆍ ㅕ. Note that two positive vowels ( ㅏ) including one ㆍ are followed by two negative vowels including one ㆍ, then by two positive vowels each including two of ㆍ, and then by two negative vowels each including two of ㆍ. The same theory provides the most simple explanation of the shapes of the consonants as an approximation of the shapes of the most representative organ needed to form that sound. The original order of the consonants in Hunmin Jeong-eum was: ㅿ. representing the /k/ sound geometrically describes a tongue just before the moment of pronunciation as the tongue blocks the passage of air. representing the /kʰ/ sound is derived from by adding another stroke. ㆁ representing the /ŋ/ sound may have been derived from by addition of a stroke. representing the /t/ sound is derived from by addition of a stroke. representing the /tʰ/ sound is derived from by adding another stroke. representing the /n/ sound geometrically describes a tongue making contact with an upper palate just before making the "n" sound. representing the /p/ sound is derived from by adding strokes. representing the /pʰ/ sound is a variant of ㅂ, which is obtained by rotating 90 degrees and extending the horizontal strokes. representing the /m/ sound geometrically describes a closed mouth before opening the lips. representing the /tɕ/ sound is derived from the shape of by adding strokes. representing the /tɕʰ/ sound is derived from by adding another stroke. representing the /s/ sound geometrically describes a near contact between the tongue and the teeth.[citation needed] ㆆ representing the /ʔ/ sound geometrically describes an open throat with a bar to indicate that there is an aspiration. representing the /h/ sound is derived from ㆆ with the extra stroke representing a stronger flow of the aspiration. representing the absence of a consonant geometrically describes an open mouth, which necessarily accompanies the following vowel. representing the /ɾ/ and /l/ sounds geometrically describes a backward-bending tongue. ㅿ representing a weak /z/ sound is also derived from the shape of the teeth, but has a different origin than ㅅ[clarification needed] and is not derived from by addition of a stroke. Ledyard's theory of consonant design[edit]

A close-up of the inscription on the statue of King Sejong above. It reads Sejong Daewang 세종대왕 and illustrates the forms of the letters originally promulgated by Sejong. Note the dots on the vowels, the geometric symmetry of s and j in the first two syllables, the asymmetrical lip at the top-left of the d in the third, and the distinction between initial and final ieung in the last.

(Top) 'Phags-pa letters [k, t, p, s, l], and their supposed Hangul derivatives [k, t, p, ts, l]. Note the lip on both 'Phags-pa [t] and Hangul
Hangul
ㄷ. (Bottom) Derivation of 'Phags-pa w, v, f from variants of the letter [h] (left) plus a subscript [w], and analogous composition of Hangul w, v, f from variants of the basic letter [p] plus a circle.

Although the Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye explains the design of the consonantal letters in terms of articulatory phonetics, as a purely innovative creation, several theories suggest which external sources may have inspired or influenced King Sejong's creation. Professor Gari Ledyard of Columbia University studied possible connections between Hangul
Hangul
and the Mongol 'Phags-pa script
'Phags-pa script
of the Yuan dynasty. He believed that the role of 'Phags-pa script
'Phags-pa script
in the creation of Hangul was quite limited:

It should be clear to any reader that in the total picture, that ['Phags-pa script's] role was quite limited ... Nothing would disturb me more, after this study is published, than to discover in a work on the history of writing a statement like the following: "According to recent investigations, the Korean alphabet was derived from the Mongol's phags-pa script."[45] An affine theory states that the consonants are derived from the shape of the speaker's lips and tongue during the pronunciation of the consonants (initially, at least), but this would appear somewhat to strain credulity.[46]

Ledyard posits that five of the Hangul
Hangul
letters have shapes inspired by 'Phags-pa; a sixth basic letter, the null initial ㅇ, was invented by Sejong. The rest of the letters were derived internally from these six, essentially as described in the Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye. However, the five borrowed consonants were not the graphically simplest letters considered basic by the Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye, but instead the consonants basic to Chinese phonology: ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, and ㄹ. The Hunmin Jeong-eum states that King Sejong adapted the 古篆 (gojeon, "Gǔ Seal Script") in creating Hangul. The 古篆 has never been identified. The primary meaning of 古 gǔ is "old" ("Old Seal Script"), frustrating philologists because Hangul
Hangul
bears no functional similarity to Chinese 篆字 zhuànzì seal scripts. However, Ledyard believes 古 gǔ may be a pun on 蒙古 Měnggǔ "Mongol", and that 古篆 is an abbreviation of 蒙古篆字 "Mongol Seal Script", that is, the formal variant of the 'Phags-pa alphabet written to look like the Chinese seal script. There were 'Phags-pa manuscripts in the Korean palace library, including some in the seal-script form, and several of Sejong's ministers knew the script well. If this was the case, Sejong's evasion on the Mongol connection can be understood in light of Korea's relationship with Ming China
China
after the fall of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and of the literati's contempt for the Mongols as "barbarians". According to Ledyard, the five borrowed letters were graphically simplified, which allowed for consonant clusters and left room to add a stroke to derive the aspirate plosives, ㅋㅌㅍㅊ. But in contrast to the traditional account, the non-plosives (ㆁ ㅁ ㅅ) were derived by removing the top of the basic letters. He points out that while it is easy to derive from by removing the top, it is not clear how to derive from in the traditional account, since the shape of is not analogous to those of the other plosives. The explanation of the letter ng also differs from the traditional account. Many Chinese words began with ng, but by King Sejong's day, initial ng was either silent or pronounced [ŋ] in China, and was silent when these words were borrowed into Korean. Also, the expected shape of ng (the short vertical line left by removing the top stroke of ㄱ) would have looked almost identical to the vowel [i]. Sejong's solution solved both problems: The vertical stroke left from was added to the null symbol to create ㆁ (a circle with a vertical line on top), iconically capturing both the pronunciation [ŋ] in the middle or end of a word, and the usual silence at the beginning. (The graphic distinction between null and ng ㆁ was eventually lost.) Another letter composed of two elements to represent two regional pronunciations was ㅱ, which transcribed the Chinese initial 微. This represented either m or w in various Chinese dialects, and was composed of [m] plus (from 'Phags-pa [w]). In 'Phags-pa, a loop under a letter represented w after vowels, and Ledyard hypothesized that this became the loop at the bottom of ㅱ. In 'Phags-pa the Chinese initial 微 is also transcribed as a compound with w, but in its case the w is placed under an h. Actually, the Chinese consonant series 微非敷 w, v, f is transcribed in 'Phags-pa by the addition of a w under three graphic variants of the letter for h, and Hangul
Hangul
parallels this convention by adding the w loop to the labial series ㅁㅂ m, b, p, producing now-obsolete ㅱㅸㆄ w, v, f. (Phonetic values in Korean are uncertain, as these consonants were only used to transcribe Chinese.) As a final piece of evidence, Ledyard notes that most of the borrowed Hangul
Hangul
letters were simple geometric shapes, at least originally, but that d [t] always had a small lip protruding from the upper left corner, just as the 'Phags-pa d [t] did. This lip can be traced back to the Tibetan letter d. Obsolete letters[edit]

Hankido, a martial arts, using the obsolete vowel arae-a (top)

Numerous obsolete Hangul
Hangul
letters and sequences are no longer used in Korean. Some of these letters were only ever used to represent the sounds of Chinese rime tables. Some of the Korean sounds represented by these obsolete letters still exist in some dialects.

13 obsolete consonants: ᄛ, ㅱ, ㅸ, ᄼ, ᄾ, ㅿ, ㆁ (as distinct from ㅇ), ᅎ, ᅐ, ᅔ, ᅕ, ㆄ, ㆆ 10 obsolete double consonants: ㅥ, ᄙ, ㅹ, ᄽ, ᄿ, ᅇ, ᇮ, ᅏ, ᅑ, ㆅ 66 obsolete clusters of two consonants: ᇃ, ᄓ, ㅦ, ᄖ, ㅧ, ㅨ, ᇉ, ᄗ, ᇋ, ᄘ, ㅪ, ㅬ, ᇘ, ㅭ, ᇚ, ᇛ, ㅮ, ㅯ, ㅰ, ᇠ, ᇡ, ㅲ, ᄟ, ㅳ, ᇣ, ㅶ, ᄨ, ㅷ, ᄪ, ᇥ, ㅺ, ㅻ, ㅼ, ᄰ, ᄱ, ㅽ, ᄵ, ㅾ, ᄷ, ᄸ, ᄹ, ᄺ, ᄻ, ᅁ, ᅂ, ᅃ, ᅄ, ᅅ, ᅆ, ᅈ, ᅉ, ᅊ, ᅋ, ᇬ, ᇭ, ㆂ, ㆃ, ᇯ, ᅍ, ᅒ, ᅓ, ᅖ, ᇵ, ᇶ, ᇷ, ᇸ 17 obsolete clusters of three consonants: ᇄ, ㅩ, ᇏ, ᇑ, ᇒ, ㅫ, ᇔ, ᇕ, ᇖ, ᇞ, ㅴ, ㅵ, ᄤ, ᄥ, ᄦ, ᄳ, ᄴ 1 obsolete vowel: ㆍ arae-a 44 obsolete diphthongs and vowel sequences: ᆜ, ᆝ, ᆢ, ᅷ, ᅸ, ᅹ, ᅺ, ᅻ, ᅼ, ᅽ, ᅾ, ᅿ, ᆀ, ᆁ, ᆂ, ᆃ, ㆇ, ㆈ, ᆆ, ᆇ, ㆉ, ᆉ, ᆊ, ᆋ, ᆌ, ᆍ, ᆎ, ᆏ, ᆐ, ㆊ, ㆋ, ᆓ, ㆌ, ᆕ, ᆖ, ᆗ, ᆘ, ᆙ, ᆚ, ᆛ, ᆟ, ᆠ, ㆎ

In the original Hangul
Hangul
system, double letters were used to represent Chinese voiced (濁音) consonants, which survive in the Shanghainese slack consonants and were not used for Korean words. It was only later that a similar convention was used to represent the modern "tense" (faucalized) consonants of Korean. The sibilant ("dental") consonants were modified to represent the two series of Chinese sibilants, alveolar and retroflex, a "round" vs. "sharp" distinction (analogous to s vs sh) which was never made in Korean, and was even being lost from southern Chinese. The alveolar letters had longer left stems, while retroflexes had longer right stems:

Original consonants ㅅ ㅆ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ

Chidueum (alveolar sibilant) ᄼ ᄽ ᅎ ᅏ ᅔ

Jeongchieum (retroflex sibilant) ᄾ ᄿ ᅐ ᅑ ᅕ

Most common[edit]

ㆍ ə (arae-a 아래아 "lower a"): Presumably pronounced [ʌ], similar to modern (eo). It is written as a dot, positioned beneath the consonant. The arae-a is not entirely obsolete, as it can be found in various brand names, and in the Jeju language, where it is pronounced [ɒ]. The ə formed a medial of its own, or was found in the diphthong ㆎ arae-ae, written with the dot under the consonant and (transcribed i) to its right, in the same fashion as or ㅢ. ㅿ z (bansiot 반시옷 "half s", banchieum 반치음): An unusual sound, perhaps IPA [ʝ̃] (a nasalized palatal fricative). Modern Korean words previously spelled with ㅿ substitute or ㅇ. ㆆ ʔ (yeorinhieut 여린히읗 "light hieut" or doenieung 된이응 "strong ieung"): A glottal stop, "lighter than and harsher than ㅇ". ㆁ ŋ (yesieung 옛이응): The original letter for [ŋ]; now conflated with ieung. (With some computer fonts such as Arial Unicode
Unicode
MS, yesieung is shown as a flattened version of ieung, but the correct form is with a long peak, longer than what one would see on a serif version of ieung.) ㅸ β (gabyeounbieup 가벼운비읍, sungyeongeumbieup 순경음비읍): IPA [f]. This letter appears to be a digraph of bieup and ieung, but it may be more complicated than that. There were three other, less-common letters for sounds in this section of the Chinese rime tables, ㅱ w ([w] or [m]), a theoretical ㆄ f, and ㅹ ff [v̤]; the bottom element appears to be only coincidentally similar to ieung. Whatever its exact shape, it operates somewhat like a following h in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
(one may think of these letters as bh, mh, ph, and pph respectively). Koreans do not distinguish these sounds now, if they ever did, conflating the fricatives with the corresponding plosives.

Restored letters[edit]

The words 놉니다, 흘렀다, 깨달으니, 지어, 고와, 왕, 가져서 written in New Orthography.

To make Hangul
Hangul
a perfect morphophonological fit to the Korean language, North Korea
North Korea
introduced six new letters, which were published in the New Orthography for the Korean Language
New Orthography for the Korean Language
and used officially from 1948 to 1954. Two obsolete letters were restored: ⟨ㅿ⟩ (리읃), which was used to indicate an alternation in pronunciation between initial /l/ and final /d/; and ⟨ㆆ⟩ (히으), which was only pronounced between vowels. Two modifications of the letter were introduced, one for a ㄹ, which is silent finally, and one for a ㄹ, which doubled between vowels. A hybrid ㅂ- letter was introduced for words that alternated between those two sounds (that is, a /b/, which became /w/ before a vowel). Finally, a vowel ⟨1⟩ was introduced for variable iotation. Unicode[edit] See also: List of Hangul
Hangul
jamo Main articles: Hangul Syllables ( Unicode
Unicode
block), Hangul
Hangul
Jamo (Unicode block), Hangul Jamo Extended-A ( Unicode
Unicode
block), Hangul
Hangul
Jamo Extended-B ( Unicode
Unicode
block), Hangul Compatibility Jamo ( Unicode
Unicode
block), Enclosed CJK Letters and Months, and Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms (Unicode block) Hangul
Hangul
Jamo (U+1100–U+11FF) and Hangul
Hangul
Compatibility Jamo (U+3130–U+318F) blocks were added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in June 1993 with the release of version 1.1. The characters were relocated to their present locations in July, 1996 with the release of version 2.0. Hangul Jamo Extended-A (U+A960–U+A97F) and Hangul
Hangul
Jamo Extended-B (U+D7B0–U+D7FF) blocks were added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

Hangul
Hangul
Jamo[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+110x ᄀ ᄁ ᄂ ᄃ ᄄ ᄅ ᄆ ᄇ ᄈ ᄉ ᄊ ᄋ ᄌ ᄍ ᄎ ᄏ

U+111x ᄐ ᄑ ᄒ ᄓ ᄔ ᄕ ᄖ ᄗ ᄘ ᄙ ᄚ ᄛ ᄜ ᄝ ᄞ ᄟ

U+112x ᄠ ᄡ ᄢ ᄣ ᄤ ᄥ ᄦ ᄧ ᄨ ᄩ ᄪ ᄫ ᄬ ᄭ ᄮ ᄯ

U+113x ᄰ ᄱ ᄲ ᄳ ᄴ ᄵ ᄶ ᄷ ᄸ ᄹ ᄺ ᄻ ᄼ ᄽ ᄾ ᄿ

U+114x ᅀ ᅁ ᅂ ᅃ ᅄ ᅅ ᅆ ᅇ ᅈ ᅉ ᅊ ᅋ ᅌ ᅍ ᅎ ᅏ

U+115x ᅐ ᅑ ᅒ ᅓ ᅔ ᅕ ᅖ ᅗ ᅘ ᅙ ᅚ ᅛ ᅜ ᅝ ᅞ  HC  F

U+116x  HJ  F ᅡ ᅢ ᅣ ᅤ ᅥ ᅦ ᅧ ᅨ ᅩ ᅪ ᅫ ᅬ ᅭ ᅮ ᅯ

U+117x ᅰ ᅱ ᅲ ᅳ ᅴ ᅵ ᅶ ᅷ ᅸ ᅹ ᅺ ᅻ ᅼ ᅽ ᅾ ᅿ

U+118x ᆀ ᆁ ᆂ ᆃ ᆄ ᆅ ᆆ ᆇ ᆈ ᆉ ᆊ ᆋ ᆌ ᆍ ᆎ ᆏ

U+119x ᆐ ᆑ ᆒ ᆓ ᆔ ᆕ ᆖ ᆗ ᆘ ᆙ ᆚ ᆛ ᆜ ᆝ ᆞ ᆟ

U+11Ax ᆠ ᆡ ᆢ ᆣ ᆤ ᆥ ᆦ ᆧ ᆨ ᆩ ᆪ ᆫ ᆬ ᆭ ᆮ ᆯ

U+11Bx ᆰ ᆱ ᆲ ᆳ ᆴ ᆵ ᆶ ᆷ ᆸ ᆹ ᆺ ᆻ ᆼ ᆽ ᆾ ᆿ

U+11Cx ᇀ ᇁ ᇂ ᇃ ᇄ ᇅ ᇆ ᇇ ᇈ ᇉ ᇊ ᇋ ᇌ ᇍ ᇎ ᇏ

U+11Dx ᇐ ᇑ ᇒ ᇓ ᇔ ᇕ ᇖ ᇗ ᇘ ᇙ ᇚ ᇛ ᇜ ᇝ ᇞ ᇟ

U+11Ex ᇠ ᇡ ᇢ ᇣ ᇤ ᇥ ᇦ ᇧ ᇨ ᇩ ᇪ ᇫ ᇬ ᇭ ᇮ ᇯ

U+11Fx ᇰ ᇱ ᇲ ᇳ ᇴ ᇵ ᇶ ᇷ ᇸ ᇹ ᇺ ᇻ ᇼ ᇽ ᇾ ᇿ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2. ᄀ: Hangul
Hangul
jamo with a green background are modern-usage characters which can be converted into precomposed Hangul
Hangul
syllables under Unicode
Unicode
normalization form NFC. Hangul
Hangul
jamo with a white background are used for archaic Korean only, and there are no corresponding precomposed Hangul
Hangul
syllables. "Conjoining Jamo Behavior" (PDF). The Unicode
Unicode
Standard (version 8.0). Retrieved 2016-02-05. 

Hangul
Hangul
Jamo Extended-A[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A96x ꥠ ꥡ ꥢ ꥣ ꥤ ꥥ ꥦ ꥧ ꥨ ꥩ ꥪ ꥫ ꥬ ꥭ ꥮ ꥯ

U+A97x ꥰ ꥱ ꥲ ꥳ ꥴ ꥵ ꥶ ꥷ ꥸ ꥹ ꥺ ꥻ ꥼ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Hangul
Hangul
Jamo Extended-B[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+D7Bx ힰ ힱ ힲ ힳ ힴ ힵ ힶ ힷ ힸ ힹ ힺ ힻ ힼ ힽ ힾ ힿ

U+D7Cx ퟀ ퟁ ퟂ ퟃ ퟄ ퟅ ퟆ

ퟋ ퟌ ퟍ ퟎ ퟏ

U+D7Dx ퟐ ퟑ ퟒ ퟓ ퟔ ퟕ ퟖ ퟗ ퟘ ퟙ ퟚ ퟛ ퟜ ퟝ ퟞ ퟟ

U+D7Ex ퟠ ퟡ ퟢ ퟣ ퟤ ퟥ ퟦ ퟧ ퟨ ퟩ ퟪ ퟫ ퟬ ퟭ ퟮ ퟯ

U+D7Fx ퟰ ퟱ ퟲ ퟳ ퟴ ퟵ ퟶ ퟷ ퟸ ퟹ ퟺ ퟻ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Hangul
Hangul
Compatibility Jamo[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+313x

ㄱ ㄲ ㄳ ㄴ ㄵ ㄶ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ

U+314x ㅀ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅄ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㅏ

U+315x ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ

U+316x ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ   HF   ㅥ ㅦ ㅧ ㅨ ㅩ ㅪ ㅫ ㅬ ㅭ ㅮ ㅯ

U+317x ㅰ ㅱ ㅲ ㅳ ㅴ ㅵ ㅶ ㅷ ㅸ ㅹ ㅺ ㅻ ㅼ ㅽ ㅾ ㅿ

U+318x ㆀ ㆁ ㆂ ㆃ ㆄ ㆅ ㆆ ㆇ ㆈ ㆉ ㆊ ㆋ ㆌ ㆍ ㆎ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Parenthesised (U+3200–U+321E) and circled (U+3260–U+327E) Hangul compatibility characters are in the Enclosed CJK Letters and Months block:

Hangul
Hangul
subset of Enclosed CJK Letters and Months[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+320x ㈀ ㈁ ㈂ ㈃ ㈄ ㈅ ㈆ ㈇ ㈈ ㈉ ㈊ ㈋ ㈌ ㈍ ㈎ ㈏

U+321x ㈐ ㈑ ㈒ ㈓ ㈔ ㈕ ㈖ ㈗ ㈘ ㈙ ㈚ ㈛ ㈜ ㈝ ㈞

... (U+3220–U+325F omitted)

U+326x ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ㉣ ㉤ ㉥ ㉦ ㉧ ㉨ ㉩ ㉪ ㉫ ㉬ ㉭ ㉮ ㉯

U+327x ㉰ ㉱ ㉲ ㉳ ㉴ ㉵ ㉶ ㉷ ㉸ ㉹ ㉺ ㉻ ㉼ ㉽ ㉾

... (U+3280–U+32FF omitted)

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Half-width Hangul
Hangul
compatibility characters (U+FFA0–U+FFDC) are in the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block:

Hangul
Hangul
subset of Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

... (U+FF00–U+FF9F omitted)

U+FFAx  HW  HF ᄀ ᄁ ᆪ ᄂ ᆬ ᆭ ᄃ ᄄ ᄅ ᆰ ᆱ ᆲ ᆳ ᆴ ᆵ

U+FFBx ᄚ ᄆ ᄇ ᄈ ᄡ ᄉ ᄊ ᄋ ᄌ ᄍ ᄎ ᄏ ᄐ ᄑ ᄒ

U+FFCx

ᅡ ᅢ ᅣ ᅤ ᅥ ᅦ

ᅧ ᅨ ᅩ ᅪ ᅫ ᅬ

U+FFDx

ᅭ ᅮ ᅯ ᅰ ᅱ ᅲ

ᅳ ᅴ ᅵ

... (U+FFE0–U+FFEF omitted)

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Hangul
Hangul
in other Unicode
Unicode
blocks:

Tone marks for Middle Korean[47][48][49] are in the CJK Symbols and Punctuation block:  〮 (U+302E),  〯 (U+302F) 11,172 precomposed Hangul
Hangul
syllables make up the Hangul Syllables block (U+AC00–U+D7A3)

Morpho-syllabic blocks[edit] Except for a few grammatical morphemes prior to the twentieth century, no letter stands alone to represent elements of the Korean language. Instead, letters are grouped into syllabic or morphemic blocks of at least two and often three: a consonant or a doubled consonant called the initial (초성, 初聲 choseong syllable onset), a vowel or diphthong called the medial (중성, 中聲 jungseong syllable nucleus), and, optionally, a consonant or consonant cluster at the end of the syllable, called the final (종성, 終聲 jongseong syllable coda). When a syllable has no actual initial consonant, the null initial ieung is used as a placeholder. (In modern Hangul, placeholders are not used for the final position.) Thus, a block contains a minimum of two letters, an initial and a medial. Although the Hangul
Hangul
had historically been organized into syllables, in the modern orthography it is first organized into morphemes, and only secondarily into syllables within those morphemes, with the exception that single-consonant morphemes may not be written alone. The sets of initial and final consonants are not the same. For instance, ng only occurs in final position, while the doubled letters that can occur in final position are limited to
ss and ㄲ kk. Not including obsolete letters, 11,172 Hangul
Hangul
blocks are possible. Letter placement within a block[edit]

History of the alphabet

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

Tifinagh

Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

Hangul
Hangul
1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

v t e

The placement or "stacking" of letters in the block follows set patterns based on the shape of the medial. Consonant
Consonant
and vowel sequences such as
bs, wo, or obsolete ㅵ bsd, ㆋ üye are written left to right. Vowels (medials) are written under the initial consonant, to the right, or wrap around the initial from bottom to right, depending on their shape: If the vowel has a horizontal axis like eu, then it is written under the initial; if it has a vertical axis like i, then it is written to the right of the initial; and if it combines both orientations, like ui, then it wraps around the initial from the bottom to the right:

initial medial

initial

medial

initial med. 2

med. 1

A final consonant, if present, is always written at the bottom, under the vowel. This is called 받침 batchim "supporting floor":

initial medial

final

initial

medial

final

initial med. 2

med.

final

A complex final is written left to right:

initial medial

final 1 final 2

initial

medial

final 1 final 2

initial med. 2

med.

fin. 1 fin. 2

Blocks are always written in phonetic order, initial-medial-final. Therefore:

Syllables with a horizontal medial are written downward: 읍 eup; Syllables with a vertical medial and simple final are written clockwise: 쌍 ssang; Syllables with a wrapping medial switch direction (down-right-down): 된 doen; Syllables with a complex final are written left to right at the bottom: 밟 balp.

Block shape[edit] Normally the resulting block is written within a square of the same size and shape as a Hanja
Hanja
(Chinese character) by compressing or stretching the letters to fill the bounds of the block; therefore someone not familiar with the scripts may mistake Hangul
Hangul
for Hanja
Hanja
or Chinese. However, some recent fonts (for example Eun,[50] HY깊은샘물M, UnJamo]) move towards the European practice of letters whose relative size is fixed, and use whitespace to fill letter positions not used in a particular block, and away from the East Asian tradition of square block characters (方块字). They break one or more of the traditional rules:

Do not stretch initial consonant vertically, but leave white space below if no lower vowel and/or no final consonant. Do not stretch right-hand vowel vertically, but leave white space below if no final consonant. (Often the right-hand vowel extends farther down than the left-hand consonant, like a descender in European typography) Do not stretch final consonant horizontally, but leave white space to its left. Do not stretch or pad each block to a fixed width, but allow kerning (variable width) where syllable blocks with no right-hand vowel and no double final consonant can be narrower than blocks that do have a right-hand vowel or double final consonant.

These fonts have been used as design accents on signs or headings, rather than for typesetting large volumes of body text. Linear Hangul[edit] There was a minor and unsuccessful movement in the early twentieth century to abolish syllabic blocks and write the letters individually and in a row, in the fashion of the European alphabets: e.g. ㅎㅏㄴㄱㅡ for 한글 Hangeul.[51] Avant-garde typographer Ahn Sangsu made a font for the " Hangul
Hangul
Dada" exposition that exploded the syllable blocks; but while it strings out the letters horizontally, it retains the distinctive vertical position each letter would normally have within a block, unlike the century-old linear writing proposals.[52] While Koreans have largely accepted the European-derived conventions of writing successive syllables left-to-right in horizontal lines instead of in vertical columns, adding spaces between words, and European-style punctuation, they rejected eliminating syllabic blocks, the most distinctive feature of this writing system. Orthography[edit] Until the 20th century, no official orthography of Hangul
Hangul
had been established. Due to liaison, heavy consonant assimilation, dialectical variants and other reasons, a Korean word can potentially be spelled in multiple ways. Sejong seemed to prefer morphophonemic spelling (representing the underlying root forms) rather than a phonemic one (representing the actual sounds). However, early in its history Hangul was dominated by phonemic spelling. Over the centuries the orthography became partially morphophonemic, first in nouns and later in verbs. Modern Hangul
Hangul
is as morphophonemic as is practical. The difference between phonetic Romanization, phonemic orthography and morpho-phonemic orthography can be illustrated with the phrase motaneun sarami:

Phonetic transcription and translation:

motaneun sarami [mo.tʰa.nɯn.sa.ɾa.mi] a person who cannot do it

Phonemic transcription:

모타는사라미 /mo.tʰa.nɯn.sa.la.mi/

Morphophonemic transcription:

못하는사람이 mot-ha-nɯn-sa.lam-i

Morpheme-by-morpheme gloss:

      못–하–는 사람=이

   mot-ha-neun saram=i

   cannot-do-[attributive] person=[subject]

After the Gabo Reform
Gabo Reform
in 1894, the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty and later the Korean Empire started to write all official documents in Hangul. Under the government's management, proper usage of Hangul
Hangul
and Hanja, including orthography, was discussed, until the Korean Empire
Korean Empire
was annexed by Japan in 1910. The Government-General of Korea
Government-General of Korea
popularized a writing style that mixed Hanja
Hanja
and Hangul, and was used in the later Joseon
Joseon
dynasty. The government revised the spelling rules in 1912, 1921 and 1930, to be relatively phonemic. The Hangul
Hangul
Society, founded by Ju Si-gyeong, announced a proposal for a new, strongly morphophonemic orthography in 1933, which became the prototype of the contemporary orthographies in both North and South Korea. After Korea was divided, the North and South revised orthographies separately. The guiding text for Hangul orthography is called Hangeul Matchumbeop, whose last South Korean revision was published in 1988 by the Ministry of Education. Mixed scripts[edit]

The U.S. city of Gardena in Hangul, with the [ɡ] written as Latin ⟨G⟩. (Compare this large ⟨G⟩ with the smaller ⟨G⟩ in all-Latin Gardena below: The large ⟨G⟩ is fused (at bottom-right) with the Hangul
Hangul
⟨ㄱ⟩ that would normally be used to transcribe Gardena.)

Since the Late Joseon
Joseon
dynasty period, various Hanja- Hangul
Hangul
mixed systems were used. In these systems, Hanja
Hanja
were used for lexical roots, and Hangul
Hangul
for grammatical words and inflections, much as kanji and kana are used in Japanese. Hanja
Hanja
have been almost entirely phased out of daily use in North Korea, and in South Korea
South Korea
they are mostly restricted to parenthetical glosses for proper names and for disambiguating homonyms. Indo-Arabic numerals are mixed in with Hangul, as in 2007년 3월 22일 (22 March 2007). In Korean pop-culture Roman words may be injected for artistic purposes. Latin script
Latin script
and occasionally other scripts may be sprinkled within Korean texts for illustrative purposes, or for unassimilated loanwords. Very occasionally non- Hangul
Hangul
letters may be mixed into Hangul
Hangul
syllabic blocks, as G Ga at right. Readability[edit] Because of syllable clustering, words are shorter on the page than their linear counterparts would be, and the boundaries between syllables are easily visible (which may aid reading, if segmenting words into syllables is more natural for the reader than dividing them into phonemes).[53] Because the component parts of the syllable are relatively simple phonemic characters, the number of strokes per character on average is lower than in Chinese characters. Unlike syllabaries, such as Japanese kana, or Chinese logographs, none of which encode the constituent phonemes within a syllable, the graphic complexity of Korean syllabic blocks varies in direct proportion with the phonemic complexity of the syllable.[54] Unlike linear alphabets such as those derived from Latin, Korean orthography allows the reader to "utilize both the horizontal and vertical visual fields".[55] Finally, since Hangul
Hangul
syllables are represented both as collections of phonemes and as unique-looking graphs, they may allow for both visual and aural retrieval of words from the lexicon. Style[edit]

Hangul
Hangul
may be written either vertically or horizontally. The traditional direction is from top to bottom, right to left. Horizontal writing in the style of the Latin script
Latin script
was promoted by Ju Si-gyeong, and has become overwhelmingly prevalent. In Hunmin Jeongeum, Hangul
Hangul
was printed in sans-serif angular lines of even thickness. This style is found in books published before about 1900, and can be found in stone carvings (on statues, for example). Over the centuries, an ink-brush style of calligraphy developed, employing the same style of lines and angles as traditional Korean calligraphy. This brush style is called gungche (궁체 宮體), which means "Palace Style" because the style was mostly developed and used by the maidservants (gungnyeo, 궁녀 宮女) of the court in Joseon dynasty. Modern styles that are more suited for printed media were developed in the 20th century. In 1993, new names for both Myeongjo (明朝) and Gothic styles were introduced when Ministry of Culture initiated an effort to standardize typographic terms, and the names Batang (바탕, meaning "background") and Dotum (돋움, meaning "stand out") replaced Myeongjo and Gothic respectively. These names are also used in Microsoft Windows. A sans-serif style with lines of equal width is popular with pencil and pen writing and is often the default typeface of Web browsers. A minor advantage of this style is that it makes it easier to distinguish -eung from -ung even in small or untidy print, as the jongseong ieung (ㅇ) of such fonts usually lacks a serif that could be mistaken for the short vertical line of the letter (u). See also[edit]

Korea portal Language portal

Hangul
Hangul
consonant and vowel tables Hangul
Hangul
orthography Korean phonology Korean language
Korean language
and computers Korean mixed script Korean romanization

McCune-Reischauer Revised Romanization Yale Romanization
Romanization
of Korean

Korean braille Korean manual alphabet Myongjo

Notes[edit]

^ The explanation of the origin of the shapes of the letters is provided within a section of Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
itself, 훈민정음 해례본 제자해 ( Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
Haeryebon Jajahae or Hunminjeongeum, Chapter: Paraphrases and Examples, Section: Making of Letters), which states: 牙音 象舌根閉喉之形. (아음(어금니 소리) ㄱ은 혀뿌리가 목구멍을 막는 모양을 본뜨고), 舌音 象舌附上腭之形 ( 설음(혓 소리) ㄴ은 혀(끝)가 윗 잇몸에 붙는 모양을 본뜨고), 脣音 象口形. ( 순음(입술소리) ㅁ은 입모양을 본뜨고), 齒音 象齒形. ( 치음(잇 소리) ㅅ은 이빨 모양을 본뜨고) 象齒形. 喉音ㅇ. 象喉形 (목구멍 소리ㅇ은 목구멍의 꼴을 본뜬 것이다). ㅋ比ㄱ. 聲出稍 . 故加 . ㄴ而ㄷ. ㄷ而ㅌ. ㅁ而ㅂ. ㅂ而ㅍ. ㅅ而ㅈ. ㅈ而ㅊ. ㅇ而ㅡ. ㅡ而ㅎ. 其因聲加 之義皆同. 而唯 爲異 (ㅋ은ㄱ에 견주어 소리 남이 조금 세므로 획을 더한 것이고, ㄴ에서 ㄷ으로, ㄷ에서 ㅌ으로 함과, ㅁ에서 ㅂ으로 ㅂ에서 ㅍ으로 함과, ㅅ에서 ㅈ으로 ㅈ에서 ㅊ으로 함과, ㅇ에서 ㅡ으로 ㅡ에서 ㅎ으로 함도, 그 소리를 따라 획을 더한 뜻이 같다 . 오직 ㅇ자는 다르다.) 半舌音ㄹ. 半齒音. 亦象舌齒之形而異其體. (반혓소리ㄹ과, 반잇소리 '세모자'는 또한 혀와 이의 꼴을 본뜨되, 그 본을 달리하여 획을 더하는 뜻이 없다.) ...

Citations[edit]

^ "Hangul". Dictionary by Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ "알고 싶은 한글". 국립국어원. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Kim-Renaud 1997, p. 15 ^ "Individual Letters of Hangeul and its Principles". National Institute of Korean Language. 2008. Retrieved 2017-12-02.  ^ a b Taylor, Insup (1980). "The Korean writing system: An alphabet? A syllabary? a logography?". Processing of Visible Language. Boston, Mass.: Springer: 67–82. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-1068-6_5. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Pae, Hye K. (1 January 2011). "Is Korean a syllabic alphabet or an alphabetic syllabary". Writing Systems Research. 3 (2): 103–115. doi:10.1093/wsr/wsr002. ISSN 1758-6801. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ a b "How was Hangul
Hangul
invented?". The Economist. 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2017-12-02.  ^ Cock, Joe (2016-06-28). "A linguist explains why Korean is the best written language". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-12-02.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. , p. 52 ^ " Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum
Manuscript". Korean Cultural Heritage Administration. 2006. Retrieved 2017-12-02.  ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, p. 13 ^ Kim-Renaud 1997, p. 2 ^ a b c "Different Names for Hangeul". National Institute of Korean Language. 2008. Retrieved 2017-12-03.  ^ Hannas, Wm C. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920. Retrieved 20 September 2016.  ^ Chen, Jiangping. Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559. Retrieved 20 September 2016.  ^ "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese.  ^ "Korea Now". 29. Korea Herald. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2016.  ^ a b c "The Background of the invention of Hangeul". National Institute of Korean Language. The National Academy of the Korean Language. 2008. Retrieved 2017-12-03.  ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ Hunmin Jeongeum
Hunmin Jeongeum
Haerye, postface of Jeong Inji, p. 27a, translation from Gari K. Ledyard, The Korean Language Reform of 1446, p. 258 ^ a b c d e f Pratt, Rutt, Hoare, 1999. Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Routledge. ^ a b "4. The providing process of Hangeul". The National Academy of the Korean Language. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-19.  ^ "Jeongeumcheong, synonymous with Eonmuncheong (정음청 正音廳, 동의어: 언문청)" (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2008-05-19.  ^ "Korea Britannica
Britannica
article" (in Korean). Enc.daum.net. Retrieved 2012-04-13.  ^ WorldCat, Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu; alternate romaji Sankoku Tsūran Zusetsu ^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 137., p. 137, at Google Books ^ Vos, Ken. "Accidental acquisitions: The nineteenth-century Korean collections in the National Museum of Ethnology, Part 1," Archived 2012-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. p. 6 (pdf p. 7); Klaproth, Julius. (1832). San kokf tsou ran to sets, ou Aperçu général des trois royaumes, pp. 19 n1., p. 19, at Google Books ^ Klaproth, pp. 1-168., p. 1, at Google Books ^ Silva, David J. (2008). "Missionary Contributions toward the Revaluation of Han'geul in Late 19th Century Korea". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 192: 57–74. doi:10.1515/ijsl.2008.035.  ^ "Korean History". Korea.assembly.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-04-13.  ^ " Hangul
Hangul
한글". The modern and contemporary history of hangul (한글의 근·현대사) (in Korean). Daum / Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 1937년 7월 중일전쟁을 도발한 일본은 한민족 말살정책을 노골적으로 드러내, 1938년 4월에는 조선어과 폐지와 조선어 금지 및 일본어 상용을 강요했다.  ^ "under The Media". Lcweb2.loc.gov. 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2012-04-13.  ^ The Hankyoreh. 어른 25% 한글 못써...정부대책 '까막눈', October 8, 2003 ^ " Linguistics
Linguistics
Scholar Seeks to Globalize Korean Alphabet". Korea Times. 2008-10-15.  ^ "Hangeul didn't become Cia Cia's official writing". Korea Times. 2010-10-06.  ^ Indonesian tribe to use Korean alphabet Archived August 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Si-soo, Park (2009-08-06). "Indonesian Tribe Picks Hangeul as Writing System". Korea Times.  ^ Kurt Achin (29 January 2010). "Indonesian Tribe Learns to Write with Korean Alphabet". Voice of America.  ^ "Gov't to correct textbook on Cia Cia". Korea Times. 2012-10-18.  ^ Brown, Lucien; Yeon, Jaehoon (2015). The Handbook of Korean Linguistics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1118370937.  ^ Martin, S. E. Nonalphabetic writing systems: Some observations. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G. Mattingly (Eds.), Language by ear and by eye. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972, p. 82. ^ Diringer, D. The alphabet. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1968, p. 215. ^ The Japanese/Korean Vowel
Vowel
Correspondences by Bjarke Frellesvig and John Whitman. Section 3 deals with Middle Korean
Middle Korean
vowels. ^ Korean orthography rules Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine.[unreliable source?] ^ The Korean language
Korean language
reform of 1446: the origin, background, and Early History of the Korean Alphabet, Gari Keith Ledyard. University of California, 1966, p. 367–368. ^ Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 219-220 ^ Ho-Min Sohn (29 March 2001). The Korean Language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-521-36943-5.  ^ Iksop Lee; S. Robert Ramsey (2000). The Korean Language. SUNY Press. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-0-7914-4832-8.  ^ Ki-Moon Lee; S. Robert Ramsey (3 March 2011). A History of the Korean Language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-1-139-49448-9.  ^ Welch, Craig. "Korean Unicode
Unicode
Fonts". www.wazu.jp.  ^ Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary - Keith L. Pratt, Richard Rutt, James Hoare - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 1999-09-13. Retrieved 2012-04-13.  ^ Ezer, Oded. " Hangul
Hangul
Dada, Seoul, Korea". Flickr. Retrieved 2012-04-13.  ^ Taylor 1980, p. 71 ^ Taylor 1980, p. 73 ^ Taylor 1980, p. 70

References[edit]

Chang, Suk-jin (1996). "Scripts and Sounds". Korean. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55619-728-4.  (Volume 4 of the London Oriental and African Language Library). Hannas, William C (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X.  Kim-Renaud, Young-Key, ed. (1997). The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. University of Hawai`i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1723-7.  Lee, Iksop; Ramsey, Samuel Robert (2000). The Korean Language. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9130-0.  "Hangeul Matchumbeop". The Ministry of Education of South Korea. 1988.  Sampson, Geoffrey (1990). Writing Systems. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1756-4.  Silva, David J. (2002). "Western attitudes toward the Korean language: An Overview of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth-Century Mission Literature" (PDF). Korean Studies. 26 (2): 270–286. doi:10.1353/ks.2004.0013.  Sohn, Ho-Min (2001). The Korean Language. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36943-5.  Song, Jae Jung (2005). The Korean Language: Structure, Use and Context. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-39082-5.  Taylor, Insup (1980). "The Korean writing system: An alphabet? A syllabary? A logography?". In Kolers, P.A.; Wrolstad, M. E.; Bouma, Herman. Processing of Visual Language. 2. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0306405768. OCLC 7099393. 

External links[edit]

Look up Appendix:List of modern Hangul
Hangul
syllabic blocks by strokes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hangul.

Korean alphabet and pronunciation by Omniglot Online Hangul
Hangul
tutorial at Langintro.com Hangul
Hangul
table with Audio Slideshow Technical information on Hangul
Hangul
and Unicode Hangul
Hangul
Sound Keyboard at Kmaru.com Learn Hangul
Hangul
at Korean Wiki Project

v t e

Hangul
Hangul
Jamo

Hangul

Single jamo

consonant

ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅇ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ

vowel

ㅏ ㅑ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ

Compose jamo

consonant

ㄲ ㄳ ㄵ ㄶ ㄸ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ ㅀ ㅃ ㅄ ㅆ ㅉ

vowel

ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅢ

Encodings

KS X 1001 Unicode
Unicode
Hangul
Hangul
Compatibility Jamo Microsoft code page 949

List of Hangul
Hangul
jamo

v t e

Joseon
Joseon
dynasty of Korea

List of monarchs House of Yi

History

Tsushima expedition Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) Manchu invasions of Korea (First, Second) Treaty of Ganghwa Imo Incident Gapsin Coup Donghak Peasant Revolution Gabo Reform Eulmi Incident Korean Empire

Politics

Political factions in Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty Korean literati purges

Government

State Council of Joseon Six Ministries of Joseon Three offices of Joseon Border Defense Council of Joseon Secret royal inspector

Society

Styles and titles Neo-Confucianism yangban seonbi chungin sangmin cheonmin kisaeng

Culture

Education in the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty Five Grand Palaces Hanbok Hangul Buncheong Joseon
Joseon
white porcelain Korean tea ceremony Korean garden Sungkyunkwan Chaekgeori Minhwa

Cultural heritages

Changdeokgung Jongmyo Shrine Namhansanseong Royal Tombs of the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty Villages of Hahoe and Yangdong Annals of the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty Hunminjeongeum Ilseongnok Nanjung Ilgi Seungjeongwon ilgi Uigwe

See also

Joseon
Joseon
Navy Joseon
Joseon
missions to Imperial China Joseon
Joseon
missions to Japan

v t e

Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

Authority control

.