The KOREAN ALPHABET, 한글 , known as HANGUL in South Korea (also transcribed HANGEUL) and as 조선글(CHOSŏN\'GŭL) /조선문자(CHOSŏN MUNTCHA) in North Korea , is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century. It was created in 1443 under King Sejong the Great during the Joseon Dynasty . Now the alphabet is the official script of both South Korea and North Korea, and co-official in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of China's Jilin Province . In South Korea, primarily Hangul is used to write the Korean language, as using Hanja ( Chinese characters ) in typical Korean writing fell out of common usage during the late 1990s.
In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 19 consonant and 21 vowel letters. However, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin script, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 _han_, each of which transcribes a syllable . That is, although the syllable 한 _han_ may look like a single character, it is actually composed of three letters: ㅎ _h_, ㅏ _a_, and ㄴ _n_. Each syllabic block consists of two to six letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel . These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom. Each Korean word consists of one or more syllables, hence one or more blocks. The number of mathematically possible distinct blocks is 11,172, though there are far fewer possible syllables allowed by Korean phonotactics , and not all phonotactically possible syllables occur in actual Korean words. Of the 11,172 possible Hangul syllables, the most frequent 256 have a cumulative frequency of 88.2%; with the top 512, it reaches 99.9%.
* 1 Names
* 1.1 Official names
* 1.2 Original name * 1.3 Other names
* 2 History
* 2.1 Implementation * 2.2 Dissemination
* 3 Letters
* 3.1 Stroke order
* 3.2 Letter design
* 3.2.1 Consonant design
* 3.2.2 Vowel design
* 18.104.22.168 Simple vowels * 22.214.171.124 Compound vowels * 126.96.36.199 Iotized vowels
* 3.2.3 Traditional account * 3.2.4 Ledyard\'s theory of consonant design
* 3.3 Sorting order
* 3.3.1 Historical orders * 3.3.2 South Korean order * 3.3.3 North Korean order
* 3.4 Letter names
* 3.5 Obsolete letters * 3.6 Unicode * 3.7 Restored letters
* 4 Morpho-syllabic blocks
* 4.1 Letter placement within a block * 4.2 Block shape * 4.3 Linear Hangul
* 5 Orthography
* 5.1 Mixed scripts
* 6 Readability * 7 Style * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 Citations * 11 References * 12 External links
SOUTH KOREAN NAME
REVISED ROMANIZATION Han(-)geul
NORTH KOREAN NAME
REVISED ROMANIZATION Joseon(-)geul
_ The word Hangeul_, written in Hangul
* The modern name _Hangul_ was coined by Ju Sigyeong in 1912. _Han_ (한) meant "great" in archaic Korean, and _geul_ (글) is the native Korean word for "script." Taken together, then, the meaning is "great script." As the word _han_ had also become one way of indicating Korea as a whole (most commonly transliterated using the Chinese character 韓) the name could also potentially be interpreted as "Korean script." Korean 한글 is pronounced , and in English as /ˈhɑːn.ɡʊl/ or /ˈhɑːŋɡʊl/ . It has been romanized in the following ways:
* _Hangeul_ or _Han-geul_ in the Revised Romanization of Korean , which the South Korean government uses in all English publications and encourages for all purposes. * _Han'gŭl_ in the McCune–Reischauer system. When used as an English word, it is often rendered without the diacritics , _hangul_, and it is often capitalized as _Hangul_, as it appears in many English dictionaries. * _Hankul_ in the Yale romanization , a system recommended for technical linguistic studies.
* North Koreans call it _Chosŏn'gŭl_ (조선글 ), after _Chosŏn _, the North Korean name for Korea . _Uri kŭlcha_ (우리 글자 "our characters") is also used.
* The original name was _ Hunminjeongeum _ (훈민정음; 訓民正音). Because of objections to the names _Hangeul,_ _Chosŏn'gŭl,_ and _urigeul_ (우리글) by Koreans in China , the uncommon short form _jeongeum_ may be used, as a neutral name, in some international contexts.
Until the early 20th century, Hangul was denigrated as vulgar by the literate elite, who preferred the traditional hanja (Han script) writing system. They gave it such names as these:
* _Achimgeul_ (아침글 "writing you can learn within a morning"). Although somewhat pejorative, it was based on the reality, as expressed by Jeong Inji , that "a wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days." In hanja , it is rendered as "故智者不終朝而會，愚者可浹旬而學。" * _Gugmun_ (Hangul: 국문, hanja: 國文 "national script") * _Eonmun_ (Hangul: 언문, hanja: 諺文 "vernacular script") * _Amgeul_ (암글 "women's script"; also written _Amkeul_ 암클). _Am_ (암) is a prefix that signifies a noun is feminine * _Ahaesgeul_ or _Ahaegeul_ (아햇글 or 아해글 "children's script")
See also: Origin of Hangul _ A page from the Hunmin Jeong-eum Eonhae_. The Hangul-only column, third from the left (나랏말ᄊᆞ미), has pitch-accent diacritics to the left of the syllable blocks.
Hangul was promulgated by Sejong the Great , the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty . It is often known as a small project done with the king and a group of scholars; however, it is possible that Sejong came up with it by himself.
The project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, and described in 1446 in a document titled _ Hunmin Jeongeum _ ("The Proper Sounds for the Education of the People"), after which the alphabet itself was named. The publication date of the _Hunmin Jeong-eum,_ October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosongul Day, is on January 15.
Various speculations about the creation process were put to rest by the discovery in 1940 of the 1446 _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye _ ("_Hunmin Jeong-eum_ Explanation and Examples"). This document explains the design of the consonant letters according to articulatory phonetics and the vowel letters according to the principles of _yin_ and _yang_ and vowel harmony .
Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu , hyangchal , gugyeol , and gakpil . However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn't have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people.
Hangul was designed so that even a commoner could learn to read and write; the _Haerye_ says "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days."
Hangul faced opposition by the literary elite, such as Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars in the 1440s, who believed hanja to be the only legitimate writing system, and perhaps saw Hangul as a threat to their status. However, it entered popular culture as Sejong had intended, being used especially by women and writers of popular fiction. It was effective enough at disseminating information among the uneducated that Yeonsangun , the paranoid tenth king, forbade the study or use of Hangul and banned Hangul documents in 1504, and King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of _Eonmun_ (언문청 諺文廳, governmental institution related to Hangul research) in 1506.
The late 16th century, however, saw a revival of Hangul, with _gasa _ literature and later _sijo _ flourishing. In the 17th century, Hangul novels became a major genre. By this point spelling had become quite irregular.
The first book using Hangul in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library included _Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu _ (_An Illustrated Description of Three Countries_) by Hayashi Shihei . This book, which was published in Japan in 1785, described the Joseon Kingdom and hangul. In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.
Because of growing Korean nationalism in the 19th century, the Gabo Reformists ' push, and the promotion of Hangul in schools and literature by Western missionaries, Hangul was adopted in official documents for the first time in 1894. Elementary school texts began using Hangul in 1895, and the _ Dongnip Sinmun _, established in 1896, was the first newspaper printed in both Hangul and English. Still, the literary elites continued to use Chinese characters, and the majority of the common people remained illiterate at this period.
During Japanese colonial rule in 1910, Japanese became the official language. However, Hangul was taught in the Korean-established schools in Korea built after the annexation, and Korean was written in a mixed hanja- Hangul script, where most lexical roots were written in hanja and grammatical forms in Hangul. Japan had banned earlier Korean literature, and public schooling became mandatory for children. The orthography was partially standardized in 1912, with 'ㆍ' (_arae a_ – one of the vowels in early Hangul no longer used in modern Hangul) restricted to Sino-Korean roots, the emphatic consonants standardized to ㅺ _sg,_ ㅼ _sd,_ ㅽ _sb,_ ㅆ _ss,_ ㅾ _sj,_ and final consonants restricted to ㄱ _g,_ ㄴ _n,_ ㄹ _l,_ ㅁ _m,_ ㅂ _b,_ ㅅ _s,_ ㅇ _ng,_ ㄺ _lg,_ ㄻ _lm,_ ㄼ _lb_ (no ㄷ _d,_ as it was replaced by _s_). Long vowels were marked by a diacritic dot to the left of the syllable, but this was dropped in 1921.
A second colonial reform occurred in 1930. _Arae a_ was abolished; the emphatic consonants were changed to ㄲ _gg,_ ㄸ _dd,_ ㅃ _bb,_ ㅆ _ss,_ ㅉ _jj;_ more final consonants (ㄷㅈㅌㅊㅍㄲㄳㄵㄾㄿㅄ) were allowed, making the orthography more morphophonemic ; ㅆ _ss_ was written alone (without a vowel) when it occurred between nouns; and the nominative particle 가 _ga_ was introduced after vowels, replacing ㅣ _i._ ( ㅣ _i_ had been written without an ㅇ _iung._ The nominative particle had been unvarying _i_ in Sejong's day, and perhaps up to the eighteenth or nineteenth century.)
Ju Sigyeong , who had coined the term _Hangul_ "great script" to replace _eonmun_ "vulgar script" in 1912, established the Korean Language Research Society (朝鮮語研究會; later renamed Hangul Society, 한글學會) which further reformed orthography with _Standardized System of Hangul _ (한글 맞춤법 통일안) in 1933. The principal change was to make Hangul as morphophonemic as practical given the existing letters. A system for transliterating foreign orthographies was published in 1940.
However, the Korean language was banned from schools in 1938 as part of a policy of cultural assimilation , and all Korean-language publications were outlawed in 1941.
The definitive modern orthography was published in 1946, just after independence from colonial rule. In 1948 North Korea attempted to make the script perfectly morphophonemic through the addition of new letters, and in 1953 Syngman Rhee in South Korea attempted to simplify the orthography by returning to the colonial orthography of 1921, but both reforms were abandoned after only a few years.
Both Koreas have used Hangul or mixed Hangul as their sole official writing system, with ever-decreasing use of _hanja._ Beginning in the 1970s, _hanja_ began to experience a gradual decline in commercial or unofficial writing in the South due to government intervention, with some South Korean newspapers now only using _hanja_ as abbreviations or disambiguation of homonyms. There has been widespread debate as to the future of _hanja_ in South Korea. North Korea instated Hangul as its exclusive writing system in 1949, and banned the use of _hanja_ completely.
While both North and South Korea claim 99% literacy, government studies show that 25% of people in the older generation in the South are not completely literate in Hangul.
The Hunminjeongeum Society in Seoul attempts to spread the use of Hangul to unwritten languages of Asia. In 2009, Hangul was unofficially adopted by the town of Bau-Bau , in Sulawesi , Indonesia , to write the Cia-Cia language . A number of Indonesian Cia-Cia speakers who visited Seoul generated large media attention in South Korea, and they were greeted on their arrival by Oh Se-hoon , the mayor of Seoul . It was confirmed in October 2012 that the attempts to disseminate Hangul in Indonesia failed. But there are still some people that use Hangul at home or co-officially.
See also: Hangul consonant and vowel tables
Hangul letters and digraphs are called _jamo_ (자모; 字母 ) or _natsori_ (낱소리). There are 24 letters and 27 digraphs (and sometimes trigraphs ) formed from these letters in the modern alphabet. Of the letters, fourteen are consonants _(ja-eum_ 자음, 子音 "child sounds") and ten are vowels _(mo-eum_ 모음, 母音 "mother sounds"). Five of the consonants are doubled to form the five "tense" (faucalized ) consonants of Korean, while another eleven sequences are formed of two different consonants. The ten vowel letters are combined into eleven sequences for diphthongs .
The following letters and clusters of letters are found in the modern script:
* 14 consonant letters: ㄱ _g,_ ㄴ _n,_ ㄷ _d,_ ㄹ _l/r,_ ㅁ _m,_ ㅂ _b,_ ㅅ _s,_ ㅇ _null (initial)/ng (final),_ ㅈ _j,_ ㅊ _ch,_ ㅋ _k,_ ㅌ _t,_ ㅍ _p,_ ㅎ _h_ * 6 vowel letters: ㅏ _a,_ ㅓ _eo,_ ㅗ _o,_ ㅜ _u,_ ㅡ _eu,_ ㅣ _i_ * 4 iotized vowels (with a _y_): ㅑ _ya,_ ㅕ _yeo,_ ㅛ _yo,_ ㅠ _yu_
The digraphs are:
* 5 double ("tense") consonants: ㄲ _kk,_ ㄸ _tt,_ ㅃ _bb,_ ㅆ _ss,_ ㅉ _jj_ * 11 consonant clusters : ㄳ _gs,_ ㄵ _nj,_ ㄶ _nh,_ ㄺ _lg,_ ㄻ _lm,_ ㄼ _lb,_ ㄽ _ls,_ ㄾ _lt,_ ㄿ _lp,_ ㅀ _lh,_ ㅄ _bs_ * 5 (iotized) diphthongs: ㅐ _ae,_ ㅒ _yae,_ ㅔ _e,_ ㅖ _ye,_ ㅢ _ui_ * 6 vowels and diphthongs with a _w_: ㅘ _wa,_ ㅙ _wae,_ ㅚ _oe,_ ㅝ _wo,_ ㅞ _we,_ ㅟ _wi_
In addition, there are numerous obsolete letters, as well as a number of sequences that are no longer used. Some of these were only ever used for transcribing Chinese.
* 13 obsolete consonants: ᄛ, ㅱ, ㅸ, ᄼ, ᄾ, ㅿ, ㆁ (as distinct from ㅇ), ᅎ, ᅐ, ᅔ, ᅕ, ㆄ, ㆆ * 10 obsolete double consonants: ㅥ, ᄙ, ㅹ, ᄽ, ᄿ, ᅇ, ᇮ, ᅏ, ᅑ, ㆅ * 66 obsolete clusters of two consonants: ᇃ, ᄓ, ㅦ, ᄖ, ㅧ, ㅨ, ᇉ, ᄗ, ᇋ, ᄘ, ㅪ, ㅬ, ᇘ, ㅭ, ᇚ, ᇛ, ㅮ, ㅯ, ㅰ, ᇠ, ᇡ, ㅲ, ᄟ, ㅳ, ᇣ, ㅶ, ᄨ, ㅷ, ᄪ, ᇥ, ㅺ, ㅻ, ㅼ, ᄰ, ᄱ, ㅽ, ᄵ, ㅾ, ᄷ, ᄸ, ᄹ, ᄺ, ᄻ, ᅁ, ᅂ, ᅃ, ᅄ, ᅅ, ᅆ, ᅈ, ᅉ, ᅊ, ᅋ, ᇬ, ᇭ, ㆂ, ㆃ, ᇯ, ᅍ, ᅒ, ᅓ, ᅖ, ᇵ, ᇶ, ᇷ, ᇸ
and 17 of three consonants: ᇄ, ㅩ, ᇏ, ᇑ, ᇒ, ㅫ, ᇔ, ᇕ, ᇖ, ᇞ, ㅴ, ㅵ, ᄤ, ᄥ, ᄦ, ᄳ, ᄴ
* 1 obsolete vowel: ㆍ _arae-a_ ('sub-a'; still used in the Jeju language and sometimes as a substitute for ㅏ _a_ in logos and advertisements) * 44 obsolete diphthongs and vowel sequences: ᆜ, ᆝ, ᆢ, ᅷ, ᅸ, ᅹ, ᅺ, ᅻ, ᅼ, ᅽ, ᅾ, ᅿ, ᆀ, ᆁ, ᆂ, ᆃ, ㆇ, ㆈ, ᆆ, ᆇ, ㆉ, ᆉ, ᆊ, ᆋ, ᆌ, ᆍ, ᆎ, ᆏ, ᆐ, ㆊ, ㆋ, ᆓ, ㆌ, ᆕ, ᆖ, ᆗ, ᆘ, ᆙ, ᆚ, ᆛ, ᆟ, ᆠ, ㆎ
* The four iotated vowels are derived by adding a short stroke to the basic vowel. They are counted as part of the 24 letters of the alphabet because the iotating stroke is not a letter on its own. In fact, there is no letter for _y_ in Hangul. * Of the consonants, ㅊ _chieut,_ ㅋ _kieuk,_ ㅌ _tieut,_ and ㅍ _pieup_ are aspirated derivatives of ㅈ _jieut,_ ㄱ _giyeok,_ ㄷ _digeut,_ and ㅂ _bieup,_ respectively, formed by adding an extra stroke to the unaspirated letters. These are also counted as separate letters of the alphabet, as the aspirating stroke is not a letter on its own.
ㄱ (giyeok 기역) *
ㄴ (nieun 니은) *
ㄷ (digeut 디귿) *
ㄹ (rieul 리을) *
ㅁ (mieum 미음) *
ㅂ (bieup 비읍) *
ㅅ (siot 시옷) *
ㅇ (ieung 이응) *
ㅈ (jieut 지읒) *
ㅊ (chieut 치읓) *
ㅋ (kieuk 키읔) *
ㅌ (tieut 티읕) *
ㅍ (pieup 피읖) *
ㅎ (hieut 히읗) *
ㅏ (a) *
ㅐ (ae) *
ㅓ (eo) *
ㅔ (e) *
ㅗ (o) *
ㅜ (u) *
For the iotized vowels, which are not shown, the short stroke is simply doubled.
* Arabic * Chinese * Georgian * Indian * Islamic * Japanese * Korean * Mongolian * Persian * Tibetan * Western
* v * t * e
Numerous linguists have praised Hangul for its featural design, describing it as "remarkable", "the most perfect phonetic system devised", and "brilliant, so deliberately does it fit the language like a glove." The principal reason Hangul has attracted this praise is that the shapes of the letters are related to the features of the sounds they represent: the letters for consonants pronounced in the same place in the mouth are built on the same underlying shape. In addition, vowels are made from vertical or horizontal lines so that they are easily distinguishable from consonants.
Scripts may transcribe languages at the level of morphemes (logographic scripts like _hanja),_ of syllables (syllabaries like _kana ),_ or of segments (alphabetic scripts like the Latin script used to write English and many other languages). Hangul goes one step further in some cases, using distinct strokes to indicate distinctive features such as place of articulation (labial , coronal , velar , or glottal ) and manner of articulation (plosive , nasal , sibilant , aspiration ) for consonants, and iotation (a preceding _i-_sound), harmonic class , and i-mutation for vowels.
For instance, the consonant ㅌ _t_ is composed of three strokes, each one meaningful: the top stroke indicates ㅌ is a plosive, like ㆆ _ʔ,_ ㄱ _g,_ ㄷ _d,_ ㅈ _j,_ which have the same stroke (the last is an affricate , a plosive–fricative sequence); the middle stroke indicates that ㅌ is aspirated, like ㅎ _h,_ ㅋ _k,_ ㅊ _ch,_ which also have this stroke; and the bottom stroke indicates that ㅌ is alveolar, like ㄴ _n,_ ㄷ _d,_ and ㄹ _l._ (This element is said to represent the shape of the tongue when pronouncing coronal consonants, though this is not certain.) Two consonants, ㆁ and ㅱ, have dual pronunciations, and appear to be composed of two elements corresponding to these two pronunciations: ~silence for ㆁ and ~ for obsolete ㅱ.
With vowel letters, a short stroke connected to the main line of the letter indicates that this is one of the vowels that _can_ be iotated; this stroke is then doubled when the vowel _is_ iotated. The position of the stroke indicates which harmonic class the vowel belongs to, "light" (top or right) or "dark" (bottom or left). In the modern alphabet, an additional vertical stroke indicates i-mutation , deriving ㅐ , ㅔ , ㅚ , and ㅟ from ㅏ , ㅓ , ㅗ , and ㅜ . However, this is not part of the intentional design of the script, but rather a natural development from what were originally diphthongs ending in the vowel ㅣ . Indeed, in many Korean dialects , including the standard dialect of Seoul , some of these may still be diphthongs.
Although the design of the script may be featural, for all practical purposes it behaves as an alphabet. The letter ㅌ is not read as three letters _alveolar aspirated plosive,_ for instance, but as a single consonant _t._ Likewise, the former diphthong ㅔ is read as a single vowel _e._
Beside the letters, Hangul originally employed diacritic marks to indicate pitch accent . A syllable with a high pitch (거성) was marked with a dot (ᅟᅠ〮) to the left of it (when writing vertically); a syllable with a rising pitch (상성) was marked with a double dot, like a colon (ᅟᅠ〯). These are no longer used. Although vowel length is still phonemic in Korean, it is no longer written.
Some aspects of Hangul reflect a shared history with the \'Phags-pa script , and thus Indic phonology , such as the relationships among the homorganic letters and the alphabetic principle itself; but other aspects such as organization of letters into syllabic blocks, and which 'Phags-pa letters were chosen to be basic to the system, reflect the influence of Chinese writing and phonology.
The consonant letters fall into five homorganic groups, each with a basic shape, and one or more letters derived from this shape by means of additional strokes. In the _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye_ account, the basic shapes iconically represent the articulations the tongue , palate , teeth , and throat take when making these sounds.
SIMPLE ASPIRATED TENSE
VELAR ㄱ ㅋ ㄲ
PALATAL ㅈ ㅊ ㅉ
CORONAL ㄷ ㅌ ㄸ
BILABIAL ㅂ ㅍ ㅃ
The Korean names for the groups are taken from Chinese phonetics :
* Velar consonants (아음, 牙音 _a-eum_ "molar sounds")
* ㄱ _g_ , ㅋ _k_ * Basic shape: ㄱ is a side view of the back of the tongue raised toward the velum (soft palate). (For illustration, access the external link below.) ㅋ is derived from ㄱ with a stroke for the burst of aspiration.
* Sibilant consonants (fricative or palatal) (치음, 齒音 _chieum_ "dental sounds"):
* ㅅ s , ㅈ j , ㅊ ch * Basic shape: ㅅ was originally shaped like a wedge ∧, without the serif on top. It represents a side view of the teeth. The line topping ㅈ represents firm contact with the roof of the mouth. The stroke topping ㅊ represents an additional burst of aspiration.
* Coronal consonants (설음, 舌音 _seoreum_ "lingual sounds"):
* ㄴ _n_ , ㄷ _d_ , ㅌ _t_ , ㄹ _r_ * Basic shape: ㄴ is a side view of the tip of the tongue raised toward the alveolar ridge (gum ridge). The letters derived from ㄴ are pronounced with the same basic articulation. The line topping ㄷ represents firm contact with the roof of the mouth. The middle stroke of ㅌ represents the burst of aspiration. The top of ㄹ represents a flap of the tongue.
* Bilabial consonants (순음, 唇音 _suneum_ "labial sounds"):
* ㅁ _m_ , ㅂ _b_ , ㅍ _p_ * Basic shape: ㅁ represents the outline of the lips in contact with each other. The top of ㅂ represents the release burst of the _b_. The top stroke of ㅍ is for the burst of aspiration.
* Dorsal consonants (후음, 喉音 _hueum_ "throat sounds"):
* ㅇ _ng_ , ㅎ _h_ * Basic shape: ㅇ is an outline of the throat. Originally ㅇ was two letters, a simple circle for silence (null consonant), and a circle topped by a vertical line, ㆁ, for the nasal _ng_. A now obsolete letter, ㆆ, represented a glottal stop , which is pronounced in the throat and had closure represented by the top line, like ㄱㄷㅈ. Derived from ㆆ is ㅎ, in which the extra stroke represents a burst of aspiration.
Vowel letters are based on three elements:
* A horizontal line representing the flat Earth, the essence of _yin _. * A point for the Sun in the heavens, the essence of _yang _. (This becomes a short stroke when written with a brush.) * A vertical line for the upright Human, the neutral mediator between the Heaven and Earth.
Short strokes (dots in the earliest documents) were added to these three basic elements to derive the vowel letter:
* Horizontal letters: these are mid-high back vowels.
* Vertical letters: these were once low vowels.
Hangul never had a _w_, except for Sino-Korean etymology . Since an _o_ or _u_ before an _a_ or _eo_ became a sound, and occurred nowhere else, could always be analyzed as a phonemic _o_ or _u,_ and no letter for was needed. However, vowel harmony is observed: "dark" ㅜ _u_ with "dark" ㅓ _eo_ for ㅝ _wo;_ "bright" ㅗ _o_ with "bright" ㅏ _a_ for ㅘ _wa:_
The compound vowels ending in ㅣ _i_ were originally diphthongs . However, several have since evolved into pure vowels:
* ㅐ _ae_ = ㅏ _a_ + ㅣ _i_ (pronounced ) * ㅔ _e_ = ㅓ _eo_ + ㅣ _i_ (pronounced ) * ㅙ _wae_ = ㅘ _wa_ + ㅣ _i_ * ㅚ _oe_ = ㅗ _o_ + ㅣ _i_ (formerly pronounced , see Korean phonology ) * ㅞ _we_ = ㅝ _wo_ + ㅣ _i_ * ㅟ _wi_ = ㅜ _u_ + ㅣ _i_ (formerly pronounced , see Korean phonology ) * ㅢ _ui_ = ㅡ _eu_ + ㅣ _i_
There is no letter for _y_. Instead, this sound is indicated by doubling the stroke attached to the base line of the vowel letter. Of the seven basic vowels, four could be preceded by a _y_ sound, and these four were written as a dot next to a line. (Through the influence of Chinese calligraphy, the dots soon became connected to the line: ㅓㅏㅜㅗ.) A preceding _y_ sound, called "iotation", was indicated by doubling this dot: ㅕㅑㅠ ㅛ _yeo, ya, yu, yo_. The three vowels that could not be iotated were written with a single stroke: ㅡㆍ ㅣ _eu, (arae a), i_.
The simple iotated vowels are:
There are also two iotated diphthongs:
The Korean language of the 15th century had vowel harmony to a greater extent than it does today. Vowels in grammatical morphemes changed according to their environment, falling into groups that "harmonized" with each other. This affected the morphology of the language, and Korean phonology described it in terms of _yin_ and _yang:_ If a root word had _yang_ ('bright') vowels, then most suffixes attached to it also had to have _yang_ vowels; conversely, if the root had _yin_ ('dark') vowels, the suffixes needed to be _yin_ as well. There was a third harmonic group called "mediating" ('neutral' in Western terminology) that could coexist with either _yin_ or _yang_ vowels.
The Korean neutral vowel was ㅣ _i_. The _yin_ vowels were ㅡㅜㅓ _eu, u, eo;_ the dots are in the _yin_ directions of 'down' and 'left'. The _yang_ vowels were ㆍㅗ ㅏ _ə, o, a,_ with the dots in the _yang_ directions of 'up' and 'right'. The _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye_ states that the shapes of the non-dotted letters ㅡㆍㅣ were chosen to represent the concepts of _yin,_ _yang,_ and mediation: Earth, Heaven, and Human. (The letter ㆍ _ə_ is now obsolete except in the Jeju language.)
There was yet a third parameter in designing the vowel letters, namely, choosing ㅡ as the graphic base of ㅜ and ㅗ, and ㅣ as the graphic base of ㅓ and ㅏ. A full understanding of what these horizontal and vertical groups had in common would require knowing the exact sound values these vowels had in the 15th century.
Our uncertainty is primarily with the three letters ㆍㅓㅏ. Some linguists reconstruct these as *a, *ɤ, *e, respectively; others as *ə, *e, *a. A third reconstruction is to make them all middle vowels as *ʌ, *ɤ, *a. With the third reconstruction, Middle Korean vowels actually line up in a tidy vowel harmony pattern, albeit with only one front vowel and four middle vowels:
ㆍ *ʌ ㅗ *o
However, the horizontal letters ㅡㅜ ㅗ _eu, u, o_ do all appear to have been mid to high back vowels , , and thus to have formed a coherent group phonetically in every reconstruction.
See also: Origin of Hangul
The generally accepted account on the design of the letters is that the vowels are derived from various combinations of the following three components: ㆍ ㅡ ㅣ. Here, ㆍ symbolically stands for the (sun in) heaven, ㅡ stands for the (flat) earth, and ㅣ stands for an (upright) human. The original sequence of the Korean vowels, as stated in Hunminjeongeum , listed these three vowels first, followed by various combinations. Thus, the original order for the vowels was: ㆍ ㅡ ㅣ ㅗ ㅏ ㅜ ㅓ ㅛ ㅑ ㅠ ㅕ. Note that two positive vowels ( ㅗ ㅏ) including one ㆍ are followed by two negative vowels including one ㆍ, then by two positive vowels each including two of ㆍ, and then by two negative vowels each including two of ㆍ.
The same theory provides the most simple explanation of the shapes of the consonants as approximation of the shapes of the most representative organ needed to form that sound. The original order of the consonants in Hunmin Jeong-eum was: ㄱ ㅋ ㆁ ㄷ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅊ ㅅ ㆆ ㅎ ㅇ ㄹ ㅿ.
ㄱ representing the /k/ sound geometrically describes a tongue just before the moment of pronunciation as the tongue blocks the passage of air.
ㆁ representing the /ŋ/ sound may have been derived from ㅇ by addition of a stroke.
ㄴ representing the /n/ sound geometrically describes a tongue making contact with an upper palate just before making the "n" sound.
ㅍ representing the /pʰ/ sound is a variant of ㅂ, which is obtained by rotating 90 degrees and extending the horizontal strokes.
ㅁ representing the /m/ sound geometrically describes a closed mouth before opening the lips.
ㅅ representing the /s/ sound geometrically describes a near contact between the tongue and the teeth.
ㆆ representing the /ʔ/ sound geometrically describes an open throat with a bar to indicate that there is an aspiration.
ㅎ representing the /h/ sound is derived from ㆆ with the extra stroke representing a stronger flow of the aspiration.
ㅇ representing the absence of a consonant geometrically describes an open mouth, which necessarily accompanies the following vowel.
ㄹ representing the /ɾ/ and /l/ sounds geometrically describes a backward-bending tongue.
Ledyard\'s Theory Of Consonant Design
_ A close-up of the inscription on the statue of King Sejong above. It reads Sejong Daewang_ 세종대왕 and illustrates the forms of the letters originally promulgated by Sejong. Note the dots on the vowels, the geometric symmetry of _s_ and _j_ in the first two syllables, the asymmetrical lip at the top-left of the _d_ in the third, and the distinction between initial and final _ieung_ in the last. (Top) 'Phags-pa letters , and their supposed Hangul derivatives . Note the lip on both 'Phags-pa and Hangul ㄷ. (Bottom) Derivation of 'Phags-pa _w, v, f_ from variants of the letter (left) plus a subscript , and analogous composition of Hangul _w, v, f_ from variants of the basic letter plus a circle.
Although the _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye_ explains the design of the consonantal letters in terms of articulatory phonetics , as a purely innovative creation, there are several theories as to which external sources may have inspired or influenced King Sejong's creation. Professor Gari Ledyard of Columbia University studied on possible connections between Hangul and the Mongol \ 'Phags-pa script of the Yuan dynasty . He believed that the role of 'Phags-pa script in the creation of Hangul was quite limited:
It should be clear to any reader that in the total picture, that role was quite limited ... Nothing would disturb me more, after this study is published, than to discover in a work on the history of writing a statement like the following: "According to recent investigations, the Korean alphabet was derived from _the Mongol's phags-pa script ._.." An affine theory states that the consonants are derived from the shape of the speaker's lips and tongue during the pronunciation of the consonants (initially, at least), but this would appear somewhat to strain credulity.
Ledyard posits that five of the Hangul letters have shapes inspired by 'Phags-pa; a sixth basic letter, the null initial ㅇ, was invented by Sejong. The rest of the letters were derived internally from these six, essentially as described in the _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye_. However, the five borrowed consonants were not the graphically simplest letters considered basic by the _Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye,_ but instead the consonants basic to Chinese phonology: ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, and ㄹ.
The _Hunmin Jeong-eum_ states that King Sejong adapted the 古篆 (_gojeon_, "_Gǔ_ Seal Script") in creating Hangul. The 古篆 has never been identified. The primary meaning of 古 _gǔ_ is "old" ("Old Seal Script"), frustrating philologists because Hangul bears no functional similarity to Chinese 篆字 _zhuànzì_ seal scripts . However, Ledyard believes 古 _gǔ_ may be a pun on 蒙古 _Měnggǔ_ "Mongol", and that 古篆 is an abbreviation of 蒙古篆字 "Mongol Seal Script", that is, the formal variant of the 'Phags-pa alphabet written to look like the Chinese seal script. There were 'Phags-pa manuscripts in the Korean palace library, including some in the seal-script form, and several of Sejong's ministers knew the script well.
If this was the case, Sejong's evasion on the Mongol connection can be understood in light of Korea's relationship with Ming China after the fall of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and of the literati's contempt for the Mongols as "barbarians".
According to Ledyard, the five borrowed letters were graphically simplified, which allowed for consonant clusters and left room to add a stroke to derive the aspirate plosives, ㅋㅌㅍㅊ. But in contrast to the traditional account, the non-plosives (ㆁ ㄴ ㅁ ㅅ) were derived by _removing_ the top of the basic letters. He points out that while it's easy to derive ㅁ from ㅂ by removing the top, it's not clear how to derive ㅂ from ㅁ in the traditional account, since the shape of ㅂ is not analogous to those of the other plosives.
The explanation of the letter _ng_ also differs from the traditional account. Many Chinese words began with _ng,_ but by King Sejong's day, initial _ng_ was either silent or pronounced in China, and was silent when these words were borrowed into Korean. Also, the expected shape of _ng_ (the short vertical line left by removing the top stroke of ㄱ) would have looked almost identical to the vowel ㅣ . Sejong's solution solved both problems: The vertical stroke left from ㄱ was added to the null symbol ㅇ to create ㆁ (a circle with a vertical line on top), iconically capturing both the pronunciation in the middle or end of a word, and the usual silence at the beginning. (The graphic distinction between null ㅇ and _ng_ ㆁ was eventually lost.)
Another letter composed of two elements to represent two regional pronunciations was ㅱ, which transcribed the Chinese initial 微. This represented either _m_ or _w_ in various Chinese dialects, and was composed of ㅁ plus ㅇ (from 'Phags-pa ). In 'Phags-pa, a loop under a letter represented _w_ after vowels, and Ledyard proposes this became the loop at the bottom of ㅱ. Now, in 'Phags-pa the Chinese initial 微 is also transcribed as a compound with _w,_ but in its case the _w_ is placed under an _h._ Actually, the Chinese consonant series 微非敷 _w, v, f_ is transcribed in 'Phags-pa by the addition of a _w_ under three graphic variants of the letter for _h,_ and Hangul parallels this convention by adding the _w_ loop to the labial series ㅁㅂ ㅍ _m, b, p,_ producing now-obsolete ㅱㅸㆄ _w, v, f._ (Phonetic values in Korean are uncertain, as these consonants were only used to transcribe Chinese.)
As a final piece of evidence, Ledyard notes that most of the borrowed Hangul letters were simple geometric shapes, at least originally, but that ㄷ _d_ always had a small lip protruding from the upper left corner, just as the 'Phags-pa _d_ did. This lip can be traced back to the Tibetan letter _d_.
The alphabetical order of Hangul does not mix consonants and vowels as the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek alphabets do. Rather, the order is that of the Indic type , first velar consonants, then coronals, labials, sibilants, _etc._ However, the vowels come after the consonants rather than before them as in the Indic systems.
This is the basis of the modern alphabetic orders. It was before the development of the Korean tense consonants and the double letters that represent them, and before the conflation of the letters ㅇ (null) and ㆁ (ng). Thus when the South Korean and North Korean governments implemented full use of Hangul, they ordered these letters differently, with South Korea grouping similar letters together, and North Korea placing new letters at the end of the alphabet.
South Korean Order
The modern monophthongal vowels come first, with the derived forms interspersed according to their form: _i_ is added first, then iotized, then iotized with added _i_. Diphthongs beginning with _w_ are ordered according to their spelling, as ㅗ or ㅜ plus a second vowel, not as separate digraphs .
("None" means there is no final letter.)
Every syllable begins with a consonant (or the silent ㅇ) that is followed by a vowel (e.g. ㄷ + ㅏ = 다). Some syllables such as "달" and "닭" have a final consonant or final consonant cluster (받침). Then, there are a total of 399 possible combinations for "two-letter syllables" and 10,773 possible combinations for syllables with more than two "letters" (27 possible final endings), for a total of 11,172 possible combinations of Hangul "letters" to form syllables.
North Korean Order
ㅇ used as an initial, goes at the very end, as it is a placeholder for the vowels which follow. (A syllable with no final is ordered before all syllables with finals, however, not with null ㅇ.)
The new, double, letters are placed at the end of the consonants, just before the null ㅇ, so as not to alter the traditional order of the rest of the alphabet.
All digraphs and trigraphs , including the old diphthongs ㅐ and ㅔ, are placed after the simple vowels, again maintaining Choe's alphabetic order.
Unlike when it is initial, this ㅇ is pronounced, as the nasal ㅇ _ng,_ which occurs only as a final in the modern language. The double letters are placed to the very end, as in the initial order, but the combined consonants are ordered immediately after their first element.
The Hangul arrangement is called the _ganada_ order, (가나다 순) which is basically an alphabetical order named after the first three letters _(g, n, d)_ affixed to the first vowel _(a)._ The letters were named by Choe Sejin in 1527. North Korea regularized the names when it made Hangul its official orthography.
The modern consonants have two-syllable names, with the consonant coming both at the beginning and end of the name, as follows:
ㄱ _giyeok_ (기역), or _kiŭk_ (기윽) in North Korea
ㄴ _nieun/niŭn_ (니은)
ㄷ _digeut_ (디귿), or _tiŭt_ (디읃) in North Korea
ㄹ _rieul/riŭl_ (리을)
ㅁ _mieum/miŭm_ (미음)
ㅂ _bieup/piŭp_ (비읍)
ㅅ _siot_ (시옷), or _siŭt_ (시읏) in North Korea
ㅇ _ieung/iŭng_ (이응)
ㅈ _jieut/chiŭt_ (지읒)
ㅊ _chieut/ch'iŭt_ (치읓)
ㅋ _kieuk/k'iŭk_ (키읔)
ㅌ _tieut/t'iŭt_ (티읕)
ㅍ _pieup/p'iŭp_ (피읖)
ㅎ _hieut/hiŭt_ (히읗)
All consonants in North Korea, and all but three in the more traditional nomenclature used in South Korea, have names of the format of _letter_ + _i_ + _eu_ + _letter_. For example, Choi wrote _bieup_ with the _hanja_ 非 _bi_ 邑 _eup_. The names of _g,_ _d,_ and _s_ are exceptions because there were no _hanja_ pronouncd _euk,_ _eut,_ and _eus_. 役 _yeok_ is used in place of _euk_. Since there is no _hanja_ that ends in _t_ or _s,_ Choi chose two _hanja_ to be read in their Korean gloss, 末 _kkeut_ "end" and 衣 _ot_ "clothes".
Originally, Choi gave _j, ch, k, t, p,_ and _h_ the irregular one-syllable names of _ji, chi, ki, ti, pi,_ and _hi,_ because they should not be used as final consonants, as specified in _Hunmin jeong-eum_. But after the establishment of the new orthography in 1933, which allowed all consonants to be used as finals, the names were changed to the present forms.
The double consonants are named with the word 쌍/雙 _ssang,_ meaning "twin" or "double", or with 된 _doen_ in North Korea, meaning "strong". Thus:
LETTER SOUTH KOREAN NAME NORTH KOREAN NAME
ㄲ _ssanggiyeok_ (쌍기역) _toen'giŭk_ (된기윽)
ㄸ _ssangdigeut_ (쌍디귿) _toendiŭt_ (된디읃)
ㅃ _ssangbieup_ (쌍비읍) _toenbiŭp_ (된비읍)
ㅆ _ssangsiot_ (쌍시옷) _toensiŭt_ (된시읏)
ㅉ _ssangjieut_ (쌍지읒) _toenjiŭt_ (된지읒)
In North Korea, an alternative way to refer to a consonant is by the name _letter_ + _ŭ_ (ㅡ), for example, 그 _kŭ_ for the letter ㄱ, 쓰 _ssŭ_ for the letter ㅆ, etc.
The names of the vowel letters are simply the vowel itself, written with the null initial ㅇ _ieung_ and the vowel being named. Thus:
LETTER NAME LETTER NAME
ㅏ _a_ (아) ㅐ _ae_ (애)
ㅑ _ya_ (야) ㅒ _yae_ (얘)
ㅓ _eo_ (어) ㅔ _e_ (에)
ㅕ _yeo_ (여) ㅖ _ye_ (예)
ㅗ _o_ (오) ㅘ _wa_ (와)
ㅛ _yo_ (요) ㅙ _wae_ (왜)
ㅚ _oe_ (외)
ㅜ _u_ (우) ㅝ _wo_ (워)
ㅠ _yu_ (유) ㅞ _we_ (웨)
ㅟ _wi_ (위)
ㅡ _eu_ (으) ㅢ _ui_ (의)
ㅣ _i_ (이)
In the Seoul dialect of Modern Korean, _e_ (ㅔ) and _ae_ (ㅐ) have no distinction in pronunciation: for this reason they are denoted as _eo-i_ (어이) for _e_ (ㅔ) and _a-i_ (아이) for _ae_ (ㅐ) when giving the spelling of a word or name in spoken conversation. The lack of distinction typically occurs at the end of syllable blocks, e.g. 대 vs. 데, where the syllable lengthens. Korean vowels
_ Hankido _, a martial arts, using the obsolete vowel _arae-a_ (top)
Several letters are obsolete. These include several that represent Korean sounds that have since disappeared from the standard language, as well as a larger number used to represent the sounds of the Chinese rime tables . The most frequently encountered of these archaic letters are:
* ㆍ (transcribed _ə_ (_arae-a_ 아래아 "lower _a"_): Presumably pronounced , similar to modern ㅓ _eo_. It is written as a dot, positioned beneath (Korean for "beneath" is _arae_) the consonant. The _arae-a_ is not entirely obsolete, as it can be found in various brand names, and in the Jeju language, where it is pronounced
* The _ə_ formed a medial of its own, or was found in the diphthong ㆎ _arae-ae_, written with the dot under the consonant and ㅣ (transcribed _i_) to its right – in the same fashion as ㅚ or ㅢ.
* ㅿ _z_ (_bansiot_ 반시옷, _banchieum_ 반치음): A rather unusual sound, perhaps IPA (a nasalized palatal fricative ). Modern Korean words previously spelled with ㅿ substitute ㅅ or ㅇ. * ㆆ _ʔ_ (_yeorinhieut_ 여린히읗 "light hieut" or _doenieung_ 된이응 "strong ieung"): A glottal stop , "lighter than ㅎ and harsher than ㅇ". * ㆁ _ŋ_ (_yesieung_ 옛이응): The original letter for ; now conflated with ㅇ _ieung_. (With some computer fonts such as Arial Unicode MS , _yesieung_ is shown as a flattened version of _ieung,_ but the correct form is with a long peak, longer than what one would see on a serif version of _ieung_.) * ㅸ _β_ (_gabyeounbieup_ 가벼운비읍, _sungyeongeumbieup_ 순경음비읍): IPA . This letter appears to be a digraph of _bieup_ and _ieung_, but it may be more complicated than that. There were three other, less-common letters for sounds in this section of the Chinese rime tables , ㅱ _w_ ( or ), a theoretical ㆄ _f_, and ㅹ _ff_ ; the bottom element appears to be only coincidentally similar to _ieung_. However its exact shape, it operates somewhat like a following _h_ in the Latin alphabet (one may think of these letters as _bh, mh, ph,_ and _pph_ respectively). Koreans do not distinguish these sounds now, if they ever did, conflating the fricatives with the corresponding plosives .
There were two other now-obsolete double letters,
* ㆅ _x_ (_ssanghieut_ 쌍히읗 "double _hieut_"): IPA or . * ᅇ (_ssang-ieung_ 쌍이응 "double _ieung_"): Another letter used in the Chinese rime table.
In the original Hangul system, double letters were used to represent Chinese voiced (濁音) consonants, which survive in the Shanghainese slack consonants, and were not used for Korean words. It was only later that a similar convention was used to represent the modern "tense" (faucalized ) consonants of Korean.
The sibilant ("dental") consonants were modified to represent the two series of Chinese sibilants, alveolar and retroflex , a "round" vs. "sharp" distinction (analogous to _s_ vs _sh_) which was never made in Korean, and which was even being lost from southern Chinese. The alveolar letters had longer left stems, while retroflexes had longer right stems:
ORIGINAL CONSONANTS ㅅ ㅆ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ
_CHIDUEUM_ (ALVEOLAR SIBILANT ) ᄼ ᄽ ᅎ ᅏ ᅔ
_JEONGCHIEUM_ (RETROFLEX SIBILANT ) ᄾ ᄿ ᅐ ᅑ ᅕ
There were also consonant clusters that have since dropped out of the language, such as the finals ㅴ _bsg_ and ㅵ _bsd_, as well as diphthongs that were used to represent Chinese medials, such as ㆇ, ㆈ, ㆊ, ㆋ.
Some of the Korean sounds represented by these obsolete letters still exist in some dialects.
See also: List of Hangul Jamo Main articles: Hangul Syllables ( Unicode block) , Hangul Jamo ( Unicode block) , Hangul Jamo Extended-A ( Unicode block) , Hangul Jamo Extended-B ( Unicode block) , Hangul Compatibility Jamo ( Unicode block) , Enclosed CJK Letters and Months , and Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms ( Unicode block)
Hangul Jamo (U+1100–U+11FF) and Hangul Compatibility Jamo (U+3130–U+318F) blocks were added to the Unicode Standard in June 1993 with the release of version 1.1. The characters were relocated to their present locations in July, 1996 with the release of version 2.0.
HANGUL JAMO Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+110x ᄀ ᄁ ᄂ ᄃ ᄄ ᄅ ᄆ ᄇ ᄈ ᄉ ᄊ ᄋ ᄌ ᄍ ᄎ ᄏ
U+111x ᄐ ᄑ ᄒ ᄓ ᄔ ᄕ ᄖ ᄗ ᄘ ᄙ ᄚ ᄛ ᄜ ᄝ ᄞ ᄟ
U+112x ᄠ ᄡ ᄢ ᄣ ᄤ ᄥ ᄦ ᄧ ᄨ ᄩ ᄪ ᄫ ᄬ ᄭ ᄮ ᄯ
U+113x ᄰ ᄱ ᄲ ᄳ ᄴ ᄵ ᄶ ᄷ ᄸ ᄹ ᄺ ᄻ ᄼ ᄽ ᄾ ᄿ
U+114x ᅀ ᅁ ᅂ ᅃ ᅄ ᅅ ᅆ ᅇ ᅈ ᅉ ᅊ ᅋ ᅌ ᅍ ᅎ ᅏ
U+115x ᅐ ᅑ ᅒ ᅓ ᅔ ᅕ ᅖ ᅗ ᅘ ᅙ ᅚ ᅛ ᅜ ᅝ ᅞ HC F
U+116x HJ F ᅡ ᅢ ᅣ ᅤ ᅥ ᅦ ᅧ ᅨ ᅩ ᅪ ᅫ ᅬ ᅭ ᅮ ᅯ
U+117x ᅰ ᅱ ᅲ ᅳ ᅴ ᅵ ᅶ ᅷ ᅸ ᅹ ᅺ ᅻ ᅼ ᅽ ᅾ ᅿ
U+118x ᆀ ᆁ ᆂ ᆃ ᆄ ᆅ ᆆ ᆇ ᆈ ᆉ ᆊ ᆋ ᆌ ᆍ ᆎ ᆏ
U+119x ᆐ ᆑ ᆒ ᆓ ᆔ ᆕ ᆖ ᆗ ᆘ ᆙ ᆚ ᆛ ᆜ ᆝ ᆞ ᆟ
U+11Ax ᆠ ᆡ ᆢ ᆣ ᆤ ᆥ ᆦ ᆧ ᆨ ᆩ ᆪ ᆫ ᆬ ᆭ ᆮ ᆯ
U+11Bx ᆰ ᆱ ᆲ ᆳ ᆴ ᆵ ᆶ ᆷ ᆸ ᆹ ᆺ ᆻ ᆼ ᆽ ᆾ ᆿ
U+11Cx ᇀ ᇁ ᇂ ᇃ ᇄ ᇅ ᇆ ᇇ ᇈ ᇉ ᇊ ᇋ ᇌ ᇍ ᇎ ᇏ
U+11Dx ᇐ ᇑ ᇒ ᇓ ᇔ ᇕ ᇖ ᇗ ᇘ ᇙ ᇚ ᇛ ᇜ ᇝ ᇞ ᇟ
U+11Ex ᇠ ᇡ ᇢ ᇣ ᇤ ᇥ ᇦ ᇧ ᇨ ᇩ ᇪ ᇫ ᇬ ᇭ ᇮ ᇯ
U+11Fx ᇰ ᇱ ᇲ ᇳ ᇴ ᇵ ᇶ ᇷ ᇸ ᇹ ᇺ ᇻ ᇼ ᇽ ᇾ ᇿ
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2. ᄀ: Hangul _jamo_ with a green background are modern-usage characters which can be converted into precomposed Hangul syllables under Unicode normalization form NFC. Hangul _jamo_ with a white background are used for archaic Korean only, and there are no corresponding precomposed Hangul syllables. "Conjoining Jamo Behavior" (PDF). _The Unicode Standard (version 8.0)_. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
HANGUL JAMO EXTENDED-A Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+A96x ꥠ ꥡ ꥢ ꥣ ꥤ ꥥ ꥦ ꥧ ꥨ ꥩ ꥪ ꥫ ꥬ ꥭ ꥮ ꥯ
U+A97x ꥰ ꥱ ꥲ ꥳ ꥴ ꥵ ꥶ ꥷ ꥸ ꥹ ꥺ ꥻ ꥼ
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
HANGUL JAMO EXTENDED-B Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+D7Bx ힰ ힱ ힲ ힳ ힴ ힵ ힶ ힷ ힸ ힹ ힺ ힻ ힼ ힽ ힾ ힿ
U+D7Cx ퟀ ퟁ ퟂ ퟃ ퟄ ퟅ ퟆ
ퟋ ퟌ ퟍ ퟎ ퟏ
U+D7Dx ퟐ ퟑ ퟒ ퟓ ퟔ ퟕ ퟖ ퟗ ퟘ ퟙ ퟚ ퟛ ퟜ ퟝ ퟞ ퟟ
U+D7Ex ퟠ ퟡ ퟢ ퟣ ퟤ ퟥ ퟦ ퟧ ퟨ ퟩ ퟪ ퟫ ퟬ ퟭ ퟮ ퟯ
U+D7Fx ퟰ ퟱ ퟲ ퟳ ퟴ ퟵ ퟶ ퟷ ퟸ ퟹ ퟺ ퟻ
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
HANGUL COMPATIBILITY JAMO Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
ㄱ ㄲ ㄳ ㄴ ㄵ ㄶ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ
U+314x ㅀ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅄ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㅏ
U+315x ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ
U+316x ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ HF ㅥ ㅦ ㅧ ㅨ ㅩ ㅪ ㅫ ㅬ ㅭ ㅮ ㅯ
U+317x ㅰ ㅱ ㅲ ㅳ ㅴ ㅵ ㅶ ㅷ ㅸ ㅹ ㅺ ㅻ ㅼ ㅽ ㅾ ㅿ
U+318x ㆀ ㆁ ㆂ ㆃ ㆄ ㆅ ㆆ ㆇ ㆈ ㆉ ㆊ ㆋ ㆌ ㆍ ㆎ
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Parenthesised (U+3200–U+321E) and circled (U+3260–U+327E) Hangul compatibility characters are in the Enclosed CJK Letters and Months block:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+320x ㈀ ㈁ ㈂ ㈃ ㈄ ㈅ ㈆ ㈇ ㈈ ㈉ ㈊ ㈋ ㈌ ㈍ ㈎ ㈏
U+321x ㈐ ㈑ ㈒ ㈓ ㈔ ㈕ ㈖ ㈗ ㈘ ㈙ ㈚ ㈛ ㈜ ㈝ ㈞
... (U+3220–U+325F omitted)
U+326x ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ㉣ ㉤ ㉥ ㉦ ㉧ ㉨ ㉩ ㉪ ㉫ ㉬ ㉭ ㉮ ㉯
U+327x ㉰ ㉱ ㉲ ㉳ ㉴ ㉵ ㉶ ㉷ ㉸ ㉹ ㉺ ㉻ ㉼ ㉽ ㉾
... (U+3280–U+32FF omitted)
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Half-width Hangul compatibility characters (U+FFA0–U+FFDC) are in the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
... (U+FF00–U+FF9F omitted)
U+FFAx HW HF ﾡ ﾢ ﾣ ﾤ ﾥ ﾦ ﾧ ﾨ ﾩ ﾪ ﾫ ﾬ ﾭ ﾮ ﾯ
U+FFBx ﾰ ﾱ ﾲ ﾳ ﾴ ﾵ ﾶ ﾷ ﾸ ﾹ ﾺ ﾻ ﾼ ﾽ ﾾ
ￂ ￃ ￄ ￅ ￆ ￇ
ￊ ￋ ￌ ￍ ￎ ￏ
ￒ ￓ ￔ ￕ ￖ ￗ
ￚ ￛ ￜ
... (U+FFE0–U+FFEF omitted)
NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
The words 놉니다, 흘렀다, 깨달으니, 지어, 고와, 왕, 가져서 written in New Orthography.
To make Hangul a perfect morphophonological fit to the Korean language, North Korea introduced six new letters, which were published in the _ New Orthography for the Korean Language _ and used officially from 1948 to 1954.
Two obsolete letters were restored: ⟨ㅿ⟩ (리읃), which was used to indicate an alternation in pronunciation between initial /l/ and final /d/; and ⟨ㆆ⟩ (히으), which was only pronounced between vowels. Two modifications of the letter ㄹ were introduced, one for a ㄹ which is silent finally, and one for a ㄹ which doubled between vowels. A hybrid ㅂ- ㅜ letter was introduced for words which alternated between those two sounds (that is, a /b/ which became /w/ before a vowel). Finally, a vowel ⟨1⟩ was introduced for variable iotation .
Except for a few grammatical morphemes prior to the twentieth century, no letter may stand alone to represent elements of the Korean language. Instead, letters are grouped into syllabic or morphemic blocks of at least two and often three: (1) a consonant or a doubled consonant called the INITIAL (초성, 初聲 _choseong_ syllable onset ), (2) a vowel or diphthong called the MEDIAL (중성, 中聲 _jungseong_ syllable nucleus ), and, optionally, (3) a consonant or consonant cluster at the end of the syllable, called the FINAL (종성, 終聲 _jongseong_ syllable coda ). When a syllable has no actual initial consonant, the null initial ㅇ _ieung_ is used as a placeholder. (In modern Hangul, placeholders are not used for the final position.) Thus, a block contains a minimum of two letters, an initial and a medial. Although the Hangul had historically been organized into syllables, in the modern orthography it is first organized into morphemes, and only secondarily into syllables within those morphemes, with the exception that single-consonant morphemes may not be written alone.
The sets of initial and final consonants are not the same. For instance, ㅇ _ng_ only occurs in final position, while the doubled letters that can occur in final position are limited to ㅆ _ss_ and ㄲ _kk_.
Not including obsolete letters, there are 11,172 possible Hangul blocks.
LETTER PLACEMENT WITHIN A BLOCK
History of the alphabet -------------------------
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE
* _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE
* _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE
* _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE
* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE
* _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE
* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE
* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE
* _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE
* Samaritan 6 c. BCE
* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_
* _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE
* Aramaic 8 c. BCE
* _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE
* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE
* Brahmic family _(see)_
* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE
* Hangul (core letters only) 1443
* Devanagari 13 c. CE
* Canadian syllabics 1840
* Hebrew 3 c. BCE
* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE
* _Avestan _ 4 c. CE
* _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE
* Syriac 2 c. BCE
* _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE
* Arabic 4 c. CE
* N\'Ko 1949 CE
* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE
* _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE
* _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE
* _Old Uyghur _
* Mongolian 1204 CE
* Mandaic 2 c. CE
* Greek 8 c. BCE
* _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE
* Latin 7 c. BCE
* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE
* _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE
* _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE
* Cyrillic c. 940 CE
* _Old Permic _ 1372 CE
* v * t * e
The placement or "stacking" of letters in the block follows set patterns based on the shape of the medial.
Vowels (medials) are written under the initial consonant, to the right, or wrap around the initial from bottom to right, depending on their shape: If the vowel has a horizontal axis like ㅡ _eu,_ then it is written under the initial; if it has a vertical axis like ㅣ _i,_ then it is written to the right of the initial; and if it combines both orientations, like ㅢ _ui,_ then it wraps around the initial from the bottom to the right:
initial med. 2
A final consonant, if there is one, is always written at the bottom, under the vowel. This is called 받침 _batchim_ "supporting floor":
initial med. 2
A complex final is written left to right:
final 1 final 2
final 1 final 2
initial med. 2
fin. 1 fin. 2
Blocks are always written in phonetic order, initial-medial-final. Therefore:
* Syllables with a horizontal medial are written downward: 읍 _eup_; * Syllables with a vertical medial and simple final are written clockwise: 쌍 _ssang_; * Syllables with a wrapping medial switch direction (down-right-down): 된 _doen_; * Syllables with a complex final are written left to right at the bottom: 밟 _balp_.
Normally the resulting block is written within a square of the same size and shape as a hanja (Chinese character) by compressing or stretching the letters to fill the bounds of the block; therefore someone not familiar with the scripts may mistake Hangul text for hanja or Chinese text.
However, some recent fonts (for example Eun, HY깊은샘물M, UnJamo) move towards the European practice of letters whose relative size is fixed, and the use of whitespace to fill letter positions not used in a particular block, and away from the East Asian tradition of square block characters (方块字). They break one or more of the traditional rules:
* Do not stretch initial consonant vertically, but leave white space below it if no lower vowel and/or no final consonant. * Do not stretch right-hand vowel vertically, but leave white space below it if no final consonant. (Often the right-hand vowel extends farther down than the left-hand consonant, like a descender in European typography) * Do not stretch final consonant horizontally, but leave white space to left of it. * Do not stretch or pad each block to be a fixed width , but allow variable width (kerning ) where syllable blocks with no right-hand vowel and no double final consonant can be narrower than blocks that do have a right-hand vowel or double final consonant.
So far, these fonts have been used as design accents on signs or headings, rather than for typesetting large volumes of body text.
There was a minor and unsuccessful movement in the early twentieth century to abolish syllabic blocks and write the letters individually and in a row, in the fashion of the European alphabets: e.g. ㅎㅏㄴㄱㅡ ㄹ for 한글 _Hangeul._
Avant-garde typographer Ahn Sangsu made a font for the " Hangul Dada" exposition that exploded the syllable blocks; but while it strings out the letters horizontally, it retains the distinctive vertical position each letter would normally have within a block, unlike the century-old linear writing proposals.
While Koreans have largely accepted the European-derived conventions of writing successive syllables left-to-right in horizontal lines instead of in vertical columns, adding spaces between words, and European-style punctuation, they have completely resisted getting rid of syllabic blocks, the most distinctive feature of this writing system.
Until the 20th century, no official orthography of Hangul had been established. Due to liaison, heavy consonant assimilation, dialectical variants and other reasons, a Korean word can potentially be spelled in various ways. King Sejong seemed to prefer morphophonemic spelling (representing the underlying root forms) rather than a phonemic one (representing the actual sounds). However, early in its history, Hangul was dominated by phonemic spelling. Over the centuries the orthography became partially morphophonemic, first in nouns, and later in verbs. Today it is as morphophonemic as is practical. The difference between phonetic Romanization, phonemic orthography, and morpho-phonemic orthography can be illustrated with the phrase _motaneun sarami_:
* Phonetic transcription and translation:
motaneun sarami _a person who cannot do it_
* Phonemic transcription:
* Morphophonemic transcription:
* Morpheme-by-morpheme gloss :
After the Gabo Reform in 1894, the Joseon Dynasty and later the Korean Empire started to write all official documents in Hangul. Under the government's management, proper usage of Hangul and hanja, including orthography, was discussed, until the Korean Empire was annexed by Japan in 1910.
The Government-General of Korea popularized the writing style of a mixture of hanja and Hangul which was used in later Joseon dynasty. The government revised the spelling rules in 1912, 1921 and 1930, which were relatively phonemic.
The Hangul Society , founded by Ju Si-gyeong , announced a proposal for a new, strongly morphophonemic orthography in 1933, which became the prototype of the contemporary orthographies in both North and South Korea. After Korea was divided, the North and South revised orthographies separately. The guiding text for Hangul orthography is called _Hangeul Machumbeop_, whose last South Korean revision was published in 1988 by the Ministry of Education.
_ The U.S. city of Gardena in Hangul, with the written as Latin ⟨G⟩. (Compare this large ⟨G⟩ with the smaller ⟨G⟩ in all-Latin Gardena_ below: The large ⟨G⟩ is fused (at bottom-right) with the Hangul ⟨ㄱ⟩ that would normally be used to transcribe _Gardena_.)
Since the Late Joseon dynasty period, various _hanja- Hangul mixed systems _ were used. In these systems, hanja was used for lexical roots, and Hangul for grammatical words and inflections, much as _kanji_ and _kana_ are used in Japanese. Today however, _hanja_ have been almost entirely phased out of daily use in North Korea, and in South Korea they are now mostly restricted to parenthetical glosses for proper names and for disambiguating homonyms.
Indo-Arabic numerals are also mixed in with Hangul, as in 2007년 3월 22일 (22 March 2007). In Korean pop-culture Roman words may be mixed in for artistic purposes as well.
The Latin script, and occasionally other scripts, may be sprinkled within Korean texts for illustrative purposes, or for unassimilated loanwords . Very occasionally non- Hangul letters may be mixed into Hangul syllabic blocks, as G ㅏ _Ga_ at right.
Because of the clustering of syllables, words are shorter on the page than their linear counterparts would be, and the boundaries between syllables are easily visible (which may aid reading, if segmenting words into syllables is more natural for the reader than dividing them up into phonemes). Because the component parts of the syllable are relatively simple phonemic characters, the number of strokes per character on average is lower than in Chinese characters. Unlike syllabaries, such as Japanese kana, or Chinese logographs, none of which encode the constituent phonemes within a syllable, the graphic complexity of Korean syllabic blocks varies in direct proportion with the phonemic complexity of the syllable. Unlike linear alphabets such as those derived from Latin , the Korean orthography allows the reader to "utilize both the horizontal and vertical visual fields"; finally, since Hangul syllables are represented both as collections of phonemes and as unique-looking graphs, they may allow for both visual and aural retrieval of words from the lexicon .
Three Korean type styles (gungche, batang(myeongjo), dotum(gothic)) next to analogous Latin type styles
Hangul may be written either vertically or horizontally. The traditional direction is from top to bottom, right to left. Horizontal writing in the style of the Latin script was promoted by Ju Si-gyeong , and has become overwhelmingly prevalent.
In _ Hunmin Jeongeum _, Hangul was printed in sans-serif angular lines of even thickness. This style is found in books published before about 1900, and can be found today in stone carvings (on statues, for example).
Over the centuries, an ink-brush style of calligraphy developed, employing the same style of lines and angles as traditional Korean calligraphy. This brush style is called _gungche_ (궁체 宮體), which means "Palace Style" because the style was mostly developed and used by the maidservants (_gungnyeo,_ 궁녀 宮女) of the court in Joseon dynasty.
Modern styles that are more suited for printed media were developed in the 20th century. In 1993, new names for both Myeongjo (明朝) and Gothic styles were introduced when Ministry of Culture initiated an effort to standardize typographic terms, and the names _Batang_ (바탕, meaning "background") and _Dotum_ (돋움, meaning "stand out") replaced Myeongjo and Gothic respectively. These names are also used in Microsoft Windows .
A sans-serif style with lines of equal width is popular with pencil and pen writing, and is often the default typeface of Web browsers. A minor advantage of this style is that it makes it easier to distinguish _-eung_ from _-ung_ even in small or untidy print, as the _jongseong ieung_ (ㅇ) of such fonts usually lacks a serif that could be mistaken for the short vertical line of the letter ㅜ _(u)_.
* Korea portal * Language portal
* ^ _Ja_ means letter or character, and _mo_ means mother, so the name suggests that the _jamo_ are the building-blocks of the script. * ^ The explanation of the origin of the shapes of the letters is provided within a section of Hunminjeongeum itself, 훈민정음 해례본 제자해 ( Hunminjeongeum Haeryebon Jajahae _or_ Hunminjeongeum, Chapter: Paraphrases and Examples, Section: Making of Letters), which states: 牙音 ㄱ 象舌根閉喉之形. (아음(어금니 소리) ㄱ은 혀뿌리가 목구멍을 막는 모양을 본뜨고), 舌音 ㄴ 象舌附上腭之形 ( 설음(혓 소리) ㄴ은 혀(끝)가 윗 잇몸에 붙는 모양을 본뜨고), 脣音 ㅁ 象口形. ( 순음(입술소리) ㅁ은 입모양을 본뜨고), 齒音 ㅅ 象齒形. ( 치음(잇 소리) ㅅ은 이빨 모양을 본뜨고) 象齒形. 喉音ㅇ. 象喉形 (목구멍 소리ㅇ은 목구멍의 꼴을 본뜬 것이다). ㅋ比ㄱ. 聲出稍 . 故加 . ㄴ而ㄷ. ㄷ而ㅌ. ㅁ而ㅂ. ㅂ而ㅍ. ㅅ而ㅈ. ㅈ而ㅊ. ㅇ而ㅡ. ㅡ而ㅎ. 其因聲加 之義皆同. 而唯 爲異 (ㅋ은ㄱ에 견주어 소리 남이 조금 세므로 획을 더한 것이고, ㄴ에서 ㄷ으로, ㄷ에서 ㅌ으로 함과, ㅁ에서 ㅂ으로 ㅂ에서 ㅍ으로 함과, ㅅ에서 ㅈ으로 ㅈ에서 ㅊ으로 함과, ㅇ에서 ㅡ으로 ㅡ에서 ㅎ으로 함도, 그 소리를 따라 획을 더한 뜻이 같다 . 오직 ㅇ자는 다르다.) 半舌音ㄹ. 半齒音. 亦象舌齒之形而異其體. (반혓소리ㄹ과, 반잇소리 '세모자'는 또한 혀와 이의 꼴을 본뜨되, 그 본을 달리하여 획을 더하는 뜻이 없다.) ...
* ^ "Tale of Hong Gildong". World Digital Library . Retrieved 3 May 2013. * ^ Soobok Lee (2001). "Improving ACE using code point reordering v1.0". _tools.ietf.org_. * ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000 , p. 13 * ^ Young-Key 1997 , p. 2 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "5. Different Names for Hangeul". The National Academy of the Korean Language. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ Choi Seung-un; Structures et particularités de la langue coréenne * ^ _A_ _B_ _ Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye _, postface of Jeong Inji , p. 27a, translation from Gari K. Ledyard , _The Korean Language Reform of 1446_, p. 258 * ^ Korean Wikisource : http://ko.wikisource.org/wiki/훈민정음 * ^ _A_ _B_ "2. The Background of the invention of Hangeul". The National Academy of the Korean Language. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ Hannas, Wm C. _Asia\'s Orthographic Dilemma_. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920 . Retrieved 20 September 2016.
* ^ Chen, Jiangping. _Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections_. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559 . Retrieved 20 September 2016. * ^ "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese. * ^ "Korea Now". 29. Korea Herald. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2016. * ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. _Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists_. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545 . Retrieved 13 October 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Pratt, Rutt, Hoare, 1999. _Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary._ Routledge. * ^ _A_ _B_ "4. The providing process of Hangeul". The National Academy of the Korean Language. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ "Jeongeumcheong, synonymous with Eonmuncheong (정음청 正音廳, 동의어: 언문청)" (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture . Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ "Korea Britannica article" (in Korean). Enc.daum.net. Retrieved 2012-04-13. * ^ WorldCat, _Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu_; alternate romaji _Sankoku Tsūran Zusetsu_ * ^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). _A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 137._, p. 137, at Google Books * ^ Vos, Ken. "Accidental acquisitions: The nineteenth-century Korean collections in the National Museum of Ethnology, Part 1," Archived 2012-06-22 at the Wayback Machine . p. 6 (pdf p. 7); Klaproth, Julius. (1832). _San kokf tsou ran to sets, ou Aperçu général des trois royaumes, pp. 19 n1._, p. 19, at Google Books * ^ Klaproth, _pp. 1-168._, p. 1, at Google Books * ^ Silva, David J. (2008). "Missionary Contributions toward the Revaluation of Han'geul in Late 19th Century Korea". _International Journal of the Sociology of Language_. 192: 57–74. doi :10.1515/ijsl.2008.035 . * ^ "Korean History". Korea.assembly.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-04-13. * ^ " Hangul 한글". _The modern and contemporary history of Hangul (한글의 근·현대사)_ (in Korean). Daum / Britannica . Retrieved 2008-05-19. 1937년 7월 중일전쟁을 도발한 일본은 한민족 말살정책을 노골적으로 드러내, 1938년 4월에는 조선어과 폐지와 조선어 금지 및 일본어 상용을 강요했다. * ^ "under The Media". Lcweb2.loc.gov. 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2012-04-13. * ^ _ The Hankyoreh _. 어른 25% 한글 못써...정부대책 \'까막눈\', October 8, 2003 * ^ "Linguistics Scholar Seeks to Globalize Korean Alphabet". _Korea Times_. 2008-10-15. * ^ "Hangeul didn’t become Cia Cia’s official writing". _Korea Times_. 2010-10-06. * ^ Indonesian tribe to use Korean alphabet Archived August 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Si-soo, Park (2009-08-06). "Indonesian Tribe Picks Hangeul as Writing System". _Korea Times_. * ^ Kurt Achin (29 January 2010). "Indonesian Tribe Learns to Write with Korean Alphabet". _Voice of America_. * ^ "Gov’t to correct textbook on Cia Cia". _Korea Times_. 2012-10-18. * ^ Cited in Taylor 1980 , p. 65 * ^ The Japanese/Korean Vowel Correspondences by Bjarke Frellesvig and John Whitman. Section 3 deals with Middle Korean vowels. * ^ Korean orthography rules * ^ The Korean language reform of 1446 : the origin, background, and Early History of the Korean Alphabet, Gari Keith Ledyard. University of California, 1966, p. 367-368. * ^ Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, _The World's Writing Systems_ (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 219-220 * ^ Ho-Min Sohn (29 March 2001). _The Korean Language_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-521-36943-5 . * ^ Iksop Lee; S. Robert Ramsey (2000). _The Korean Language_. SUNY Press. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-0-7914-4832-8 . * ^ Ki-Moon Lee; S. Robert Ramsey (3 March 2011). _A History of the Korean Language_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-1-139-49448-9 . * ^ _Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary - Keith L. Pratt, Richard Rutt, James Hoare - Google Boeken_. Books.google.com. 1999-09-13. Retrieved 2012-04-13. * ^ Ezer, Oded. " Hangul Dada, Seoul, Korea". Flickr. Retrieved 2012-04-13. * ^ Taylor 1980 , p. 71 * ^ Taylor 1980 , p. 73 * ^ Taylor 1980 , p. 70
* Chang, Suk-jin (1996). "Scripts and Sounds". _Korean_. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55619-728-4 . (Volume 4 of the _London Oriental and African Language Library_). * Hannas, William C (1997). _Asia\'s Orthographic Dilemma_. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X . * Young-Key, Kim-Renaud, ed. (1997). _The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure_. University of Hawai`i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1723-7 . * Lee, Iksop; Ramsey, Samuel Robert (2000). _The Korean Language_. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9130-0 . * "Hangeul Matchumbeop". The Ministry of Education of South Korea. 1988. * Sampson, Geoffrey (1990). _Writing Systems_. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1756-4 . * Silva, David J. (2002). "Western attitudes toward the Korean language: An Overview of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth-Century Mission Literature" (PDF). _Korean Studies _. 26 (2): 270–286. doi :10.1353/ks.2004.0013 . * Sohn, Ho-Min (2001). _The Korean Language_. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36943-5 . * Song, Jae Jung (2005). _The Korean Language: Structure, Use and Context_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-39082-5 . * Taylor, Insup (1980). "The Korean writing system: An alphabet? A syllabary? A logography?". In Kolers, P.A.; Wrolstad, M. E.; Bouma, Herman . _Processing of Visual Language_. 2. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0306405768 . OCLC 7099393 .
_ Look up APPENDIX:LIST OF MODERN HANGUL SYLLABIC BLOCKS BY STROKES _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to HANGUL _.
* Korean alphabet and pronunciation by Omniglot * Online Hangul tutorial at Langintro.com * Hangul table with Audio Slideshow * Technical information on Hangul and Unicode * Hangul Sound Keyboard at Kmaru.com * Learn Hangul at Korean Wiki Project
* v * t * e
Types of writing systems
* Writing systems
* undeciphered * inventors * constructed
* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts
* _Numerals _
* Arabic * Pitman shorthand
* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo
* Libyco-Berber * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon
* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan
* South Arabian
* Zabur * Musnad
* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā
* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic
* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri
* Uchen * Umê
* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square
* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam
* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari
* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand
* Canadian syllabics
* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics
* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand
* Chinook writing
* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham * Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi
* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi * Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec
CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS
* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script
* Seal Script
* large * small *