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The Hanafi
Hanafi
(Arabic: حنفي‎ Ḥanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).[1] It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa
Abū Ḥanīfa
an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
and Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia
Sharia
in Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
are Maliki, Shafi`i
Shafi`i
and Hanbali.[2][3] Hanafi
Hanafi
is the fiqh with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims.[4] It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the Indian subcontinent, northwest China
China
and Central Asia. In the modern era, Hanafi
Hanafi
is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Iraq, the Caucasus, parts of Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of India
India
and China, and Bangladesh.[4][5][6]

Contents

1 Sources and methodology 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Sources and methodology[edit]

Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi
Hanafi
(light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Western Middle East, Western and Nile river region of Egypt, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Europe, India, China
China
and Russia.[4][5] An estimated one-third of all Muslims worldwide follow Hanafi
Hanafi
law.[4]

The sources from which the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab derives Islamic law are, in order of importance and preference: the Quran, and the hadiths containing the words, actions and customs of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(narrated in six hadith collections, of which Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
are the most relied upon); if these sources were ambiguous on an issue, then the consensus of the Sahabah
Sahabah
community ( Ijma
Ijma
of the companions of Muhammad), then individual's opinion from the Sahabah, Qiyas (analogy), Istihsan (juristic preference), and finally local Urf (local custom of people).[7] Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogy (Qiyas) as a method to derive Islamic law when the Quran
Quran
and hadiths are silent or ambiguous in their guidance.[8] The foundational texts of Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab, credited to Abū Ḥanīfa and his students Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
and Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani, include Al-fiqh al-akbar (theological book on jurisprudence), Al-fiqh al-absat (general book on jurisprudence), Kitab al-athar (thousands of hadiths with commentary), Kitab al-kharaj and Kitab al-siyar (doctrine of war against unbelievers, distribution of spoils of war among Muslims, apostasy and taxation of dhimmi).[9][10][11] History[edit] As the fourth Caliph, Ali
Ali
had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of law based many of its rulings on the earliest Islamic traditions as transmitted by Sahaba
Sahaba
residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali
Ali
and Abdullah, son of Masud
Abdullah, son of Masud
formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities such as Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, Ja'far al-Sadiq, and Zayd ibn Ali. Many jurists and historians had lived in Kufa
Kufa
including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman.[citation needed] In the early history of Islam, Hanafi
Hanafi
doctrine was not fully compiled. The fiqh was fully compiled and documented in the 11th century.[12] The Turkish rulers were some of the earliest adopters of the relatively more flexible Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh, and preferred it over the traditionalist Medina-based fiqhs which favored correlating all laws to Quran
Quran
and Hadiths and disfavored Islamic law based on discretion of jurists.[13] The Abbasids patronized the Hanafi
Hanafi
school from the 10th century onwards. The Seljuk Turkish dynasties of 11th and 12th centuries, followed by Ottomans adopted Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh. The Turkic expansion spread Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh through Central Asia
Central Asia
and into South Asia, with the establishment of Seljuk Empire, Timurid dynasty, Khanates and Delhi Sultanate.[12][13] See also[edit]

Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
portal politics portal

Apostasy in Islam Islamic schools and branches Islamic views on sin Salat Sharia List of major Hanafi
Hanafi
books List of Hanafis

References[edit]

^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919, pp. 24–29 ^ Gregory Mack, Jurisprudence, in Gerhard Böwering et al (2012), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691134840, p. 289 ^ Sunnite Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ a b c d Jurisprudence and Law – Islam
Islam
Reorienting the Veil, University of North Carolina (2009) ^ a b Siegbert Uhlig (2005), "Hanafism" in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha, Vol 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447052382, pp. 997–99 ^ Abu Umar
Umar
Faruq Ahmad (2010), Theory and Practice of Modern Islamic Finance, ISBN 978-1599425177, pp. 77–78 ^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919, p. 26 ^ See: *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pp. 236–37. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933. *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam
Islam
1840–1940: A Sourcebook, p. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002. *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, p. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 2005. *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, p. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984. *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, p. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, p. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007. *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, p. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pp. 89–113. 1974 ^ Oliver Leaman (2005), The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0415326391, pp. 7–8 ^ Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013 ^ Majid Khadduri
Majid Khadduri
(1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754 ^ a b Nazeer Ahmed, Islam
Islam
in Global History, ISBN 978-0738859620, pp. 112–14 ^ a b John L. Esposito (1999), The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195107999, pp. 112–14

Further reading[edit]

Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship (Albany, SUNY Press, 1996). Nurit Tsafrir, The History of an Islamic School of Law: The Early Spread of Hanafism (Harvard, Harvard Law School, 2004) (Harvard Series in Islamic Law, 3). Behnam Sadeghi (2013), The Logic of Law Making in Islam: Women and Prayer in the Legal Tradition, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 6, "The Historical Development of Hanafi
Hanafi
Reasoning", ISBN 978-1107009097 Theory of Hanafi
Hanafi
law: Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013 Hanafi
Hanafi
theory of war and taxation: Majid Khadduri
Majid Khadduri
(1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754 Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9. 

External links[edit]

Hanafiyya Bulend Shanay, Lancaster University Kitab al-siyar al-saghir (Summary version of the Hanafi
Hanafi
doctrine of War) Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani, Translator - Mahmood Ghazi The Legal Aspects of Marriage according to Hanafi
Hanafi
Fiqh
Fiqh
Islamic Quarterly London, 1985, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 193–219 Al-Hedaya, A 12th century compilation of Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh-based religious law, by Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani, Translated by Charles Hamilton Development of family law in Afghanistan: The role of the Hanafi Madhhab
Madhhab
Central Asian Survey, Volume 16, Issue 3, 1997

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