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The HANAFI (Arabic : حنفي‎ Ḥanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh ). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani . The other major schools of Sharia
Sharia
in Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
are Maliki , Shafi`i and Hanbali .

Hanafi
Hanafi
is the fiqh with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims. It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, northwest China
China
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. In the modern era, Hanafi
Hanafi
is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey
Turkey
, the Balkans , Syria
Syria
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Jordan
Jordan
, Palestine , Egypt
Egypt
, parts of Iraq
Iraq
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, parts of Russia
Russia
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Tajikistan , Uzbekistan , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, parts of India
India
and China
China
, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Sources and methodology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY

Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi
Hanafi
(light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey
Turkey
, the Western Middle East
Middle East
, Western and Nile river region of Egypt
Egypt
, Central Asia
Central Asia
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, and parts of Southeast Europe , India
India
, China
China
and Russia . An estimated one-third of all Muslims worldwide follow Hanafi
Hanafi
law.

The sources from which the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab derives Islamic law are, in order of importance and preference: the Quran , and the hadiths containing the words, actions and customs of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(narrated in six hadith collections, of which Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
are the most relied upon); if these sources were ambiguous on an issue, then the consensus of the Sahabah community ( Ijma of the companions of Muhammad), then individual's opinion from the Sahabah, Qiyas (analogy), Istihsan (juristic preference), and finally local Urf (local custom of people).

Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogy ( Qiyas ) as a method to derive Islamic law when the Quran and hadiths are silent or ambiguous in their guidance.

The foundational texts of Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab, credited to Abū Ḥanīfa and his students Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani , include Al-fiqh al-akbar (theological book on jurisprudence), Al-fiqh al-absat (general book on jurisprudence), Kitab al-athar (thousands of hadiths with commentary), Kitab al-kharaj and Kitab al-siyar (doctrine of war against unbelievers, distribution of spoils of war among Muslims, apostasy and taxation of dhimmi ).

HISTORY

As the fourth Caliph, Ali
Ali
had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa , and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of law based many of its rulings on the earliest Islamic traditions as transmitted by Sahaba residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali
Ali
and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities such as Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir , Ja\'far al-Sadiq , and Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
. Many jurists and historians had lived in Kufa including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman.

In the early history of Islam, Hanafi
Hanafi
doctrine was not fully compiled. The fiqh was fully compiled and documented in the 11th century.

The Turkish rulers were some of the earliest adopters of the relatively more flexible Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh, and preferred it over the traditionalist Medina-based fiqhs which favored correlating all laws to Quran and Hadiths and disfavored Islamic law based on discretion of jurists. The Abbasids patronized the Hanafi
Hanafi
school from the 10th century onwards. The Seljuk Turkish dynasties of 11th and 12th centuries, followed by Ottomans adopted Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh. The Turkic expansion spread Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh through Central Asia
Central Asia
and into South Asia, with the establishment of Seljuk Empire , Timurid dynasty , Khanates and Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
.

SEE ALSO

* Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
portal * politics portal

* Apostasy in Islam * Islamic schools and branches
Islamic schools and branches
* Islamic views on sin
Islamic views on sin
* Salat * Sharia
Sharia
* List of major Hanafi
Hanafi
books * List of Hanafis

REFERENCES

* ^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919 , pp. 24–29 * ^ Gregory Mack, Jurisprudence, in Gerhard Böwering et al (2012), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691134840 , p. 289 * ^ Sunnite Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) * ^ A B C D Jurisprudence and Law – Islam
Islam
Reorienting the Veil, University of North Carolina (2009) * ^ A B Siegbert Uhlig (2005), "Hanafism" in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha, Vol 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447052382 , pp. 997–99 * ^ Abu Umar
Umar
Faruq Ahmad (2010), Theory and Practice of Modern Islamic Finance, ISBN 978-1599425177 , pp. 77–78 * ^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919 , p. 26

* ^ See: * Reuben Levy , Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pp. 236–37. London
London
: Williams and Norgate , 1931–1933. *Chiragh Ali
Ali
, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam
Islam
1840–1940: A Sourcebook, p. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman . New York City
New York City
: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 2002. *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, p. 32. Chicago
Chicago
: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press , 2005. *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, p. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984. *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, p. 18. Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield , 2006. *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, p. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007. *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, p. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. * Kojiro Nakamura , "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pp. 89–113. 1974 * ^ Oliver Leaman (2005), The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0415326391 , pp. 7–8 * ^ Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013 * ^ Majid Khadduri (1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754 * ^ A B Nazeer Ahmed, Islam
Islam
in Global History, ISBN 978-0738859620 , pp. 112–14 * ^ A B John L. Esposito (1999), The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195107999 , pp. 112–14

FURTHER READING

* Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship (Albany, SUNY Press, 1996). * Nurit Tsafrir, The History of an Islamic School of Law: The Early Spread of Hanafism (Harvard, Harvard Law School, 2004) (Harvard Series in Islamic Law, 3). * Behnam Sadeghi (2013), The Logic of Law Making in Islam: Women and Prayer in the Legal Tradition, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 6, "The Historical Development of Hanafi
Hanafi
Reasoning", ISBN 978-1107009097 * Theory of Hanafi
Hanafi
law: Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013

* Hanafi
Hanafi
theory of war and taxation: Majid Khadduri (1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754 * Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Hanafiyya Bulend Shanay,

.