Han (state)
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Han (,
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
: ''*'') was an
ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty, and ...
during the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
of
ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese h ...
. It is conventionally romanized by scholars as Hann to distinguish it from the later
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
(). It was located in central China (modern-day
Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is ...

Shanxi
and
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China The provincial level administrative divisions () are the highest-level administrative divisions of China. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of ...

Henan
) in a region south and east of
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...

Luoyang
, the capital of the
Eastern Zhou The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese ...
. It was ruled by a royal family who were former ministers in the state of Jin that had slowly gained power from the Jin royal family until they were able to divide Jin into the three new states of Han, Wei and Zhao with the assistance of two other ministerial families. The state of Han was small and located in a mountainous and unprofitable region. Its territory directly blocked the passage of the state of
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
into the
North China Plain The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 ...
.. Although Han had attempted to reform its governance (notably under Chancellor and "
Legalist Legalist, Inc. is a Legal financing, litigation finance company based in San Francisco, California that funds commercial lawsuits on behalf of plaintiff attorneys, applying machine learning algorithms to evaluate its potential investments. History ...
"
Shen Buhai Shen Buhai (; c. 400c. 337) was a Chinese essayist, philosopher, and politician. He served as Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chanc ...
who improved state administration and strengthened its military ability) these reforms were not enough to defend itself and it was the first of the
seven warring states The Seven Warring States or Seven Kingdoms () were the seven leading ancient Chinese states, states during the Warring States period (c. 475 to 221 BCE) of ancient China: * Qin (state), Qin (秦) * Qi (state), Qi (齊/齐) * Chu (state), Chu ( ...
to be conquered by Qin in 230 BC. Qin invasion of Han's
Shangdang Commandery Shangdang Commandery or Shangdang Prefecture () was an administrative subdivision of ancient China from the time of the Spring and Autumn period (771–403 BCE). Consisting of a number of districts or ''Zhōu'' (), the prefecture covered roughly ...
in 260 BC resulted in the
Battle of Changping A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...

Battle of Changping
and was allegedly the bloodiest battle of the Warring States period where up to 400,000 soldiers died.


History


Founding

According to chapter 45 of the ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'', the royal family of Han was a cadet branch of the royal family of the state of Jin. The founder of the Han clan Wuzi of Han was the uncle of
Duke Wu of Jin Duke Wu of Jin (, died 677 BC), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Cheng (稱) and also known as Duke Wu of Quwo (), was the eighteenth ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the last ruler of the state of Quwo before he gained the title as the ...
. Members of the family became ministers in the powerful state of Jin and were granted Hanyuan (modern
Hancheng Hancheng () is a city in Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the prov ...
in
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
).


Spring and Autumn period

During the
Spring and Autumn period #REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dyna ...
, members of the Han family slowly gained more and more influence and power within Jin. In 403 BC,
Jing__NOTOC__ Jing can refer to: * Jing (software), formerly Jing Project * Jing (surname), a Chinese surname * Jing River, in China * Jing (instrument), a large gong used in Korean traditional music Concepts * Chinese classics (, ''jīng'') * Jing (C ...
of Han, along with Wen of Wei and
Lie A lie is an assertion that is believed to be false, typically used with the purpose of deception, deceiving someone. The practice of communicating lies is called lying. A person who communicates a lie may be termed a liar. Lies may serve a vari ...
of Zhao partitioned Jin among themselves. In
Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese h ...
, this Partition of Jin is the event which marks the end of the
Spring and Autumn period #REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dyna ...
and the beginning of the Warring States. Subsequently, Han was an independent polity. Chinese king, King King Lie of Zhou, Lie eventually recognized the new states in 403 BC and elevated the rulers to (''hou'', "Chinese nobility, marquess").


Warring States Period

Han's highest point occurred under the rule of Marquess Xi of Han, Marquess Xi. Xi appointed
Shen Buhai Shen Buhai (; c. 400c. 337) was a Chinese essayist, philosopher, and politician. He served as Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chanc ...
as his Chancellor of China, chancellor and implemented his
Legalist Legalist, Inc. is a Legal financing, litigation finance company based in San Francisco, California that funds commercial lawsuits on behalf of plaintiff attorneys, applying machine learning algorithms to evaluate its potential investments. History ...
policies. These reforms improved state administration and strengthened its military capability. Under King King Xuanhui of Han, Xuanhui (332–312 BC), Han declared itself an independent Chinese king, kingdom. However, Han was disadvantaged in the competition of the Warring States because Jin's partition had left it surrounded on all sides by other strong states Chu (state), Chu to the south, Qi (state), Qi to the east,
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
to the west, and Wei to the north. It was the smallest of the seven states and, without any easy way to expand its own territory and resources, it was bullied militarily by its more powerful neighbors.


Defeat

During its steady decline, Han eventually lost the power to defend its territory and had to request military assistance from other states. The contest between Wei and Qi over control of Han resulted in the Battle of Maling, which established Qi as the pre-eminent state in the east. In 260 BC,
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
's invasion of Han led to Zhao intervention and the
Battle of Changping A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...

Battle of Changping
. During the late years of the era, in an attempt to drain Qin's resources in an expensive public works project, the state of Han sent the civil engineer Zheng Guo to Qin to persuade them to build a canal. The scheme, while expensive, backfired spectacularly when it was eventually completed: the irrigation abilities of the new Zhengguo Canal far outweighed its cost and gave Qin the agricultural and economic means to dominate the other six states. Han was the first to fall, in 230 BC. In 226 BC, former nobility of the Han launched a failed rebellion in former capital Xinzheng, and King An, the last king of Han, was put to death the same year. King Xin of Han, Han Xin was made a "Prince" or "King of Han" () by Liu Bang after the establishment of the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
(). He was removed to Taiyuan Commandery and the territory of the Dai (Han), kingdom of Dai, where he defected to the Xiongnu and led raids against the Han Dynasty until his death.


Culture and society

Before the state of Qin unified China in 221 BC, each region had their own unique customs and culture, although they were all dominated by an upper class that shared a largely common culture. In the ''Yu Gong'' (Tribute of Yu), a section of the Book of Documents which was most likely composed in the 4th century BC, the author describes a China that is divided into nine regions, each with its own distinctive peoples and products. The core theme of this section is that these nine regions are unified into one state by the travels of the eponymous sage, Yu the Great and by sending each region's unique goods to the capital as tribute. Other texts also discussed these regional variations in culture and physical environments. One of these texts was ''Wuzi (The Book of Master Wu'') which was a Warring States military treatise written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were linked to the physical environment and territory they live in.


Rulers


Rulers family tree


Famous people

* Han Fei, a
Legalist Legalist, Inc. is a Legal financing, litigation finance company based in San Francisco, California that funds commercial lawsuits on behalf of plaintiff attorneys, applying machine learning algorithms to evaluate its potential investments. History ...
philosopher * Zhang Liang (Western Han), Zhang Liang, a major figure in the early
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
* Zheng Guo, the hydraulic engineer who designed the Zhengguo Canal for
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...


Han in astronomy

Han is represented by the star 35 Capricorni in the "Twelve States" Asterism (astronomy), asterism, part of the "Girl (Chinese constellation), Girl" 28 Mansions, lunar mansion in the "Black Tortoise, Black Turtle" Four Symbols (China), symbol. Han is also represented by the star Zeta Ophiuchi in the "Right Wall" asterism, part of the Heavenly Market enclosure, "Heavenly Market" enclosure.Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy.

. 24 Jun 2006.


See also

*Chinese nobility


References

*Sima Qian. ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'', Ch. 45 *Zizhi Tongjian Volumes 1-6 {{DEFAULTSORT:Han Han (state), 403 BC States and territories established in the 5th century BC Ancient Chinese states Jin (Chinese state) History of Henan 230 BC States and territories disestablished in the 3rd century BC 3rd-century BC disestablishments 1st-millennium BC disestablishments in China 5th-century BC establishments in China