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Hampshire
Hampshire
(/ˈhæmpʃər/, /-ʃɪər/ ( listen); abbreviated Hants)[a] is a county on the southern coast of England
England
in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire
Hampshire
is Winchester, the former capital city of England.[1] Hampshire
Hampshire
is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom (excluding the metropolitan counties). Its the two largest settlements, Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. The rest of the area forms the administrative county, which is governed by Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council. The two cities are the main settlements within the South Hampshire conurbation, which is home to about half of the ceremonial county's population.[2] The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000.[3] Hampshire
Hampshire
is bordered by Dorset
Dorset
to the west, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
to the north-west, Berkshire
Berkshire
to the north, Surrey
Surrey
to the north-east, and West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel
English Channel
and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight. It is the largest county in South East England
England
and remains the third largest shire county in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
despite losing more land than any other English county in all contemporary boundary changes. At its greatest size in 1890, Hampshire
Hampshire
was the fifth-largest county in England. It now has an overall area of 3,700 km2 (1,400 sq mi),[4] and measures about 86 km (53 mi) east–west and 76 km (47 mi) north–south.[5] Hampshire's tourist attractions include many seaside resorts and two national parks: the New Forest
New Forest
and the South Downs
South Downs
(together covering some 45% of the county). The county has a long maritime history, and today Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
remain prominent ports. The county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen
Jane Austen
and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale
and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prehistory until the Norman Conquest 2.2 Middle Ages onwards

3 Governance

3.1 Politics

4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Education 7 Geography

7.1 Natural regions 7.2 Geology 7.3 Hills 7.4 Wildlife 7.5 Climate

8 Cities, towns and villages

8.1 Green belt

9 Culture, arts and sport 10 Media 11 Transport 12 Notable people from Hampshire 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Name[edit] Hampshire
Hampshire
takes its name from the settlement that is now the city of Southampton. Southampton
Southampton
was known in Old English as Hamtun, roughly meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr. The old name was recorded in the Domesday book
Domesday book
as Hantescire, and from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.[6] From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton[7][8] and has also been known as Southamptonshire.[9][10] Hampshire
Hampshire
was the departure point of some of those who left England
England
to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire.[11] The counties of Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
and Southampton
Southampton
in Virginia reflect the origins of some of the earliest Jamestown settlers,[12][dead link] as does the town of Portsmouth, Virginia. History[edit] Prehistory until the Norman Conquest[edit] Main article: History of Hampshire The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE.[13] At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland. The first inhabitants came overland from Europe; these were anatomically and behaviourally modern humans, Mesolithic
Mesolithic
hunter-gatherers. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, and sea levels rose; the English Channel, which started out as a river, was a major inlet by 8000 BCE, although Britain was still connected to Europe by a land bridge across the North Sea until 6500 BCE.[14] Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture
Agriculture
had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, and with it a neolithic culture. Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic.[15] Hampshire
Hampshire
has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the very late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, and these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age;[16] many of these are still visible in the landscape today and can be visited, notably Danebury
Danebury
Rings, the subject of a major study by archaeologist Barry Cunliffe. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, and their culture shared much in common with the Celts
Celts
described by classical writers.[17] Hillforts
Hillforts
largely declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Probably around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was largely conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown. By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre; Winchester
Winchester
was, however, of secondary importance to the Roman-style town of Calleva, modern Silchester, built further north by a dominant Belgic polity known as the Atrebates
Atrebates
in the 50s BCE. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England
England
briefly in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head
Hengistbury Head
(now technically in Dorset), which was a major port.[16][18] A "Museum of the Iron Age" is in Andover. The Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, and Hampshire
Hampshire
was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia very quickly. It is generally believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire
Hampshire
played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester
Winchester
dated to around this period.[19] For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace. The later part of the Roman period had most towns build defensive walls; a pottery industry based in the New Forest exported items widely across southern Britain. A fortification near Southampton
Southampton
was called Clausentum, part of the Saxon Shore
Saxon Shore
forts, traditionally seen as defences against maritime raids by Germanic tribes. The Romans withdrew from Britain in 410 CE.[20][21][22] Records are unreliable for the next 200 years, but in this time, southern Britain went from being Brythonic to being English and Hampshire
Hampshire
emerged as the centre of what was to become the most powerful kingdom in Britain, the Kingdom of Wessex. Evidence of early Anglo-Saxon settlement has been found at Clausentum
Clausentum
and on the Thames at Dorchester, dated to the fifth century, and by the seventh century, the population of Hampshire
Hampshire
was predominantly English-speaking. Also around this period, the administrative region of "Hampshire" seems to appear; the name is attested as "Hamtunscir" in 755,[23] and Albany Major suggested that the traditional western and northern borders of Hampshire
Hampshire
may even go back to the very earliest conquests of Cerdic, legendary founder of Wessex, at the beginning of the sixth century.[24] Wessex
Wessex
gradually expanded westwards into Brythonic Dorset and Somerset
Somerset
in the seventh century. A statue in Winchester
Winchester
celebrates the powerful King Alfred, who repulsed the Vikings and stabilised the region in the 9th century. He was also a great scholar, who commissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a powerful tool in the development of the English identity. King Alfred
King Alfred
proclaimed himself "King of England" in 886; but Athelstan
Athelstan
of Wessex
Wessex
did not officially control the whole of England
England
until 927.[20][22][25][26] Middle Ages onwards[edit]

Portchester
Portchester
combined Roman and Norman castles

By the Norman conquest, London had overtaken Winchester
Winchester
as the largest city in England, due in part to Alfred the Great's investments in infrastructure, and after the Norman Conquest, King William I made it his capital. The centre of political power moved away from Hampshire, although Winchester
Winchester
remained a city of importance: the proximity of the New Forest
New Forest
to Winchester
Winchester
made it such a prized royal hunting forest; indeed King William Rufus
King William Rufus
was famously killed in suspicious circumstances while hunting there. The county was recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent, wool and cloth manufacture in the county, and the fishing industry, and a shipbuilding industry was established. By 1523 at the latest, the population of Southampton
Southampton
had outstripped that of Winchester.

Portsmouth
Portsmouth
historic dockyard, 2005

Over several centuries, a series of castles and forts was constructed along the coast of the Solent
Solent
to defend the harbours at Southampton and Portsmouth. These include the Roman Portchester
Portchester
Castle
Castle
which overlooks Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Harbour, and a series of forts built by Henry VIII including Hurst Castle, situated on a sand spit at the mouth of the Solent, Calshot Castle
Castle
on another spit at the mouth of Southampton Water, and Netley Castle. Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
remained important harbours when rivals, such as Poole
Poole
and Bristol, declined, as they are amongst the few locations that combine shelter with deep water. Southampton
Southampton
has been host to many famous ships, including the Mayflower
Mayflower
and the Titanic, the latter being crewed largely by residents of Southampton. Hampshire
Hampshire
played a crucial role in the Second World War due to the large Royal Navy
Royal Navy
naval base at Portsmouth, the army camp at Aldershot, and the military Netley Hospital
Netley Hospital
on Southampton
Southampton
Water, as well as its proximity to the army training ranges on Salisbury Plain
Salisbury Plain
and the Isle of Purbeck. Supermarine, the designers of the Spitfire and other military aircraft, were based in Southampton, which led to severe bombing of the city. Aldershot
Aldershot
remains one of the British Army's main permanent camps. Farnborough is a major centre for the aviation industry. Although the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
has at times been part of Hampshire, it has been administratively independent for over a century, obtaining a county council of its own in 1890. The Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
became a full ceremonial county in 1974. Apart from a shared police force, no formal administrative links now exist between the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
and Hampshire, though many organisations still combine Hampshire
Hampshire
and the Isle of Wight. In the 20th century, local government reorganisation led to a reduction in Hampshire's size; in 1974, the towns of Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Christchurch were transferred to Dorset, and in 1992, South Tidworth was transferred to Wiltshire. The City Museum in Winchester
Winchester
covers the Iron Age
Iron Age
and Roman periods, the Middle Ages, and the Victorian period over three floors. Governance[edit]

Hampshire County Council
Hampshire County Council
offices and Jubilee Fountain

With the exceptions of the unitary authorities of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Southampton, Hampshire
Hampshire
is governed by Hampshire County Council
Hampshire County Council
based at Castle
Castle
Hill in Winchester, with several non-metropolitan districts beneath it, and for the majority of the county, parish councils or town councils at the local level. The districts of Hampshire
Hampshire
are:

Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Deane City of Winchester East Hampshire Eastleigh Fareham Gosport Hart Havant New Forest City of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
(unitary) Rushmoor City of Southampton
Southampton
(unitary) Test Valley

The county also contains two national parks; the first covering the New Forest, and therefore governance of this area is carried out by a national park authority, as well as the New Forest
New Forest
District Council, the second the newer national park for the South Downs
South Downs
which covers the chalk downlands from Winchester
Winchester
eastwards, which embraces a large number of local council areas across three counties, Hampshire
Hampshire
and West and East Sussex. Politics[edit] Hampshire
Hampshire
is divided into 18 parliamentary constituencies. At the 2017 General Election, the Conservatives captured 16 seats, continuing their dominance in the county. Labour took two seats, Southampton
Southampton
Test and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
South. In the 2015 general election, every Hampshire seat except Southampton
Southampton
Test (Labour) was won by the Conservatives. In 2010, 14 constituencies were represented by Conservative Members of Parliament (MPs), two by the Liberal Democrats, and two by Labour. Labour represented the largest urban centre, holding both Southampton constituencies (Test and Itchen). The Liberal Democrats held Portsmouth
Portsmouth
South and Eastleigh. The Conservatives represent a mix of rural and urban areas: Aldershot, Basingstoke, East Hampshire, Fareham, Gosport, Havant, Meon Valley, North East Hampshire, North West Hampshire, New Forest
New Forest
East, New Forest West, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
North, Romsey
Romsey
and Southampton
Southampton
North and Winchester. At the 2013 local elections for Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, the Conservative Party had a 37.51% share of the votes, the Liberal Democrats had 21.71%, the UK Independence Party
UK Independence Party
had 24.61% and Labour 10%. As a result, 45 Conservatives, 17 Liberal Democrats, 10 UKIP, four Labour and one Community Campaign councillor sit on the County Council.[27] Southampton
Southampton
City Council, which is a separate Unitary Authority, has 28 Labour, 16 Conservative, 2 Councillors Against the Cuts and 2 Liberal Democrat councillors.[28] Portsmouth
Portsmouth
City Council, also a UA, has 25 Liberal Democrat, 12 Conservative and 5 Labour councillors.[29] Hampshire
Hampshire
has its own County Youth Council (HCYC)[30] and is an independent youth-run organisation. It meets once a month around Hampshire
Hampshire
and aims to give the young people of Hampshire
Hampshire
a voice. It also has numerous district and borough youth councils including Basingstoke's " Basingstoke
Basingstoke
& Deane Youth Council".[31] Along with the Youth council for the Test Valley
Test Valley
District, youthExpress. Economy[edit]

The Beaulieu River

Hampshire
Hampshire
is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of ££29 billion, excluding Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth). In 2018, Hampshire
Hampshire
had a GDP per capita of £22,100, comparable with the UK as a whole.[32] Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Winchester
Winchester
have the highest job densities in the county, so a high level of commuting occurs into the cities from towns such as Hook, or even Micheldever. Southampton
Southampton
has the highest number of total jobs and commuting both into and out of the city is high. The county has a lower level of unemployment than the national average, at 1.3% when the national rate is 2.1%, as of February 2018.[33] About one third are employed by large firms. Hampshire
Hampshire
has a considerably higher than national average employment in high-tech industries, but average levels in knowledge-based industry. About 25% of the population work in the public sector. Tourism accounts for some 60,000 jobs in the county, around 9% of the total.[32] Many rural areas of Hampshire
Hampshire
have traditionally been reliant on agriculture, particularly dairy farming, although the significance of agriculture as a rural employer and rural wealth creator has declined since the first half of the 20th century and agriculture currently employs 1.32% of the rural population. The New Forest
New Forest
area is a national park, and tourism is a significant economic segment in this area, with 7.5 million visitors in 1992.[34] The South Downs
South Downs
and the cities of Portsmouth, Southampton, and Winchester
Winchester
also attract tourists to the county. Southampton
Southampton
Boat Show is one of the biggest annual events held in the county, and attracts visitors from throughout the country. In 2003, the county had a total of 31 million day visits, and 4.2 million longer stays.[35] The cities of Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
are both significant ports, with Southampton
Southampton
handling a large proportion of the national container freight traffic as well as being a major base for cruise liners, and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
housing a large Royal Navy
Royal Navy
base. The docks have traditionally been large employers in these cities, though mechanisation has lead to diversification of the economy. Demographics[edit]

Southampton
Southampton
Docks

At the 2001 census[36] the ceremonial county recorded a population of 1,644,249, of which 1,240,103 were in the administrative county, 217,445 were in the unitary authority of Southampton, and 186,701 were in Portsmouth. The population of the administrative county grew 5.6% from the 1991 census, Southampton
Southampton
grew 6.2% while Portsmouth
Portsmouth
remained unchanged, compared with 2.6% for England
England
and Wales as a whole. Eastleigh
Eastleigh
and Winchester
Winchester
grew fastest at 9% each. About 96.73% of residents were white British, falling to 92.37% in Southampton. The significant ethnic minorities are Asian at 1.34% and mixed race at 0.84%; 0.75% of residents were migrants from outside the UK, and 73.86% stated their religion as Christianity and 16.86% were not religious. Significant minority religions were Islam (0.76%) and Hinduism
Hinduism
(0.33%). The county has a high level of car ownership, with only 15.7% having no access to a private car compared with 26.8% for England
England
and Wales. The county has a lower than average use of trains (3.2 compared with 4.1% for commuting) and buses (3.2 to 7.4%), but a higher than average use of bicycles (3.5 to 2.7%) and cars (63.5% to 55.3%).[37] The table below shows the population change up to the 2011 census, contrasting the previous census. It also shows the proportion of residents in each district reliant upon lowest income and/or joblessness benefits, the national average proportion of which was 4.5% as at August 2012, the year for which latest data have been published. The most populous district of Hampshire
Hampshire
is New Forest District containing many villages and the towns of Fawley, Hythe and Dibden, Lymington, Lyndhurst, Milford-on-Sea, New Milton, Ringwood, and Totton and Eling.

Population from census to census. Claimants of JSA or Income Support (DWP)[38]

Unit JSA or Inc. Supp. claimants (August 2012)  % of 2011 population JSA and Income Support claimants (August 2001) % of 2001 population Population (April 2011) Population (April 2001)

Hampshire 2.4% 4.3% 1,317,788 1,240,103

Ranked by district

Borough of Havant 4.1% 7.2% 120,684 116,849

Borough of Gosport 3.7% 5.7% 82,622 76,415

Borough of Rushmoor 2.9% 4.1% 93,807 90,987

Borough of Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Deane 2.6% 3.8% 167,799 152,573

Borough of Eastleigh 2.3% 4.0% 125,199 116,169

New Forest
New Forest
District 2.2% 4.7% 176,462 169,331

Borough of Fareham 2.0% 3.7% 111,581 107,977

Borough of Test Valley 2.0% 3.8% 116,398 109,801

East Hampshire
East Hampshire
District 1.8% 4.0% 115,608 109,274

Winchester
Winchester
District 1.7% 3.6% 116,595 107,222

Hart District 1.3% 2.3% 91,033 83,505

Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Hampshire and List of further education colleges in Hampshire The school system in Hampshire
Hampshire
(including Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth) is comprehensive. Geographically inside the Hampshire
Hampshire
LEA are 24 independent schools, Southampton
Southampton
has three and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
has four. Few Hampshire
Hampshire
schools have sixth forms, which varies by district council. There are 14 further education colleges within the Hampshire LEA, including six graded as 'outstanding' by Ofsted: Alton College, Brockenhurst College, Farnborough College of Technology, Farnborough Sixth Form College, Peter Symonds College, Queen Mary's College, and South Downs
South Downs
College The four universities are the University of Southampton, Southampton Solent
Solent
University, the University of Portsmouth, and the University of Winchester
Winchester
(which also had a small campus in Basingstoke
Basingstoke
until 2011). Farnborough College of Technology
Farnborough College of Technology
awards University of Surrey-accredited degrees. Geography[edit] Natural regions[edit] Natural England
England
has identified the following national character areas that lie wholly or partially in Hampshire:[39]

Hampshire
Hampshire
Downs New Forest South Hampshire Lowlands South Coast Plain South Downs Low Weald Thames Basin Heaths

Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of Hampshire Hampshire's geology falls into two categories. In the south, along the coast is the " Hampshire
Hampshire
Basin", an area of relatively non-resistant Eocene
Eocene
and Oligocene
Oligocene
clays and gravels which are protected from sea erosion by the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset, and the Isle of Wight. These low, flat lands support heathland and woodland habitats, a large area of which forms part of the New Forest. The New Forest
New Forest
has a mosaic of heathland, grassland, coniferous and deciduous woodland habitats that host diverse wildlife. The forest is protected as a national park, limiting development and agricultural use to protect the landscape and wildlife. Large areas of the New Forest
New Forest
are open common lands kept as a grassland plagioclimax by grazing animals, including domesticated cattle, pigs and horses, and several wild deer species. Erosion
Erosion
of the weak rock and sea level change flooding the low land has carved several large estuaries and rias, notably the 16 km (9.9 mi) long[40] Southampton
Southampton
Water and the large convoluted Portsmouth Harbour. The Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
lies off the coast of Hampshire
Hampshire
where the non-resistant rock has been eroded away, forming the Solent. In the north and centre of the county the substrate is the rocks of the Chalk Group, which form the Hampshire Downs
Hampshire Downs
and the South Downs. These are high hills with steep slopes where they border the clays to the south. The hills dip steeply forming a scarp onto the Thames valley to the north, and dip gently to the south. The highest point in the county is Pilot Hill, which reaches a height of 286 m (938 ft), and lies on the border with West Berkshire. Butser Hill near Petersfield
Petersfield
is the second highest point at 271 metres (889 ft) and lies in the South Downs
South Downs
National Park. The highest village in Hampshire
Hampshire
at between 235-240m above sea level is Ashmansworth,[41] located between Andover and Newbury. The downland supports a calcareous grassland habitat, important for wild flowers and insects. A large area of the downs is now protected from further agricultural damage by the East Hampshire
East Hampshire
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Itchen and Test are trout rivers that flow from the chalk through wooded valleys into Southampton
Southampton
Water. Nestled in a valley on the downs is Selborne, and the countryside surrounding the village was the location of Gilbert White's pioneering observations on natural history. Hampshire's county flower is the Dog Rose.[42] Hills[edit] Main article: List of hills of Hampshire The highest point in Hampshire
Hampshire
is Pilot Hill
Pilot Hill
at 286 metres (938 ft), in the northwest corner of the county, bordering Berkshire, and there are some 20 other hills exceeding 200 metres (660 ft). Wildlife[edit] Hampshire
Hampshire
has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain. The River Test
River Test
has a growing number of otters, although other areas of the county have quite low numbers. There are reports of wild boar across the county. The New Forest
New Forest
is known for its ponies, which have free rein over much of the area. One distinguishing feature is that Hampshire
Hampshire
has a large free roaming herd of red deer, including more than 6,500 stags during busy seasons. Not only is Hampshire
Hampshire
home to animals, but there are also populations of insects and butterflies. One butterfly that has been around in small populations is the Chequered Skipper. The stag population is managed by the government and hunting is carefully regulated.[43] Climate[edit] Hampshire
Hampshire
has a milder climate than most areas of the British Isles,[44] being in the far south with the climate stabilising effect of the sea, but protected against the more extreme weather of the Atlantic coast. Hampshire
Hampshire
has a higher average annual temperature than the UK average at 9.8 to 12 °C (49.6 to 53.6 °F),[45] average rainfall at 640–1,060 millimetres (25–42 in) per year,[46] and holds higher than average sunshine totals of around 1,750 hours[47] of sunshine per year.[48]

Climate
Climate
data for Southampton, elevation 3 m, 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 8.6 (47.5) 11.1 (52) 14.0 (57.2) 17.5 (63.5) 20.2 (68.4) 22.4 (72.3) 22.3 (72.1) 19.8 (67.6) 15.6 (60.1) 11.7 (53.1) 8.9 (48) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 2.6 (36.7) 4.1 (39.4) 5.7 (42.3) 9.0 (48.2) 11.7 (53.1) 13.7 (56.7) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.9 (48) 5.4 (41.7) 3.2 (37.8) 7.7 (45.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 81.4 (3.205) 58.3 (2.295) 60.0 (2.362) 50.7 (1.996) 49.0 (1.929) 50.4 (1.984) 42.0 (1.654) 50.4 (1.984) 60.4 (2.378) 93.8 (3.693) 94.0 (3.701) 89.2 (3.512) 779.4 (30.685)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.2 9.2 10.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.4 7.7 8.7 11.5 11.5 11.8 114.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.3 84.4 118.3 179.8 212.1 211.2 221.8 207.7 148.1 113.0 76.6 52.9 1,689.3

Source #1: Met Office
Met Office
(normals)[49] and Met Office[50]

Source #2: Calculated from Met Office
Met Office
Data[51]

Climate
Climate
data for Southsea, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
1976-2006

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 9.6 (49.3) 8.8 (47.8) 10.6 (51.1) 13.4 (56.1) 16.8 (62.2) 19.4 (66.9) 21.8 (71.2) 21.8 (71.2) 19.3 (66.7) 15.8 (60.4) 12.0 (53.6) 10.0 (50) 14.94 (58.88)

Average low °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 4.3 (39.7) 5.4 (41.7) 6.4 (43.5) 9.6 (49.3) 12.3 (54.1) 15.0 (59) 15.0 (59) 12.8 (55) 10.9 (51.6) 7.5 (45.5) 5.9 (42.6) 9.18 (48.52)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 65 (2.56) 50 (1.97) 52 (2.05) 42 (1.65) 28 (1.1) 40 (1.57) 32 (1.26) 43 (1.69) 62 (2.44) 81 (3.19) 72 (2.83) 80 (3.15) 647 (25.46)

Average rainy days 11.2 9.5 8.3 7.6 6.5 7.4 5.4 6.6 8.5 10.9 10.3 11.2 103.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.9 89.6 132.7 200.5 240.8 247.6 261.8 240.7 172.9 121.8 82.3 60.5 1,919.1

Percent possible sunshine 26 31 36 49 51 51 54 54 46 38 31 25 41

Source: Met Office[50]

Climate
Climate
data for Leckford, Andover elevation 117m, 1971-2000, extremes 1960-2007

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.5 (56.3) 15.4 (59.7) 20.0 (68) 25.3 (77.5) 27.2 (81) 33.5 (92.3) 33.8 (92.8) 34.7 (94.5) 28.9 (84) 24.0 (75.2) 17.0 (62.6) 14.9 (58.8) 34.7 (94.5)

Average high °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 7.3 (45.1) 9.9 (49.8) 12.6 (54.7) 16.3 (61.3) 18.9 (66) 21.8 (71.2) 21.8 (71.2) 18.3 (64.9) 14.0 (57.2) 9.9 (49.8) 7.8 (46) 13.8 (56.82)

Average low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.0 (33.8) 2.6 (36.7) 3.7 (38.7) 6.5 (43.7) 9.1 (48.4) 11.3 (52.3) 11.4 (52.5) 9.5 (49.1) 6.9 (44.4) 3.7 (38.7) 2.2 (36) 5.76 (42.38)

Record low °C (°F) −13.9 (7) −10.5 (13.1) −8.3 (17.1) −5.6 (21.9) −2.2 (28) 0.6 (33.1) 3.3 (37.9) 4.4 (39.9) 1.0 (33.8) −3.1 (26.4) −7.5 (18.5) −15.6 (3.9) −15.6 (3.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 88.07 (3.4673) 58.81 (2.3154) 63.31 (2.4925) 51.93 (2.0445) 50.85 (2.002) 59.27 (2.3335) 42.57 (1.676) 59.22 (2.3315) 69.60 (2.7402) 84.06 (3.3094) 82.12 (3.2331) 94.9 (3.736) 804.71 (31.6814)

Source: KNMI[52]

Climate
Climate
data for Solent
Solent
MRSC 1980-2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 8.2 (46.8) 10.5 (50.9) 13.2 (55.8) 16.7 (62.1) 19.2 (66.6) 21.4 (70.5) 21.4 (70.5) 19.0 (66.2) 15.5 (59.9) 11.5 (52.7) 8.7 (47.7) 14.46 (58.04)

Average low °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 2.8 (37) 4.5 (40.1) 6.1 (43) 9.2 (48.6) 12.1 (53.8) 14.2 (57.6) 14.3 (57.7) 12.2 (54) 9.6 (49.3) 6.2 (43.2) 3.8 (38.8) 8.2 (46.77)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.8 (2.709) 49.3 (1.941) 51.6 (2.031) 42.4 (1.669) 43.4 (1.709) 42.0 (1.654) 44.5 (1.752) 50.0 (1.969) 53.7 (2.114) 86.2 (3.394) 83.2 (3.276) 83.9 (3.303) 699 (27.521)

Source: UK Met Office[53]

Climate
Climate
data for Farnborough, Hampshire, UK

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8 (46) 8 (46) 11 (51) 13 (56) 17 (63) 20 (68) 22 (72) 22 (72) 19 (66) 15 (59) 11 (51) 8 (47) 14.5 (58.1)

Average low °C (°F) 2 (36) 2 (36) 3 (37) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 7 (45) 4 (39) 3 (37) 6.3 (43.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.5 (2.46) 40.6 (1.60) 47.8 (1.88) 47.5 (1.87) 51.1 (2.01) 51.6 (2.03) 39.6 (1.56) 49.3 (1.94) 61.2 (2.41) 71.1 (2.80) 60.2 (2.37) 64.5 (2.54) 647 (25.47)

Source: Weather.com[54]

Cities, towns and villages[edit]

Southampton

Portsmouth

Basingstoke

Winchester

Andover

Alton

Lymington

Ringwood

Petersfield

Aldershot

Waterlooville

Some of the larger settlements of Hampshire

Hampshire's county town is Winchester, a historic city that was once the capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
and of England
England
until the Norman conquest of England. The port cities of Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
were split off as independent unitary authorities in 1997, although they are still included in Hampshire
Hampshire
for ceremonial purposes. Fareham, Gosport
Gosport
and Havant
Havant
have grown into a conurbation that stretches along the coast between the two main cities. The three cities are all university cities, Southampton
Southampton
being home to the University of Southampton
Southampton
and Southampton
Southampton
Solent
Solent
University (formerly Southampton
Southampton
Institute), Portsmouth
Portsmouth
to the University of Portsmouth, and Winchester
Winchester
to the University of Winchester
Winchester
(formerly known as University College Winchester; King Alfred's College).The northeast of the county houses the Blackwater Valley conurbation, which includes the towns of Farnborough, Aldershot, Blackwater and Yateley
Yateley
and borders both Berkshire
Berkshire
and Surrey. Hampshire
Hampshire
lies outside the green belt area of restricted development around London, but has good railway and motorway links to the capital, and in common with the rest of the south-east has seen the growth of dormitory towns since the 1960s. Basingstoke, in the northern part of the county, has grown from a country town into a business and financial centre. Aldershot, Portsmouth, and Farnborough have strong military associations with the Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force respectively. The county also includes several market towns: Alton, Andover, Bishop's Waltham, Lymington, New Milton, Petersfield, Ringwood, Romsey
Romsey
and Whitchurch. Cities and towns by population size: (2001 census)

Southampton
Southampton
– 244,224 Portsmouth
Portsmouth
– 207,100 Basingstoke
Basingstoke
– 90,171 (town), 152,573 (borough) Gosport
Gosport
– 69,348 (town), 77,000 (borough) Andover – 64,000 Waterlooville
Waterlooville
– 63,558 Aldershot
Aldershot
– 58,120 Farnborough – 57,147 Fareham/ Portchester
Portchester
– 56,010 (town), 109,619 (borough) Eastleigh
Eastleigh
– 52,894 (town), 116,177 (borough) Havant
Havant
– 45,435 (town), 115,300 (borough) Winchester
Winchester
– 41,420 (city), 116,600 (district) Fleet – 32,726 Petersfield-14,974 (town)

For the complete list of settlements see List of places in Hampshire and List of settlements in Hampshire
Hampshire
by population. Green belt[edit] Further information: South West Hampshire/South East Dorset
Dorset
Green Belt Hampshire
Hampshire
contains all its green belt in the New Forest
New Forest
district, surrounding its portion of the South East Dorset
Dorset
conurbation, along the coastline to Lymington, and northwards to Ringwood. Its boundary is contiguous with the New Forest
New Forest
National Park. It was first drawn up in the 1950s. Culture, arts and sport[edit]

Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral

Due to Hampshire's long association with pigs and boars, natives of the county have been known as Hampshire
Hampshire
hogs since the 18th century.[55] Hampshire
Hampshire
has literary connections, being the birthplace of authors including Jane Austen, and Charles Dickens, and the residence of others, such as Charles Kingsley. Austen lived most of her life in Hampshire, where her father was rector of Steventon, Hampshire, and wrote all of her novels in the county. Hampshire
Hampshire
also has many visual art connections, claiming the painter John Everett Millais as a native, and the cities and countryside have been the subject of paintings by L. S. Lowry
L. S. Lowry
and J. M. W. Turner. Selborne
Selborne
was the home of Gilbert White; his house is now a museum, which also includes The Oates Collection, dedicated to the explorer Lawrence Oates. Hampshire
Hampshire
is the home of many orchestras, bands, and groups. Musician Laura Marling
Laura Marling
hails originally from Hampshire. The Hampshire
Hampshire
County Youth Choir is based in Winchester, and has had successful tours of Canada and Italy in recent years. The Hampshire
Hampshire
County Youth Orchestra (with its associated chamber orchestra and string orchestra) is based at Thornden Hall.

The Rose Bowl

The game of cricket was largely developed in south-east England, with one of the first teams forming at Hambledon in 1750, with the Hambledon Club creating many of cricket's early rules. Hampshire County Cricket
Cricket
Club today is a successful first-class team, captained by James Adams. The main county ground is the Rose Bowl in West End, which has hosted several one day internationals and which, following redevelopment, hosted its first test match in 2011. Hampshire
Hampshire
have also been captained by former Australian leg-spinner Shane Warne. Hampshire's relatively safe waters have allowed the county to develop as one of the busiest sailing areas in the country, with many yacht clubs and several manufacturers on the Solent. The sport of windsurfing was invented at Hayling Island, which is to the south east of the county.[56]

Fratton Park
Fratton Park
as viewed from the Milton End in 2006

Hampshire
Hampshire
has several association football teams, including Premier League side Southampton
Southampton
F.C., League One side Portsmouth
Portsmouth
F.C. and Conference Premier
Conference Premier
sides Aldershot
Aldershot
Town F.C. and Eastleigh
Eastleigh
F.C., . Portsmouth
Portsmouth
F.C. and Southampton
Southampton
F.C. have traditionally been fierce rivals. Portsmouth
Portsmouth
won the FA Cup
FA Cup
in 1939 and 2008 and Football League title twice, in 1949 and 1950, but have spent much of the last 50 years outside the top division, including four seasons in the Fourth Division, which they were promoted from as Champions in May 2017, back up to League One. Southampton, meanwhile, won the FA Cup
FA Cup
in 1976, reached 3 other finals (1900, 1902, and 2003) and spent 27 unbroken years in England's top division between 1978 and 2005. Aldershot
Aldershot
F.C. became members of the Football League
Football League
in 1932 but never progressed beyond the Third Division, and on 25 March 1992 went into liquidation and were forced to resign from the league. A new football club, Aldershot
Aldershot
Town F.C. was formed almost immediately, and started life in Division 3 of the Isthmian League. In 2008 Aldershot
Aldershot
Town were crowned the Conference Premier
Conference Premier
champions and were promoted into the Football League, however they lost their Football League
Football League
status after the 2012–13 season which saw them finish bottom of the football league. Hampshire
Hampshire
also has a number of Non League football teams. Basingstoke Town, Farnborough and Havant
Havant
& Waterlooville
Waterlooville
play in the Conference South. Bashley Gosport
Gosport
and AFC Totton play in the Southern Football League
Football League
Premier Division and Sholing F.C.
Sholing F.C.
and Winchester
Winchester
City F.C. play in the Southern Football League
Football League
Division One South and West. Thruxton Circuit, in the north of the county, is Hampshire's premier motor racing circuit. The National Motor Museum is located in the New Forest adjacent to Beaulieu Palace House. The Farnborough Airshow
Farnborough Airshow
is a popular international event, held biennially. Media[edit]

Hampshire Chronicle
Hampshire Chronicle
office, 1999

The county's news is covered on BBC
BBC
TV by BBC
BBC
South Today from its studios in Southampton. ITV news covers the county as part of ITV Meridian, though both BBC
BBC
London and ITV London
ITV London
can be received in northern and eastern parts of the county. Countless commercial radio stations cover the area, and BBC
BBC
Radio Solent
Solent
looks after the majority of the county, while BBC
BBC
Surrey
Surrey
can be heard in the north east. University journalism students also broadcast bulletins for local areas, such as the University of Winchester's WINOL ( Winchester
Winchester
News Online), run by students on its BA (Hons) Journalism course.[57] Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
support daily newspapers; the Southern Daily Echo and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
News. The Basingstoke
Basingstoke
Gazette is published three times a week, and there are a number of other papers that publish on a weekly basis. Transport[edit] Southampton
Southampton
Airport, with an accompanying main line railway station, is an international airport situated in the Borough of Eastleigh, close to Swaythling
Swaythling
in the city of Southampton. Cross-channel and cross- Solent
Solent
ferries link the county to the Isle of Wight, the Channel Islands and continental Europe. The South Western Main Line
South Western Main Line
(operated by South Western Railway) from London to Weymouth runs through Winchester
Winchester
and Southampton, and the Wessex
Wessex
Main Line from Bristol
Bristol
to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
also runs through the county as does the Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Direct Line.

The M3 near Basingstoke

The M3 motorway bisects the county from southwest near Southampton
Southampton
to northeast on its way to connect with the M25 London orbital motorway. At its southern end it links with the M27 south coast motorway. The construction of the Twyford Down
Twyford Down
cutting near Winchester
Winchester
caused major controversy by cutting through a series of ancient trackways (the Dongas) and other features of archaeological significance. The M27 motorway serves a bypass for the major conurbations and as a link to other settlements on the south coast. Other important roads include the A27, A3, A31, A34, A36 and A303. Hampshire
Hampshire
formerly had several canals, but most of these have been abandoned and their routes built over. The Basingstoke
Basingstoke
Canal has been extensively restored, and is now navigable for most of its route, but the Salisbury and Southampton
Southampton
Canal, Andover Canal
Andover Canal
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Arundel Canal have all disappeared. Restoration of the Itchen Navigation, linking Southampton
Southampton
and Winchester, primarily as a wildlife corridor, began in 2008. Notable people from Hampshire[edit] Main article: List of notable people from Hampshire In the arts, the writers Jane Austen, Wilbert Awdry
Wilbert Awdry
and Charles Dickens were born in the county, as was painter John Everett Millais. Broadcasters Philippa Forrester, Amanda Lamb
Amanda Lamb
and Scott Mills
Scott Mills
are from the county. See also[edit]

Business in Hampshire Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire—Keepers of the Rolls Hampshire
Hampshire
(UK Parliament constituency)—Historical list of MPs for Hampshire
Hampshire
constituency Healthcare in Hampshire List of High Sheriffs of Hampshire List of churches in Hampshire List of hills of Hampshire List of Parliamentary constituencies in Hampshire List of places in Hampshire List of Lord Lieutenants of Hampshire Places of interest in Hampshire Recreational walks in Hampshire

Geography portal Europe portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England
England
portal South East England
England
portal Hampshire
Hampshire
portal

References[edit]

Notes

^ Archaically known as the County of Southampton, and less commonly as Southamptonshire

Citations

^ Hadfield, John, ed. (1977). The Shell Guide to England. Book Club Associates. p. 303.  ^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Archived from the original (pdf) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ [1] Archived 6 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "map scales, handy facts, Hampshire". Geog.port.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "About Hampshire". Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ "County of Hants (Southampton)". Census of England
England
and Wales: 1891: Area, Houses and Population: Volume 1. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 121. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ "Local Government Act 1959: Section 59: Change of Name of County". The London Gazette. 20 February 1959. p. 1241. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ "Vision of Britain". Retrieved 13 October 2014.  ^ "National Gazetteer". 1868. Retrieved 13 October 2014.  ^ "Origin of 'New Hampshire'". State Symbols USA. Retrieved August 30, 2015.  ^ Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
Historical Review Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
Plantation. Archived 11 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Oppenheimer, S, 2006, The Origins of the British ^ Gaffney, V, Fitch, S, and Smith, D, 2009, Europe's Lost World: The rediscovery of Doggerland ^ Pryor, F, 2003, Britain BC ^ a b Cunliffe, B, 2008, Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain, fourth edition ^ Cunliffe, B, 1997, The Ancient Celts ^ Pryor, F, 2004, Britain BC ^ Cunliffe, B, 1991, Wessex
Wessex
to AD 1000, p.218 ^ a b Cunliffe, B, 1991, Wessex
Wessex
to AD 1000 ^ de la Bedoyere, Guy, 2006, Roman Britain: A New History ^ a b Pryor, F, 2004, Britain AD ^ Grant, Russell (1989). The Real Counties of Britain. Oxford: Lennard Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 1-85291-071-2.  ^ Major, Albany F Early Wars of Wessex
Wessex
(1912, 1978) p.17 ^ Hinley, G, 2006, A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons ^ Fleming, R, 2010, Britain After Rome: The Fall and Rise 400 to 1070 ^ Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, 2013. [2]. ^ Southampton
Southampton
City Council, 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013. . ^ Portsmouth
Portsmouth
City Council, 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. . ^ " Hampshire
Hampshire
County Youth Council". Hcycweb.net. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ " Basingstoke
Basingstoke
& Deane Youth Council". Bdycweb.net. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ a b " Hampshire
Hampshire
Key Facts & Figures" (PDF). hants.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ "Economic Statistics". Hants.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ New Forest
New Forest
District Council, n.d. "Tourism questions and answers[permanent dead link]." ^ Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Tourism Survey & GB Leisure Day Visits Survey, 2004. "Tourism Facts and Figures Archived 10 September 2003 at the Wayback Machine.." ^ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
& Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, 2003, Census 2001 data Archived 2 April 2003 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, 2005. Facts and Figures website. ^ Key Statistics: Population; Quick Statistics: Economic indicators. (2011 census and 2001 census) Retrieved 27 February 2015. ^ "South East and London National Character Area map". Natural England. Retrieved 5 April 2013.  ^ "THE INTERTIDAL LAMELLIBRANCHS OF SOUTHAMPTON WATER, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO CERASTODERMA EDULE AND C. GLAUCUM – BARNES 40 (5): 413 – Journal of Molluscan Studies". Mollus.oxfordjournals.org. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Ordnance Survey. Streetmap/OS map showing height of Ashmansworth. ^ BBC
BBC
News, 5 May 2004. UK counties choose floral emblems. ^ "Forestry Commission: New Forest
New Forest
Fact File" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2014.  ^ McKie, Robin (15 October 2006). "Season of mice? How autumn lost its cool". The Guardian. The Observer. London. Retrieved 2 June 2008.  ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average temperature for the United Kingdom Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Met Office:English Climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2007.  ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average sunshine for the United Kingdom Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ " Southampton
Southampton
W.C Climate
Climate
Period: 1981-2010". Met Office. Retrieved 5 February 2013.  ^ a b "Regional mapped climate averages". Met Office. November 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ "Long Term weather data". Met Office. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011.  ^ " Climate
Climate
Normals 1971–2000". KNMI. Retrieved 3 March 2011.  ^ UK Clima Solent
Solent
MRSC ^ "Average Weather for Farnborough, ENG". June 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2010.  ^ Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, 2003. "Press Release: Hampshire's Hog has a home Archived 19 December 2003 at the Wayback Machine.." ^ " Windsurfing
Windsurfing
International Inc. v Tabur Marine (GB) Ltd. (1985) RPC 59". SLCC – Scots Law Courseware. The University of Strathclyde. Archived from the original on 11 December 2003. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ "ABOUT WINOL WINOL". www.winol.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 

Further reading[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. "Hampshire" Bullen, Michael et al, The Buildings of England: Hampshire
Hampshire
(Winchester and the North). Yale, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-12084-4 Draper, Jo. 1990. Hampshire. Wimborne: Dovecote Press. ISBN 0-946159-82-3 Pigot & Co's Atlas of the Counties of England, 1840. London: J Pigot & Co.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hampshire.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hampshire.

Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council Images of Hampshire
Hampshire
at the English Heritage Archive

v t e

Ceremonial county
Ceremonial county
of Hampshire

Hampshire
Hampshire
Portal

Unitary authorities

City of Portsmouth City of Southampton

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Deane District of East Hampshire Borough of Eastleigh Borough of Fareham Borough of Gosport District of Hart Borough of Havant District of New Forest Borough of Rushmoor Borough of Test Valley City of Winchester

Major settlements

Aldershot Alton Andover Basingstoke Bishop's Waltham Blackwater Bordon Eastleigh Emsworth Fareham Farnborough Fleet Fordingbridge Gosport Havant Hedge End Hook Hythe Lee-on-the-Solent Lymington New Alresford New Milton Petersfield Portsmouth Ringwood Romsey Southampton Stockbridge Tadley Totton and Eling Waterlooville Whitchurch Winchester Yateley See also: List of civil parishes in Hampshire

Rivers

Avon Beaulieu Hamble Itchen Meon Test Wallington Wey

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings South Coast Plain South Downs History Schools Further education Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

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